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RESEARCH DESIGNS: CHOOSING RIGHT ONE!
QUANTITATIVE, QUALITATIVE OR MIXED METHOD
Dr. Anil Sharma, PhD(N)
Principal, Manikaka Topawala
Institute of Nursing-
CHARUSAT, Changa
Accredited Grade “A” with
NAAC
1
Flow of Presentation
 Understand meaning of research design.
 Construct common terminology of research design.
 Illustrate types of available research designs.
 Understand points to be remember before
identifying your research design.
 Take home message about How to choose Right
One!
2
Research Designs
Definition:
“research design is the arrangement of conditions for
collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to
combine relevance to the research purpose with
economy in procedure”
“it is the conceptual structure within which research
is conducted”
It involves blueprint of data collection, measurement
and analysis. 3
Importance of Research Design
It creates smooth sailing of the various research operations, such
as:
 Plan in advance about data collection
 Data analysis
 Mapping of objectives
 Testing of hypothesis
 Design eligibility criteria (Inclusion and Exclusion criteria)
4
Common Terminology (Quantitative)
 Inference (conclusion drawn from study evidence)
 Reliability (accuracy & consistency of information obtained in a study)
 Validity (Soundness of the study’s evidence)
 Bias (Producing error)
 Randomization (random allocation of subjects)
 Manipulation (intervention)
 Research control (removing confounding or extraneous variable)
 Causality (Cause and effect / Exposure and Outcome)
5
Common Terminology (Qualitative)
 Trustworthiness: it covers
 Credibility (confidence that the result and interpretation are true)
 Transferability (to the extent qualitative finding can be transferred
to another setting/ working hypothesis)
 Confirmability (Objectivity or no subjectivity by researcher)
 Dependability (stability or reliability of data over time and
conditions)
 Authenticity (assuring fair and faithful data which shows range of
realities)
 Reflexivity (process of reflecting critically on the self/
Introspection which may affect data collection and interpretation)6
Types of Research Design
7
Quantitative Qualitative Mixed Method
Experimental
Research Design
Non-experimental
or Observational
Phenomenological Triangulation
True experimental
design/RCT
Descriptive Ethnographic
research
Embedded
Quasi-experimental Correlational Grounded theory Explanatory
Pre-experimental Cross-sectional Case studies Exploratory
Case-control design Historical
Cohort Action research
Other Types Of Research Design In Quantitative
Methodological
studies
Outcome research Operational
research
Evaluation research
Meta-analysis Secondary data analysis Implementation
research
Points To Remember Before Choosing Your Study
Design
 What is the study about?
 Why is the study being made?
 Where will the study be carried out?
 What type of data required?
 What duration will the study take to complete?
 Where will be data found?
 What techniques of data collection will be used?
 How will the data analyzed?
8
Key Research Design Features
Ask yourself these questions:
 Is there any intervention?
 How to control confounding variables?
 Whether blinding will be used?
 What Relative timing will be needed for data collection?
 What kind of comparison will be sought for?
 What will be research setting?
 What will be time frame required to conduct?
9
When to choose Quantitative Research design
 Causality
• Experimental with manipulation (Dependent &
Independent variable)
• Non-experimental if happen in natural setting.
 Extraneous variable
 Control
 Internal and external validity
 Research hypothesis
 Probability sampling
 Generalization
 Epidemiological
10
When to choose Qualitative Research design
 When wanted to understand holistic view of issue.
 Non-probability sampling
 Data collection in real world
 Individualistic phenomenon
11
When to choose Mixed Method Research
design
 Complementarity
 Practicality of mixed method
 Should have one aim to be addressed by mixed
method
 Enhanced validity
12
Thumb Rule To Choose Research Design
13
Research design Point to remember
True experimental Can able to control all extraneous variable and bias
(Manipulation, Randomization and control)
Quasi-Exp. Could not able to control extraneous variables or no
randomization
Pre-exp. Only manipulation, No randomization & No control
Descriptive No manipulation, to generate hypothesis
Cross-sectional To estimate prevalence
Cohort study To estimate incidence rate (Exposure outcome relationship)
Case-control To study multiple exposure or risk factors
Correlational To know relationship in between two or more variables in
natural setting, without manipulation and control
Methodological To design tools based on literature review
Operation To optimize the process
Implementation To implement service
Meta-analysis To create high quality evidence
Thumb Rule To Choose Research Design
14
Research design Point to remember
Phenomenological To study lived experience of phenomenon among people
Ethnographic
research
To study cultural aspect
Grounded theory To develop theoretical or thematic concept
Case studies To study detail individual case
Historical To scientific study the past occurred event
Triangulation When qualitative and quantitative data are complementary
to each other and collect simultaneously with equal priority
Embedded When one kind of data act as supportive data and opposite
act as dominating data (Concurrent or sequential)
Explanatory When quantitative data collect first and moved as sequential
Exploratory When qualitative data collect first and moved as sequential
Example:
Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus
15
Research
design
Potential clues
True
experimental
Effect of allovedic package to reduce blood glucose level among
Type 2 DM patients.
