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WASTE MANAGEMENT
1 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
Waste Management
Waste is anyunnecessaryinputor undesirable output from encompassing all types of resources. It is a
negative to be eliminated or avoided. It is an activity that adversely affects the value equation for the
customer. Waste reduces the value of product rather than increasing or enhancing value.
Definition:
Waste Management (WM) is a multidisciplinary activity involving engineering principles, economic,
urban andregional planning,andmanagementtechniques.Itiscloselyrelatedtosocial sciences.Since it
cannot be avoided the efforts are required to minimize the overall wastivity of the system under
consideration.
Waste is any unnecessary input to or output undesirable output from any system. The waste is
unwantedbutunavoidableresulting in any organization. It gets generated from all types of resources.
Waste management is a multi-disciplinary activity involving engineering principles, economics, urban
and regional planning and management techniques.
COMPOSITION OF WASTE
Most waste is composed of the following materials:
Paper - newspaper*, office paper*, packing materials, cardboard*
Plastic - beverage containers*, high tech waste*, packing materials
Metals - cans*, high tech waste*, scrap metals*, appliances*, building materials*
Glass - windows*, bottles*
Food waste and organic material — leaves, peelings and scraps, spoiled food, grass clippings
Human and animal waste - feces Wood - furniture, building materials, pallets
WASTE MANAGEMENT
2 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
TYPES OF WASTE
Lean System:
[1] Waiting Time Waste [2] Transportation Waste [3] Processing Waste [4] Inventory Waste [5]
Unnecessary Motion Waste [6] Product Defect Waste [7] Overproduction Waste
Managing Wastes:
[1] FocusedFactory Networks [2] Group Technology [3] Jidoka- Quality At The Source [4] Just-In –Time
Production[5] UniformPlantLoading[6] KanbanProductionControl System[7] MinimizedSet-UpTimes
Biodegradable (Wet) waste: It comprises of food, vegetable and non veg. waste.
Non biodegradable (Dry) waste: It comprises of plastic bottles, papers, plastic wrappers, HDPE (high-
density polyethylene), LDPE bags etc.
CATEGORIES OF WASTE
 Waste Of OverProduction
 Waste Of WaitingTime
 Waste Of Transportation
 ProcessingWaste
 InventoryWaste
 Waste Of MotionAndEffort
 Waste From ProductDefects
TYPES OF WASTE (• Scrap • Surplus• Obsoletion)
Basisof Recyclablesof the Waste
Basisof Resource Wasted
Basisof Source of Origin
Basisof Property
WASTIVITY
Wastivityof the systemisdefinedasthe ratioof the waste to the input.
Wastivity= Waste /Input
Gross Wastivity= Total Waste Generated/Total Input
All thatwaste is notthe waste.Some partof itcan be recycled
NetWaste = Total waste - Waste Generatedrecycledwithinsystem
WASTE MANAGEMENT
3 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
NetWastivity= Waste WhichCan Be Recycled/Total output
PROBLEMS WITH THE WASTE MANAGEMENT
 Generation
 Reduction
 Collection
 Recycling
 Disposal
GENERATION OF WASTE
 Wrong designof the storage systems
 Carelessnessof the people
 Frequentpowerfailurescreate waste
 Poormanagementof the material
 Poormaintenance
 Poordistributionnetwork
 Use of oldtechnology
 Inadequate supervisionandcontrol
 Unhygienicworkenvironment
 Insufficientskill anduse of unsafe practices
WASTE CONTROL PROGRAM
 Recyclingandprocessingof waste
 Waste disposal projects
 Separationof different typesof waste
 Recognize the waste forwhole system
 Identifiesthe stage atwhichwaste isgenerated
 Total aggregate waste atall the stages
SALVAGEBALE WASTES SHOULD BE RECYCLED
Analyze how to recycle and dispose the scrap , Use the scrap for producing by products, Transfer the
surplus from one department to another , Sell the scrap as raw material, Sell scrap through
advertisement and auctioning , sell the surplus in open market, Return the surplus to vendor of
possible, Donate the rejected material.
FOUR KEY ASPECTS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
 Waste Processing: Waste processing is the range of activities characterized by the treatment
and recovery (use) of materials or energy from waste through thermal, chemical, or biological
means. It also covers hazardous waste handling. Generally, there are two main groups of
WASTE MANAGEMENT
4 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
processes to be considered, (1) Biological processes, such as open composting, enclosed
composting, anaerobic digestion, and vermiculture, and (2) Thermal processes, such as
incineration, and gasification.
Examples of reuse in initiatives include: (1) Product reuse - rethreading tires, recovery of
demolitionmaterials,reuse of plastic bags, second hand clothing, reconditioning and repair of
furniture and appliances; (2) Materials reuse – Liquid-paper board for seedlings planters,
bottles, scrap paper for notes/phone messages, mulching; (3) Durable packaging - e.g. milk
crates, bread trays, string or calico shopping bags.
Some of the positive effects associated with processed waste include, more effective use of
resources, employment opportunities in the service and repair industries, support for charity
basedstores,betterprotectionof productsasdurable packagingismore robust, and changes in
attitudes towards disposable products.
