A research study on “local railway v/s
best bus in Mumbai”
Mr.Anil prajapati and Mr.Suraj jaiswal student of s.y.bms
vikas college of arts,science and commerce , Mumbai.
Under the guidance of prof. Devshree mayekar
Mr. Anil prajapati and Mr. suraj jaiswal a
student of s.y.bms(4th
sem.) ,vikas college
hereby declare that we have completed this
project of “local railway v/s best bus in
Mumbai” in the academic year 2013-14. The
information has been submitted by us is true
and correct to the best of our knowledge.
Certificate of research
This is to certify that Mr. Anil
prajapati and Mr. Suraj jaiswal of
Vikas college, S.Y.B.M.S. student (4th
semester) has completed the project
on “local railway v/s best bus” in
the academic year 2013-2014.The
information submitted is correct and
original to the best of our
We would like to thanks each and every person who helped us
out and guided us for preparing this project .we would also like
to thanks prof. devshree mayekar for giving this opportunity to
do this project.
At the end we would like to thanks each and every person who
gave us their valuable time and information in Mumbai. It was
difficult to do this project successfully without their help.
“Make the most of your skills and your talents. Other people
only dream of being able to do some of the things that you can.
It is OK to play to your strengths rather than always
concentrating on developing your weaknesses. Enjoy your
ability, and use it to help others too.”
The purpose the study is to find out which mode of transport is
most preferred by people and why it is chosen.
In Mumbai people has different mode of transport. Some
people choose local railway because it’s fast and has fair price
whereas some people choose bus because it is accessible in
every part of Mumbai where local train doesn’t.
Research was done through questionnaire and discus with some
officials on railway platform, bus stand and in market.
It has been found out people want changes and improvement in
both mode of transport local railway as well as best bus in
LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. NAME
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 3 HISTORY
CHAPTER 4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION
CHAPTER 6 QUESTIONNAIRE
CHAPTER 7 DATA ANALYSIS AND DATA INTERPRETATION
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Transportation is important part of life and in big city like
Mumbai it is vital. local railway is called lifeline of Mumbai.
Every day it carry around 6 million passenger. Bus is
preferred by most of the people because it is accessible
through out the city. people choose their mode of
transport by thinking about rush and safty and Some
People choose their mode of transport by thinking fair
price. There has been great improvement in the method of
ticket pricing in local railway as well as in best bus.
As per our research people prefer local railway because it
is fastest than best bus . as per our study most of the
people face the problem of over crowding in local railway
as well as in bus that’s why they want few new trains and
busses should be start.
Objective of the study
The objective of this study was to find out which mode of
transport is mostly preferred by the passenger. On what
basis people choose their mode of transport. Is their any
improvement needs to be done in local railway and best
bus transport. If they are asked about rush, spitting ,
unhygienic and theft than which mode of transport they
• The Great Indian Peninsular Railway, which later formed the nucleus of the present day
Central Railway, came into existence on April 16, 1853, when the first train on the Indian
Sub-continent steamed off from Mumbai to Thane, a modest stretch of only 34 kms.
Central Railway has since grown manifold.
• The suburban townships of Mumbai have to shuttle to and from Mumbai day in and day
out from distances well beyond 100 kms. Electric Multiple Units (EMU’s) are the lifeline
of Mumbai, suburban Mumbai in particular. Given the geographical spread of the
population and location of business areas, the rail network is the principal mode of mass
transport in Mumbai.
• The British built the first railway line in India in 1853. This was also the oldest railway
system in Asia. The first train ran between Mumbai and Thane, a distance of 34 km. The
Bombay Railway History Group has been striving to document railway heritage along
this line. The Mumbai Suburban Railway, as well as Indian Railways, is an extension of
this sapling planted by the British. Since then lots of radical changes have seen the
developments of the suburban railway services.
