002 energy management


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002 energy management

  1. 1. Energy Management Energy Management System, Energy Auditing and Implementation techniques for Power Industries. 1
  2. 2. Definition & Objectives • 1. The judicious & effective use of energy to maximise profits (minimise costs) and enhance competitive position. • 2.The strategy of adujusting and optimising energy, using systems and proceedures to reduce energy requirements per nit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output. The objective of energy management is to  Achieve & maintain optimum energy procurement and utilsation, and  To minimise energy cost / waste without affecting production & quality.  To minimise environmental effects. 2
  3. 3. Management 3 • Management :- In all business and organizational activities is the act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises- • Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading or directing, and controlling an organization for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. • Resourcing :- deployment of human resources, financial resources, • technological resources, and • natural resources.
  4. 4. Management Functions • Management functions are Universal. • They are applicable everywhere. • Originated from the Army. • Forecasting • Planning • Organizing (Staffing) • Commanding • Coordinating • Controlling 4
  5. 5. ISO 50001 – En.M.S. • Using energy efficiently -- • Helps organizations to save money. • Helps to conserve resources and • Helps to tackle climate change. • ISO 50001 supports organizations in all sectors to use energy more efficiently, • through the development of an energy management system (EnMS). 5
  6. 6. ISO 50001 - Energy management • ISO 50001 is based on the management system model of continual improvement. • Which is also used for other well-known standards such as ISO 9001 or ISO 14001. • This makes it easier for organizations to integrate energy management into their overall efforts- • To improve quality and environmental management. 6
  7. 7. ISO 50001:2011 provides • A framework of requirements for organizations to: • Develop a policy for more efficient use of energy • Fix targets and objectives to meet the policy • Use data to better understand and make decisions about energy use • Measure the results • Review how well the policy works, and • Continually improve energy management. 7
  8. 8. Purpose • The purpose of this ISO is to enable organizations- • To establish the systems and processes necessary to improve energy performance, • Including energy efficiency, use and consumption. • Implementation of this International Standard is intended to lead to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions • and reduce other related environmental impacts and • reduce energy cost through systematic management of energy. • This ISO is applicable to all types and sizes of organizations, irrespective of geographical, cultural or social conditions. • Successful implementation depends on commitment from all levels and functions of the organization, • and especially from top management. 8
  9. 9. PDCA – Plan – Do - Check - Act • This ISO is based on the PDCA continual improvement framework and incorporates energy management into everyday organizational practices, as illustrated in Figure. • For energy management, the PDCA approach can be outlined as follows: • — Plan: conduct the energy review and establish the baseline, energy performance indicators (EnPIs), objectives, targets and action plans necessary to deliver results that will improve energy performance in accordance with the organization's energy policy; • — Do: implement the energy management action plans; • — Check: monitor and measure processes and the key characteristics of operations that determine energy performance against the energy policy and objectives, and report the results; • — Act: take actions to continually improve energy performance9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Terms and definitions • For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. • 3.1 boundaries • physical or site limits and/or organizational limits as defined by the organization • EXAMPLE: • A process; a group of processes; a site; an entire organization; multiple sites under the control of an organization. • A Section in a TPS, Entire TPS, Entire Genco. 11
  12. 12. • 3.2 Continual improvement • recurring process which results in enhancement of energy performance and the energy management system • Note 1 to entry: The process of establishing objectives and finding opportunities for improvement is a continual process. • Note 2 to entry: Continual improvement achieves improvements in overall energy performance, consistent with the organization's energy policy. • 3.3 Correction • action to eliminate a detected nonconformity (3.21) • Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 9000:2005, definition 3.6.6. 12