Manipulation: Allovedic Package (allopath and Ayurveda)
Control: All interventions controlled
Randomization: Randomly allocate subjects in two arms
Quasi-Exp. Effect of non-pharmacological therapy to reduce blood glucose
level among Type 2 DM patients.
Manipulation: non-pharmacological therapy
Control: Presence of extraneous variables (Control absent)
Randomization: Randomly allocate subjects in two arms or no
randomization
Note: Either randomization or control- one will be missed
Pre-exp. Effect of yoga therapy to reduce blood glucose level among Type
2 DM patients.
Manipulation: yoga therapy
Control and Randomization-Absent
Example:
Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus
16
Research
design
Potential clues
Descriptive To assess quality of life among Type 2 DM patients.
-Manipulation, Control and Randomization-Absent
-Study in Natural setting and describe and document phenomenon
Cross-
sectional
To estimate prevalence of Type 2 DM patients at Nadiad city.
- To know the prevalence rate
Cohort
study
Does smoking cause Type 2 DM: A retrospective Cohort study
-to find our relationship between smoking and Type 2 DM in
natural setting.
Case-control To assess non compliance factors for causing complications of Type
2 DM patients.
-DM patients with complications will be compare with those
patients who didn’t develop any complication
Correlational A study to assess the correlation between life style and risk of Type
2 DM.
- Multiple factors will be assessed in natural setting
Example:
Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus
17
Research
design
Potential clues
Methodological To develop complication assessment tool for Type 2 DM patients-
a methodological approach.
-designing tool based on literature review
Operation To optimize the average time of assessing patients at emergency
unit of Mahagujarat Hospital- a Operation research
-optimize the process
Implementation Implementation of wellness centers as a part of Ayushman
Bharat project through a focus group discussion method.
-implementing service
Meta-analysis Type 2 DM and its association with hypertension in India- a
meta-analysis or systematic review.
-Creating high quality evidence
Example:
Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus
18
Research design Potential clues
Phenomenological Lived experience of amputated patient due to diabetic foot
condition- a phenomenological study
Ethnographic
research
To discover and understand the traditional beliefs and
practices of food pattern in rural charotar region.
Grounded theory Research title- study of diabetic patients experience with
pain associated with leg ulceration.
Theme/Theory- The Journey of Chronic pain
Case studies To in-depth study the nursing care of a diabetic foot patient.
Historical A historical research to understand development of nursing
research in India.
Example:
19
Research design Potential clues
Triangulation When qualitative and quantitative data are complementary to
each other and collect simultaneously with equal priority.
Example- A study to estimate the incidence and understand
experience of nurse educators about uncivilized behavior of
nursing students.
Embedded When one kind of data act as supportive data and opposite
act as dominating data (Concurrent or sequential).
Example- A study to analyze impact of hospital information
technology on therapeutic communication in intensive care
unit of Mahagujarat Hospital.
Explanatory When quantitative data collect first and moved as sequential
Example- A study to determine hepatitis E awareness needs
of pregnant women residing at urban and rural Nadiad.
Exploratory When qualitative data collect first and moved as sequential.
Example- To develop and measure psychometric (reliability
& validity) properties of Bed Sore Assessment Tool (BSAT).
Quiz: Assess yourself
1. Effect of Benson’s Relaxation therapy on pain among post-
caesarean mothers.
Clues: Manipulation- √
Control- ×
Randomization- √
Answer: Quasi-Experimental Design
2. Effectiveness of Yoga on dysmenorrhea among reproductive age
group females.
Clues: Manipulation- √
Control- ×
Randomization- ×
Answer: Pre-Experimental Design
20
Quiz: Assess yourself
3. A study to assess the knowledge and awareness about hepatitis B
among secondary school students at Nadiad City.
Clue: -No Manipulation, Control & Randomization.
-Study will happen in natural setting and researcher will describe
and document it.
Answer: Descriptive design
4. A study to estimate prevalence of anemia among school going
girl children in rural areas of Kheda district.
Clue: -To know prevalence rate by one point data collection
Answer- Cross-sectional Research Design.
21
Quiz: Assess yourself
5. Lived experience of night duty staff nurses.
Clue: Individual life experience
Answer: Phenomenological Design
6. To develop and validate Burn Assessment
Modification Tool (BAMT).