• Western Railway, Churchgate to Virar, carries about 2.6 million passengers per day,
almost 43 percent of the total Mumbai suburban rail traffic. The annual traffic density,
about 255 million passenger-km per km of route, is believed to be the world record for
passenger rail transport. The suburban section of Western Railway in Mumbai extends
from Churchgate, the city's business centre to Virar covering a distance of 60 Kms and 28
stations. The section has been extended to Dahanu Road adding 10 more stations and 60
Kms. The first electric train on this section was introduced in 1928 between Colaba and
• Today, of 14 million people travelling per day by the Indian Railways, around 7 million
people travel per day on Mumbai Suburban section alone. Of the 2700 plus services run
in Mumbai 1250 services which includes 1116 twelve car services and fourteen 15 car
services are run by Western Railway with a phenomenal frequency of 3 minutes during
peak hours. Western Railway carries more than 3 million passengers per day.
• The Central Line in Mumbai bifurcates as they run into Suburban satellite towns. Central
From Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) to Kalyan it bifurcates to Kasara in the
northeast and Karjat–Khopoli in southeast. These two corridors constitute the ‘Main’
• Central Railway covers a large part of the state of Maharashtra and parts of North-
Eastern Karnataka and Southern Madhya Pradesh. It is a system with a network of
3905.47 route kilometres and 5975.33 track kilometres linking 477 stations in five
divisions i.e Mumbai, Pune, Bhusawal, Nagpur and Solapur .
• Central Railway is the leading passenger carrying system. It carries more than 4 lakh
passengers every day to each nook and corner of the country through
Mail/Express/Passenger trains. Mumbai Suburban Train System is the life line of the
• More than 3 million passenger travel every day in 1573 suburban trains, moving across
77 stations. 40 suburban services are operated on Pune-Lonavla section in Pune division.
• The Mumbai Suburban System of Central Railway extends from Chhatrapati Shivaji
Terminus to Kalyan (54 Kms.), where it bifurcates into 2 directions, one to Kasara (121
Kms) and the other to Khopoli (114 Kms.).
• The Harbour Line is a branch of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. It is operated by Central
• It covers most of Navi Mumbai and the eastern areas ofMumbai. It's termini
are Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST), Andheri and Panvel on the CST-Andheri, CST-
Panvel and Panvel-Andheri routes. It also has termini at Nerul and Vashi All harbour line
services operate as slow services.
• The line is a double line and therefore does not have any fast trains on it. A few sections
on the line are known for slums, stench and filth along the tracks. The newly designed
train stations in Navi Mumbai are a contrast with the old, congested and overcrowded
stations within the Mumbai city limits.
• The Harbour Line runs between CST and Panvel, and between CST and Andheri. The
Harbour line has been further added as a link between Thane and Vashi. A new broad
gauge line running from Panvel to Karjat has further extended this line.
The Bombay Tramway Company Limited was formally set up in 1873. The Mumbai
Municipality was given the right to buy up the concern after the first 25 years or after
every period of 7 years thereafter. After this contract was entered into between the
Bombay Tramway Company and the Municipality, the Government of Mumbai enacted
the Bombay Tramways Act, 1874, under which the Company was licenced to run a
tramway service in the city. The tram-cars were of two kinds-those drawn by one horse
and those drawn by two. In 1905, a newly formed concern, “The Bombay Electric Supply
& Tramways Company Limited bought the Bombay Tramway Company and the first
electrically operated tram-car appeared on Mumbai’s roads in 1907. The passing years
aggravated the problem of rush-hour traffic and to ease the situation, double decker
trams were introduced in September, 1920.
Mumbai saw its first bus run on 15th July, 1926. The people of Mumbai received the bus
with enthusiasm, but it took quite sometime before this means of conveyance really
established itself. For several years, it was looked upon as transport for the upper middle
classes. Those were the days when the tram was the poor man’s transport, carried one
all the way from Sassoon Dock to Dadar for a mere anna and a half, that was nine paise.
The bus fare for the same journey was four annas, that is 25 paise.
In response to the pleas made by the Government and the Brihan Mumbai
Mahanagarpalika, the Company extended its services to the northern part of the city in
1934. Double deck buses were introduced in 1937 in order to cope better with the
growing traffic. The first Limited Bus service in Mumbai, and probably the first in the
country as well, started running in 1940 between Colaba and Mahim.
Pursuant to the option given to it under the Deed of Concession granted to the Bombay
Electric Supply and Tramways Co.Ltd, the Brihan Mumbai Mahanagarpalika acquired on
7th August,1947, the assets of the combined Undertaking, namely the operation of
tramways and distribution of electricity in the city of Mumbai as a going concern. By
mutual agreement, the Corporation also took over the operation of the bus services,
which was run by the B.E.S & T Company Ltd.