  13. 13. • 3.4 Corrective action • action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity (3.21) • Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity. • Note 2 to entry: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas, • Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence. • Note 3 to entry: Adapted from ISO 9000:2005, definition 3.6.5 • 3.5 energy • Electricity, fuels, steam, heat, compressed air, and other like media 13
  14. 14. • 3.6 Energy baseline • Quantitative reference(s) providing a basis for comparison of energy performance. (Heat rate, Sp.F.O.C., Auxy.Consmn) • Note 1 : An energy baseline reflects a specified period of time. • Note 2 : An energy baseline can be normalized using variables which affect energy use and/or consumption, • e.g. production level, degree days (outdoor temperature), etc. • Note 3 : The energy baseline is also used for calculation of energy savings, as a reference – • before and after implementation of energy performance improvement actions. 14
  15. 15. • 3.7 Energy consumption • Quantity of energy applied • 3.8 Energy efficiency • ratio or other quantitative relationship between an output of performance, service, goods or energy, and an input of energy • EXAMPLE: • Conversion efficiency; energy required/energy used; output/input; theoretical energy used to operate/actual energy used to operate. • Note 1: Both input and output need to be clearly specified in quantity and quality, and be measurable. 15
  16. 16. • 3.9 Energy Management System ( EnMS) • set of interrelated or interacting elements to establish an energy policy and energy objectives, and processes and procedures to achieve those objectives • 3.10 Energy Management Team • person(s) responsible for effective implementation of the EnMS activities and for delivering energy performance improvements • Note 1 : The size and nature of the organization, and available resources, will determine the size of the team. The team may be one person, such as the management representative. • 3.11 Energy Objective:- Specified outcome or achievement set to meet the organization's energy policy related to improved energy performance 16
  17. 17. • 3.12 Energy Performance • measurable results related to energy efficiency (3.8), energy use (3.18) and energy consumption (3.7) • 3.13 Energy Performance Indicator, EnPI • Quantitative value or measure of energy performance, as defined by the organization • 3.14 Energy Policy • Statement by the organization of its overall intentions and direction of an organization related to its energy performance, as formally expressed by top management • Note 1 : The energy policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of energy objectives and 17
  18. 18. • 3.15 Energy Review • Determination of the organization's energy performance based on data and other information, leading to identification of opportunities for improvement • Note 1 : In other regional or national standards, concepts such as identification and review of energy aspects or energy profile are included in the concept of energy review. • 3.16 Energy services • activities and their results related to the provision and/or use of energy. 18
  19. 19. • 3.17 Energy Target • Detailed and quantifiable energy performance requirement, applicable to the organization or parts thereof, that arises from the energy objective and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve this objective • 3.18 Energy use • manner or kind of application of energy • EXAMPLE: • Ventilation; lighting; heating; cooling; transportation; processes; production lines. • 3.19 Interested party • Person or group concerned with, or affected by, the energy performance of the organization 19
  20. 20. • 3.20 Internal Audit • systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively in order to determine the extent to which requirements are fulfilled • 3.21 Non Conformity (NC) non-fulfilment of a requirement • 3.22 Organization-- Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration and that has the authority to control its energy use and consumption • Note : An organization can be a person or a group of people. 20
  21. 21. • 3.23 Preventive action:- action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity . • 3.24 Procedure :- Specified way to carry out an activity or a process • Note 1 : When a procedure is documented, the term “written procedure” or “documented procedure” is frequently used. • 3.25 Record:- Document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed • Note 1 : Records can be used, for example, to document traceability and to provide evidence of verification, preventive action and corrective action. 21
  22. 22. • 3.26 Scope:- Extent of activities, facilities and decisions that the organization addresses through an EnMS, which can include several boundaries • 3.27 Significant energy use :- Energy use accounting for substantial energy consumption and/or offering considerable potential for energy performance improvement • .3.28 Top management :- Person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level. 22
  23. 23. E.A. of a TPS 23
  25. 25. Energy Audit ? • Use of Energy in efficient way. • Misuse of Energy • Points of loss. • Controllable loss.