Clue: Only based on literature review.
Answer: Methodological Research Design
22
References Available on Request to
anilsharma.nur@gmail.com
23
Thank You
24

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Nursing research design

  • 1. RESEARCH DESIGNS: CHOOSING RIGHT ONE! QUANTITATIVE, QUALITATIVE OR MIXED METHOD Dr. Anil Sharma, PhD(N) Principal, Manikaka Topawala Institute of Nursing- CHARUSAT, Changa Accredited Grade “A” with NAAC 1
  • 2. Flow of Presentation  Understand meaning of research design.  Construct common terminology of research design.  Illustrate types of available research designs.  Understand points to be remember before identifying your research design.  Take home message about How to choose Right One! 2
  • 3. Research Designs Definition: “research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure” “it is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted” It involves blueprint of data collection, measurement and analysis. 3
  • 4. Importance of Research Design It creates smooth sailing of the various research operations, such as:  Plan in advance about data collection  Data analysis  Mapping of objectives  Testing of hypothesis  Design eligibility criteria (Inclusion and Exclusion criteria) 4
  • 5. Common Terminology (Quantitative)  Inference (conclusion drawn from study evidence)  Reliability (accuracy & consistency of information obtained in a study)  Validity (Soundness of the study’s evidence)  Bias (Producing error)  Randomization (random allocation of subjects)  Manipulation (intervention)  Research control (removing confounding or extraneous variable)  Causality (Cause and effect / Exposure and Outcome) 5
  • 6. Common Terminology (Qualitative)  Trustworthiness: it covers  Credibility (confidence that the result and interpretation are true)  Transferability (to the extent qualitative finding can be transferred to another setting/ working hypothesis)  Confirmability (Objectivity or no subjectivity by researcher)  Dependability (stability or reliability of data over time and conditions)  Authenticity (assuring fair and faithful data which shows range of realities)  Reflexivity (process of reflecting critically on the self/ Introspection which may affect data collection and interpretation)6
  • 7. Types of Research Design 7 Quantitative Qualitative Mixed Method Experimental Research Design Non-experimental or Observational Phenomenological Triangulation True experimental design/RCT Descriptive Ethnographic research Embedded Quasi-experimental Correlational Grounded theory Explanatory Pre-experimental Cross-sectional Case studies Exploratory Case-control design Historical Cohort Action research Other Types Of Research Design In Quantitative Methodological studies Outcome research Operational research Evaluation research Meta-analysis Secondary data analysis Implementation research
  • 8. Points To Remember Before Choosing Your Study Design  What is the study about?  Why is the study being made?  Where will the study be carried out?  What type of data required?  What duration will the study take to complete?  Where will be data found?  What techniques of data collection will be used?  How will the data analyzed? 8
  • 9. Key Research Design Features Ask yourself these questions:  Is there any intervention?  How to control confounding variables?  Whether blinding will be used?  What Relative timing will be needed for data collection?  What kind of comparison will be sought for?  What will be research setting?  What will be time frame required to conduct? 9
  • 10. When to choose Quantitative Research design  Causality • Experimental with manipulation (Dependent & Independent variable) • Non-experimental if happen in natural setting.  Extraneous variable  Control  Internal and external validity  Research hypothesis  Probability sampling  Generalization  Epidemiological 10
  • 11. When to choose Qualitative Research design  When wanted to understand holistic view of issue.  Non-probability sampling  Data collection in real world  Individualistic phenomenon 11
  • 12. When to choose Mixed Method Research design  Complementarity  Practicality of mixed method  Should have one aim to be addressed by mixed method  Enhanced validity 12
  • 13. Thumb Rule To Choose Research Design 13 Research design Point to remember True experimental Can able to control all extraneous variable and bias (Manipulation, Randomization and control) Quasi-Exp. Could not able to control extraneous variables or no randomization Pre-exp. Only manipulation, No randomization & No control Descriptive No manipulation, to generate hypothesis Cross-sectional To estimate prevalence Cohort study To estimate incidence rate (Exposure outcome relationship) Case-control To study multiple exposure or risk factors Correlational To know relationship in between two or more variables in natural setting, without manipulation and control Methodological To design tools based on literature review Operation To optimize the process Implementation To implement service Meta-analysis To create high quality evidence
  • 14. Thumb Rule To Choose Research Design 14 Research design Point to remember Phenomenological To study lived experience of phenomenon among people Ethnographic research To study cultural aspect Grounded theory To develop theoretical or thematic concept Case studies To study detail individual case Historical To scientific study the past occurred event Triangulation When qualitative and quantitative data are complementary to each other and collect simultaneously with equal priority Embedded When one kind of data act as supportive data and opposite act as dominating data (Concurrent or sequential) Explanatory When quantitative data collect first and moved as sequential Exploratory When qualitative data collect first and moved as sequential