Thus, the Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Company was municipalised and came
to be known as Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking . The Undertaking has
completed 50 years of its municipalisation on 7th August, 1997.
When the Corporation took over the Company in 1947, there were 242 buses in
operation on 23 routes and these buses carried 2.38 lakh passengers per day. At present,
there are 3380 buses carrying 45 lakhs passengers daily on 335 routes. Special transport
arrangemenAts are made and extra buses under various Action Plans are operated
during the year on various social/ religious occasions. In 1947, the Undertaking supplied
electricity to 1,08,241 consumers through 247 sub stations. Today, it caters to 8,20,000
consumers through 1,773 substations.
Street lamps in those days numbered 2,215 between Colaba to Mahim and Sion. Today,
it provides electricity on streets through 34,764 street lamps. It is a well-known fact that
the municipal limits of Mumbai were extended from time to time to cover more and
more suburban areas and the BEST had to expand its bus services to cater to the entire
municipal area. However, the electricity supply of BEST was restricted to the old city area
which is equal to about 75 sq.kms.Nevertheless, BEST has been endeavouring to give its
services to the electric consumers by way of guaranteed electric supply.
The consumers are so used to the service that even an interruption of a few minutes is
resented by them. The supply is restored within the shortest possible time as the BEST is
well-equipped with latest fault-locating and testing instruments and highly skilled staff.
The Undertaking has also undertaken schemes to computerize the Consumers and
Commercial departments of the Electric Supply Division and to decentralize most of the
consumer/commercial services at all levels. These schemes will prove to be a boon for
the consumers who will be able to solve most of the problems in connection with the
grant of new connection, additional load, redressal of other grievances in regard to high
bills, change of name etc; through a single window redressal system. This is another
important step in the Undertaking’s march towards ever improving heights of excellence.
The advantages & disadvantages of railway
Railway transport occupies a significant role in the transport system of a country
because the development of trade, industry and commerce of a country largely
depends on the development of railways.
• It facilitate long distance travel and transport of bulky goods which are not easily
transported through motor vehicles.
• It is a quick and more regular form of transport because it helps in the
transportation of goods with speed and certainty.
• It helps in the industrialization process of a country by easy transportation of coal
and raw-materials at a cheaper rate.
• It helps in the quick movement of goods from one place to another at the time of
emergencies like famines and scarcity.
• It encourages mobility of labour ad thereby provides a great scope for
• Railway is the safest form of transport. The chances of accidents and breakdown
of railways are minimum as compared to other modes of transport. Moreover, the
traffic can be protected from the exposure to sun, rain snow etc.
• The carrying capacity of the railways is extremely large. Moreover, its capacity is
elastic which can easily be increased by adding more wagons.
• It is the largest public undertaking in the country. Railways perform many public
utility services. Their charges are based on charge what the traffic can bear
principles which helps the poor. In fact, it is a national necessity.
• The railway requires a large investment of capital. The cost of construction,
maintenance and overhead expenses are very high as compared to other modes
of transport. Moreover, the investments are specific and immobile. In case the
traffic is not sufficient, the investments may mean wastage of huge resources.
• Another disadvantages of railway transport is its inflexibility. It routes and
timings cannot be adjusted to individual requirements.
• Rail transport cannot provide door to door service as it is tied to a particular
track. Intermediate loading or unloading involves greater cost, more wear and
tear and wastage of time. The time cost of terminal operations are a great
disadvantage of rail transport.
• As railways require huge capital outlay, they may give rise to monopolies and
work against public interest at large. Even if controlled and managed by the
government, lack of competition may breed in inefficiency and high costs.
• Railway transport is unsuitable and uneconomical for short distances and small
traffic of goods.
• It involves much time and labour in booking and taking delivery of goods through
railways ascompared to motor transport.
• Because of huge capital requirements and traffic, railways cannot be operated
economically in rural areas. Thus, large rural areas have no railway even today.
This causes much inconvenience to the people living in rural areas.
the advantages and
disadvantages of b.e.s.t. bus
Today I’m going to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of
traveling by BEST bus. BEST Bus is the most popular transport nowadays.