  28. 28. A. Plant on-line instruments with few audit instruments Accuracy around 3.0%. B. Accurately calibrated instruments as per ASME-PTC- 6 for steam turbine & ASME-PTC-4-1 for Boilers. Accuracy around 0.5 % ERROR OF PROCEDURE OF ENERGY AUDIT OTHER THAN ASME-PTC-6 for steam turbines and ASME – PTC-4.1 for boiler - Error in Boiler Energy Audit – around 2.0% – Error in steam turbine Energy Audit – around 3.0% Total error because of Instrumentation & Procedure 6.0% EFFECT OF INSTRUMENTATION ON ENERGY AUDITS Contd….
  29. 29. IMPORTANCE OF ACCURACY IN ENERGY AUDITS – 1.0% Deviation in Heat Rate means 25000 tons of coal loss/annum for 200 MW Unit or approx Rs. 5 crores / year (4000Kcal coal GCV & Rs.2000/ton coal cost) Cost of Energy Audit B =Rs.12-14 Lakhs. And Energy Audit A =Rs. 6 - 8 Lakhs. Extra payment of Rs.6.0 lakhs is justified in view of results.
  31. 31. CONFORMITY FOR ENERGY AUDITS FOLLOW TEST CODES • ASME PTC - 6 For Steam Turbines ASME PTC - 4.1 or BS- 845: 1987 for Boilers CALIBRATION LAB • Govt. Accredited i.e. NABL Labs
  32. 32. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF BOILER Water cycle Fuel cycle Air & flue gas cycle Steam cycle Ash/ rejects cycle
  35. 35. SOME CRITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING BOILER PERFORMANCE • -Fuel;-Heating Value, Moisture Contents, Ash Composition, Ash Contents,& Volatile Matter. • -Operational Parameter:-Level of Excess Air, & operating Condition of Burner Tilt Mechanism. • -Design:-Heating input per plan area, Height of Boiler, Platens & pendants heat transfer Surfaces, Burner & wind Box design.
  36. 36. Coal Quality IMPACTS • -Low heat value fuel results in over firing of fuel causing more heat availability for super heater and re-heater thus more attempration spray requirement. Hence increase in THR, overloading of ash handling system, fans and increased soot blowing • -Moisture content increase causes increase in heat transfer to S.H, and R.H. Hence again increase in attempration spray and THR. • -Ash composition and contents increases damage to pressure parts surfaces because of melting behavior of low fusion ash temperature of blended coal in particular. • -In consistency in fired fuel characteristics results in variation in excess air requirement thereby increasing stack loss and hence boiler efficiency reduction, overloading of ID Fan and ultimately unit load limitation. • -High heat value causes more radiant heat transfer to water walls thereby leaving lesser heat for super heater and re-heater.So above problems are minimised.
  37. 37. IMPACTS contd… -Normally excess air ranges from 15% to 30% of stoichiometric air. • -High O2 % and presence of CO at ID Fan outlet are indicator of air in leakages and improper combustion in furnace. • -Poorly effective damper control also is the cause of higher SEC of fans both primary and secondary. • -The quality and purity of feed water and make up water is also required to be maintained in a meticulous way by limiting blow down losses to nearly 1% and by checking the passing and leakages of valves. However, maximum 3% of flow can be taken as make up for these causes including soot blowing requirements. • -Soot blowing is dependent on ash contents and is unit specific. Intelligently devised soot blowing can result in saving the fuel. Continued………
  38. 38. IMPACTS contd… • -Cascading effects on efficiency, loading and availability because of following systems and equipments performance also needed to be looked into. The systems are:- Fuel receiving, preparation and handling systems. Pulverizing system Air Heater Fans Electrostatic Precipitator Fly ash handling system Bottom ash handling system Waste disposal system
  39. 39. STUDY OF VARIOUS BOILER ASPECTS Coal quality - composition and calorific value Coal milling aspects Combustion and excess air Reheaters Heat recovery units – Economisers, air preheaters, etc Insulation aspects
  40. 40. Operation and maintenance features which affect the energy efficiency Boiler blow down aspects Soot blowing aspects Condition & status of boiler and their internals Feed water system aspects Air and flue gas system aspect STUDY OF VARIOUS BOILER ASPECTS