  • 15. Example: Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus 15 Research design Potential clues True experimental Effect of allovedic package to reduce blood glucose level among Type 2 DM patients. Manipulation: Allovedic Package (allopath and Ayurveda) Control: All interventions controlled Randomization: Randomly allocate subjects in two arms Quasi-Exp. Effect of non-pharmacological therapy to reduce blood glucose level among Type 2 DM patients. Manipulation: non-pharmacological therapy Control: Presence of extraneous variables (Control absent) Randomization: Randomly allocate subjects in two arms or no randomization Note: Either randomization or control- one will be missed Pre-exp. Effect of yoga therapy to reduce blood glucose level among Type 2 DM patients. Manipulation: yoga therapy Control and Randomization-Absent
  • 16. Example: Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus 16 Research design Potential clues Descriptive To assess quality of life among Type 2 DM patients. -Manipulation, Control and Randomization-Absent -Study in Natural setting and describe and document phenomenon Cross- sectional To estimate prevalence of Type 2 DM patients at Nadiad city. - To know the prevalence rate Cohort study Does smoking cause Type 2 DM: A retrospective Cohort study -to find our relationship between smoking and Type 2 DM in natural setting. Case-control To assess non compliance factors for causing complications of Type 2 DM patients. -DM patients with complications will be compare with those patients who didn’t develop any complication Correlational A study to assess the correlation between life style and risk of Type 2 DM. - Multiple factors will be assessed in natural setting
  • 17. Example: Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus 17 Research design Potential clues Methodological To develop complication assessment tool for Type 2 DM patients- a methodological approach. -designing tool based on literature review Operation To optimize the average time of assessing patients at emergency unit of Mahagujarat Hospital- a Operation research -optimize the process Implementation Implementation of wellness centers as a part of Ayushman Bharat project through a focus group discussion method. -implementing service Meta-analysis Type 2 DM and its association with hypertension in India- a meta-analysis or systematic review. -Creating high quality evidence
  • 18. Example: Board topic: Diabetic Mellitus 18 Research design Potential clues Phenomenological Lived experience of amputated patient due to diabetic foot condition- a phenomenological study Ethnographic research To discover and understand the traditional beliefs and practices of food pattern in rural charotar region. Grounded theory Research title- study of diabetic patients experience with pain associated with leg ulceration. Theme/Theory- The Journey of Chronic pain Case studies To in-depth study the nursing care of a diabetic foot patient. Historical A historical research to understand development of nursing research in India.
  • 19. Example: 19 Research design Potential clues Triangulation When qualitative and quantitative data are complementary to each other and collect simultaneously with equal priority. Example- A study to estimate the incidence and understand experience of nurse educators about uncivilized behavior of nursing students. Embedded When one kind of data act as supportive data and opposite act as dominating data (Concurrent or sequential). Example- A study to analyze impact of hospital information technology on therapeutic communication in intensive care unit of Mahagujarat Hospital. Explanatory When quantitative data collect first and moved as sequential Example- A study to determine hepatitis E awareness needs of pregnant women residing at urban and rural Nadiad. Exploratory When qualitative data collect first and moved as sequential. Example- To develop and measure psychometric (reliability & validity) properties of Bed Sore Assessment Tool (BSAT).
  • 20. Quiz: Assess yourself 1. Effect of Benson’s Relaxation therapy on pain among post- caesarean mothers. Clues: Manipulation- √ Control- × Randomization- √ Answer: Quasi-Experimental Design 2. Effectiveness of Yoga on dysmenorrhea among reproductive age group females. Clues: Manipulation- √ Control- × Randomization- × Answer: Pre-Experimental Design 20
  • 21. Quiz: Assess yourself 3. A study to assess the knowledge and awareness about hepatitis B among secondary school students at Nadiad City. Clue: -No Manipulation, Control & Randomization. -Study will happen in natural setting and researcher will describe and document it. Answer: Descriptive design 4. A study to estimate prevalence of anemia among school going girl children in rural areas of Kheda district. Clue: -To know prevalence rate by one point data collection Answer- Cross-sectional Research Design. 21
  • 22. Quiz: Assess yourself 5. Lived experience of night duty staff nurses. Clue: Individual life experience Answer: Phenomenological Design 6. To develop and validate Burn Assessment Modification Tool (BAMT). Clue: Only based on literature review. Answer: Methodological Research Design 22
  • 23. References Available on Request to anilsharma.nur@gmail.com 23