• Firstly, travelling by BEST bus is cheaper than buying a new car. Also, it is big and
wide that it can carry a lot of people.
• In addition, you get to meet different kinds of people. Not only that but also you
don’t have to drive because there is already a driver. Furthermore, you can sit
back and relax till you get to your destination. There is also no need to look for
parking places while in a built up area and the bus may let you off nearly exactly
where you want to go.
• Many people choose BEST bus transport because it is cheap. You can also by a
card for every month and travel at reduced fare. This is also a good advantage to
choose bus transport, because it saves your money that you can spend on your
• Another good advantage of BEST buses is that they reduce the traffic jams in the
rush hour in cities. Imagine that everyone uses cars. The traffic jams will be a lot
bigger than they are now. In some countries like India, a bus can gather more
than 100 passengers. Imagine that all these people were using their cars instead
of bus transport the cities will be crowded.
• Finally, in my opinion the bus is a good way of traveling because it is safe and
could carry a lot of people.
However, there are disadvantages as much as the advantages that I mentioned.
• First of all, the best bus can be delayed for a period of time. What is more,
the bus can be crowded and it may not be as comfortable as the car and it
can be dirty sometimes.
• Moreover, the best bus is not a very fast way of transporting because it is
big and heavy. Not only that but also the bus doesn’t stop at where you
want it stops at the bus station.
• The best bus may be a noisy and uncomfortable ride where you have to
share with other strangers; thereby having a lack of privacy.
• Buses are also sometimes full meaning you can be left waiting for the next
one. They are also less environmentally friendly than a bicycle.
The Different methodologies that I used to collect the data from different places
are as follows:
I have done market survey for collection of primary data.
I also collected secondary information from Railway staffs as well as B.E.S.T
I also used internet & books to collect the information.
I took various information from the regarding staffs as well as people using
These includes the process of getting the questionnaires & getting all the
information regarding Train & B.E.S.T bus.
My data collection process includes interviews with the regarding staffs and the
people using the transport and gathering all information as much as I could be.
A. Primary Data Method:
• We used Questionnaire for survey method.
• Survey Method was used for primary data collection.
B. Secondary Data Method:
• Refered book.
GENDER:- MALE FEMALE
AGE:- 10 TO 14 14 TO 18 18 TO 24 24 TO ABOVE
OCCUPATION:- STUDENT BUSINESSMAN PROFESSIONAL
1. WHAT DO YOU MOST PREFER IN TRANSPORTATION.
BUS TRAIN AUTO OTHERS
2. WHAT IS YOUR OPINION ABOUT TRAIN .HAVE YOU EVER TRIED TO TRAVEL IN BUS.
3. WHAT IS YOUR NEGATIVE POINT WHEN YOU TRAVEL IN TRAIN.
SPITTING RUSH UNHYGIENIC UNSAFE THEFT
4. WHAT IS YOUR NEGATIVE POINT WHEN YOU TRAVEL IN BUS.
PASSENGER MORE THAN THE NUMBER OF SEATS PRESENT
IT TAKES LONG TIME UNSAFE
THEFT SPITTING UNHYGIENIC
5. HOW MANY TIMES YOU TRAVEL IN TRAIN IN A DAY.
ONCE TWICE MORE THAN
6. HOW MANY TIMES YOU TRAVEL IN BUS IN A DAY.
ONCE TWICE MORE THAN
7. HOW MANY TIMES YOU CHANGE YOUR MODE OF TRANSPORTATION IN A DAY TO REACH YOUR
ONCE TWICE MORE THAN
8. DO YOU WANT ANY CHANGES IN BUS TRANSPORT.
9. DO YOU WANT ANY CHANGES IN TRAIN TRANSPORT.
10.ACCORDING TO YOU WHICH TRANSPROT IS SAFE.
BUS TRAIN BOTH
11.ACCORDING TO YOU WHICH TRANSPORT HAS FAIR PRICES.
12.HAVE YOU EVER HAD ANY KIND OF BAD OR GOOD EXPERIENCE WHILE TRAVELLING IN BUSSES OR
13.WHAT PRIORITY DO YOU GIVE FIRST WHILE TRAVELLING IN BUS.