  41. 41. Heat Rate Losses in Boiler 3 8 5 1 4 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 HRH TEMPERATURE MS TEMPERATURE MS PRESSURE R/H SPRAY EXCESS O2 EXIT GAS TEMPERATURE BOTTOM ASH
  42. 42. STEPS INVOLVED IN BOILER ENERGY AUDIT  Data collection  Observations and Analysis  Exploration for energy conservation measures  Report preparation
  44. 44. DATA COLLECTION- BOILER contd…
  46. 46. EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE PROFILE Temperature location
  48. 48.  Collect recommended feed water & boiler water limits  Mills and Burners Performance  Mill specifications  Design coal parameter  Collect the information of soot blowers OTHER INFORMATION COLLECTION
  49. 49. INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED  Power Analyser: Used for measuring electrical parameters such as kW, kVA, pf, V, A and Hz  Temperature Indicator & Probe  Stroboscope: To measure the speed of the driven equipment and motor  Sling hygrometer or digital hygrometer  Anemometer  Available On line instruments at the site ( Calibrated )
  50. 50. INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED contd…  Digital Manometer of suitable range and appropriate probes for measurement of pressure head and velocity head  Additional pressure gauges with appropriate range of measurement and calibrated before audit  Flue gas analyzers / orsat apparatus  Infrared pyrometers  Pressure gauges  Steam trap tester / Ultra sonic leak detectors
  51. 51. MEASUREMENTS & OBSERVATIONS TO BE MADE (DURING AUDIT PERIOD) analysis - Fly ash & bottom ash Fans, Pumps
  52. 52. OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS System familiarization and operational details: Availability factor, PLF, Coal consumption (tons and kg/kWh), Oil consumption in ml/kWh, Boiler efficiency & Others Plant observation & past data:
  53. 53. OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS Operating efficiency of the boiler: The test method employed is based on the abbreviated efficiency by the loss method (or indirect method) test, which neglects the minor losses and heat credits, which are covered in full text version. The major losses covered are:  Heat loss due to dry flue gas losses  Heat loss due to moisture in fuel  Heat loss due to hydrogen (moisture of burning hydrogen)  Heat loss due to combustibles in refuse  Heat loss due to radiation  Un accounted losses as per the contract with the Boiler Supplier Indirect method is also called as heat loss method. The efficiency can be arrived at, by subtracting the heat loss fractions from 100. The standards do not include blow-down loss in the efficiency determination process
  55. 55. OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS Measurement Locations: ( O2, CO2, CO )
  57. 57. OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS Coal Ultimate Analysis
  59. 59. COMPUTATION OF BOILER LOSSES 1. Dry flue gas loss: Where C%BA – % of carbon in bottom ash C%FA - % of carbon in fly ash Bash – Bottom ash qunatiity in kg Fash – Fly ash quantity in kg FGT – flue gas temperature at APH outlet in 0 C ABT – Ambient temperature in C Cp= specific heat of flue gas in Kcal/kg C = 0.23
  60. 60. COMPUTATION OF BOILER LOSSES 2. Loss due to unburnt carbon in ash: )%()%( , / , BAshBACFAshFAC GCVfuelofGCV kgkcalincarbonofvalueCalorific LashincarbonunburnttodueLoss uca GCV ABTFGT M LfuelinmoisturetodueLoss mf 100 584)(45.0(, 3. Loss due to moisture in fuel: 4. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel: GCV ABTFGT H LfuelinhydrogentodueLoss hf 100 584)(45.0( 9 , 2 Where H2 – kg of H2 in 1 kg of fuel
  61. 61. COMPUTATION OF BOILER LOSSES 5. Loss due to moisture in air: GCV ABTFGThumidityAASLairinmoistureintodueLoss ma 100 )(45.0, Where AAS=Actual mass of air supplied Humidity = humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air GCV 1005744 %CO%CO C%CO L,xidecarbonmonotodueLoss 2 co GCV 100 574428h/kginnconsumptiofuel10ppminCO L,monoxidecarbontodueLoss 6 co 6. Loss due to CO in flue gas:
  62. 62. TYPICAL BOILER HEAT BALANCE BOILER Boiler Efficiency (Heat in Steam) Heat loss due to dry flue gas Dry Flue Gas Loss Heat loss due to wet flue gas Heat loss due to moisture in fuel Heat loss due to unburnts in residue Heat loss due to moisture in air Heat loss due to radiation & other unaccounted loss 5.5% 4.2% 1% 0.3% 1% 1% 87% 100%Heat from Fuel
  64. 64. COMBUSTION CONTROL, EXCESS AIR AND COLD AIR INGRESS While conducting the study, the following need to be verified: Present excess air and comparison with PG test or design value Combustion control systems installed and status of operation, calibration systems Monitoring and controlling mechanism for oxygen, excess air and reporting systems in place Effect of excess air on boiler performance Excess air with respect to boiler load variation Cold air infiltration in to the system – observe the present method of measurement, estimation, frequency of measurement for estimating the losses and control mechanisms initiated. The air ingress also increases load on the ID fan and hinders the capacity of the boiler
  65. 65. Air Preheater Analysis PRESSURE : - 78mmwc TEMPERATURE : 150 oC O2 : 4.8%
  66. 66. PERFORMANCE OF AIR PREHEATERS Air leakage estimation in APH: The following gives the air leakage in to the (APH) system if the Oxygen % is measured at the entry and exit of the APH Alternatively, if the CO2% is measured in the exhaust gases then the air leakage is estimated by
  67. 67. PERFORMANCE OF AIR PREHEATERS Gas side efficiency: The gas side efficiency is defined as the ratio of the temperature drop, corrected for leakage, to the temperature head and expressed as percentage. Temperature drop is obtained by subtracting the corrected gas outlet temperature from the inlet. Temperature head is obtained by subtracting air inlet temperature from gas inlet temperature.
  68. 68. PERFORMANCE OF AIR PREHEATERS Theoretical Total air = PA+ SA+ Seal air tph
  69. 69. Operation and Mtce Controllable Variables Affecting Boiler Performance • Superheater Steam Outlet Temperature • Reheater Steam Outlet Temperature • Air Heater Leakage • Superheater spray • Reheater Spray • High Primary airflows • Pulveriser Coal Reject • High Carbon Content in Fly Ash • High Carbon Content in Bottom Ash • Furnace Exit Gas Temperature
  70. 70. Operation and Mtce Controllable Variables Affecting Boiler Performance • Economiser Exit Gas Temperature • Airheater Exit gas Temperature • Boiler air in leakage • Auxliary Power Consumption of Fans,Mills and Soot Blowers • Excess Oxygen in Flue Gas • Cycle Losses due to Leaking Vent and Drain Valves • Soot Blowing Optimization • Mill Air In Leakage on Suction Mills • Steam Purity Problems
  71. 71. EXPLORATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES Boilers: Steam and water parameters ( flow, pressure and temperature )  Air and gas parameters ( flow, pressure and temperature )  Burners operation  Primary and secondary air ratios and temperatures  Air infiltration in to boilers  Unburnt loss reduction  Combustion control – boiler excess air, O2 Measurement inaccuracy or unbalance  Dry flue gas loss  Insulation  Air infiltration to flue gases Water quality, Blow down and its control
  72. 72. EXPLORATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES Coal quality and performance of coal mills  Super heater and reheater performance  Super heater temperature, slagging of furnace water walls and tubes  Fouling on the pendant and horizontal convection tubes, soot blowers performance  Boiler control systems  Limitation on Performance of associated equipments (pumps, fans, heaters, soot blowers, mills, etc) affecting boiler loading and efficiency  Loading on ID, FD and PA fans  Operation of dampers /inlet guide vanes / speed controllers of fans  Fouling of boiler heating surfaces  Installation of energy saving retrofits  DM water consumption
  73. 73. chittatosh_bhattacharya@rediffmail.com
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