SAFETY COMFORT CHEAPER PRICES FASTEST MODE
14. WHAT PRIORITY DO YOU GIVE FIRST WHILE TRAVELLING IN TRAIN.
SAFETY COMFORT CHEAPER PRICES FASTEST MODE
15.ACCORDING TO YOU WHICH TRANSPORT SERVICE IS THE BEST SERVICE IN MUMBAI.
1. PEOPLE MOSTLY PREFER IN TRANSPORTATION.
2. NEGATIVE POINT WHEN PEOPLE TRAVEL IN TRAIN.
3. NEGATIVE POINT WHEN PEOPLE TRAVEL IN BUS.
4. HOW MANY TIMES PEOPLE TRAVEL IN TRAIN IN A DAY.
5. HOW MANY TIME PEOPLE TRAVEL IN BUS IN A DAY.
IT TAKES LONG
6. HOW MANY TIMES PEOPLE CHANGE THEIR MODE OF TRANSPORT IN A
DAY TO REACH THEIR DESTINATION.
7. HOW MANY PEOPLE WANT ANY CHANGES IN BUS TRANSPORT.
8. HOW MANY PEOPLE WANT ANY CHANGES IN TRAIN TRANSPORT.
9. ACCORDING TO PEOPLE WHICH MODE OF TRANSPORT IS SAFE FOR THEM.
10. ACCORDING TO PEOPLE WHICH MODE OF TRANSPORT HAS FAIR PRICE.
11. ACCORDING TO PEOPLE WHICH TRANSPORT SERCIVE IS THE BEST
SERVICE IN MUMBAI.
According to our survey 33.33% people travel in bus followed by train
27.77% followed by auto 27.77% and remaining 11.13% people travel other mode
of transport. Talking about negative point when travel in train 61.11% have
complaint about rush,22.23% people have complaint about unhygienic problem
and 16.16% people thought train is unsafe to travel. Talking about negative point
when travel in bus 55.55% people have complaint about rush while 38.88%think it
is time consuming and rest 0.19% it is unsafe to travel in bus.
According to our survey 27.77% people change their mode of transport
once in a day while 33.33% people change twice and remaining 38.89% people
change more than twice. When it was asked that how many people want any
change in bus transport than 61.12% said there is no need of any change on the
other hand 38.88% said changes should be made in bus transport. When it was
asked is there any need of changes in train transport 27.77% people think it is fine
while 72.23% people think improvement should be made in facilities provided by
railway authority. When question was asked which mode of transport is safe 50%
people think bus transport is safe while 27.77% people think it is safe to trave3l in
train and remaining 22.23% people think it is safe to travel in train as well as in
bus. According to our survey 66.66% people think train has fair price while 33.34%
people think bus has fair price.
When question asked about best service in mode of transport in Mumbai
66.66% people think train is the best mode of transport on the other hand 33.34%
people think bus is a best mode of transport in Mumbai.
We spend more than 500 Rupees on our stationary , printing , traveling.
It took more than 15 days to collect the information data in that we made the
questions & distribute the questionnaire & get them filled by respected people. We
took some interview within that period.
The population for this research study consists of the residence of Mumbai. My
fieldwork included extensive coverage of the following areas:-
• Mumbai Central.
• Mumbai Western.
• H0 :- Local train is a better than bus.
• H1 :- Bus is a better than local train.
Target population:- the population for this
research study of the consist of the residence of
Sampling unit:- sampling unit is individual
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
While surveying I encounter with some problems like-
Many of the respondents were not willing to fill the questionnaire.
Some people were not willing to respond and few of them who
responded were in hurry hence the active participation was lacking.
Due to which I faced difficulties in collecting information’s regarding
Another problem which I face was that people were hesitating to give
information about their views freely.
In India people mostly prefer transportation for their day to day
activity but in that something 3 million people prefer trains for their
transportation because it reaches fast than other mode of transport
and has the fair price other while some of them prefer busses for their
transportation because it exactly reaches our destination or halt
where we have to go.
We have referred the book. And we also took the help of
internet. Most of the information is of our own.
The list of reference for the purpose of completing this
marketing project is as given below:
NAME EDITED BY
Our Indian Railway: Themes in
India's Railway History
NAME OF THE
URL OF THE WEBSITE
B.E.S.T. UNDERTAKING http://www.bestundertaking.com/history.asp
WESTERN RAILWAY http://www.wr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1