 Waste Minimization:Itcan be reduced through imparting education and improved production
process rather than aiming to increase technology to improve treatment of waste. The use of
resources and by reducing the amount of waste to be disposed of the cost of waste
management is also decreased.
Waste avoidance for individuals: Buying goods in bulk; reconsidering superfluous purchases;
purchasing products in materials/packaging that is readily recycled; use of alternatives, e.g.
landscapingthatcreatesmulchedgardensinplace of lawns;anduse of composting and vermin-
culture practices.
Waste minimization in industry: Change in product design to reduce materials consumption;
using crates instead of pallets to avoid the need for shrink wrap; incorporate Eco-Design
technology into production processes; adoption of Cleaner Production practices that ensure
avoidance through efficiency measures; and conduct regular audits and monitoring of waste
reduction/resource recovery practices.
Waste minimization for Local Government: Encourage community 'avoidance' activities, e.g.
promote competitions rewarding initiative in this area of resource recovery; lead by example,
e.g. display mulched gardens throughout the municipality; and provide facilities and
infrastructure to assist industry, business and the community to undertake resource recovery
practices,e.g.kerb-siderecyclingandresource exchange registers,initiategreenerprocurement
programmes.
 Waste Disposal: Historically,effortsinthe managementof waste have focused primarily on the
disposal part of the waste. Whilst there is now a general move towards the recovery of
resources from waste, disposal is still the most common form of managing waste. Dumping,
land-fillingof waste andincinerationare some of the mostcommonmethodsof waste disposal.
 Waste Recycling: Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw
materials, which are then reprocessed either into the same material (closed loop) or a new
product(openloop),generallyincludingwaste separationand material reprocessing. There are
various materials that are capable of being recycled, and technology is advancing to allow the
recycling of more materials.
WASTE MANAGEMENT
5 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
The benefits of recycling do not lie solely in diversion of waste away from disposal but, even
more importantly,inthe reductionof the amountof virginresources that need to be harvested
and processed for the manufacture of new products.
DISPOSAL METHODS
 Land filling: Select low lying sites at least 45 m away from habitation, start filling at one end,
garbage should be properly compacted and covered with earth. It results in the release of
METHANE from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Methane is a greenhouse
gas, which is more potent than carbon dioxide.
 Burial: Dig deep trenches, cover garbage with soil, deposit garbage daily.
 Incineration:That involvesthe combustion of organic materials and/or substances. It converts
the waste into incinerator bottom ash, flue gases, and heat which can in turn be used to
generate electric power.
 Composting:The composting of organic materials such as food scraps. It releases some carbon
dioxide. However, most of it is stored within the compost therefore not released into the
atmosphere. Ares should be located away from habitation, use composite manure in fields.
 Vermi-composting:Itisthe consumptionof organicmaterial byearthworms.Thisspeedsupthe
processof decompositionandprovidesa nutrientrich endproduct,calledvermicompost, in the
form of worm castings.
 Biogas: Typicallyrefersto a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the
absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of bio-fuel.
 Recycling: Once a product has been used, it has the potential to be recycled into something
new.While manufacturingproductsfromrecycledinputsstill requires some energy. Store each
type separately; do not mix with wet garbage.
 Sewers and drainpipes: Drains should not get blocked, sewers should have no leakage.
 Soak pits: A soak pitisa coveredpitduginthe ground,inwhich effluent from the septic tank is
discharged.Itisgenerallyduginthe previous soil which can absorb the effluent. The container
which receives the wastewater should be cleaned fortnightly.
 Exhaust fans & ventilator hoods: Exhaust fumes discharged into the air should not cause a
nuisance; filter on hoods should be cleaned regularly.
COST INVOLVED IN WASTE MANAGEMENT
 Manpower cost
 Installation of machines cost
 Operating Cost of machines
 Treatment cost
 Imparting knowledge and skills
HOW TO MANAGE WASTE EFFECTIVELY
 By adopting new technology and machines.
WASTE MANAGEMENT
6 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
 The ideaof minimizationisnotcenteredontechnological advances, it can be viewed a method
of managingexistingresourcesandtechnologyin order to maximize the efficiency of available
resource use.
 Reduced environmental liability for your business.
 A boostto yourbusinessimage bybeingenvironmentallyaware.
 By raisingstaff morale andenvironmental awarenessbyconductingtrainingsessions.
 Increasedinvestmentandbusinessopportunities - manylarge companiesandgovernment
organizationsmaynotworkwithbusinessesthatdonot have an EMS at theirplace.
WHY?????WASTETO BE MANAGED
 Preventsfromspreadingharmfuldiseases
 Conservingresources
 Storingrecyclingvolumes
 Reducesthe amountof solids
 Increasedamountsof waste recovery
 Energyproduction fromwaste
Some of the energyreleasedduringcombustioncanbe harnessedandusedtopowerotherprocesses.
Thisresultsinoffsetgreenhouse gasemissionsfromavoidedfossilfuel use.
 Preventingnegativeimpactof wastesonthe local andglobal environment
 Preventingenvironmentfrompollution&contamination
Disposal (Landfill)
Disposingof waste ina landfillinvolvesburyingwaste todispose of it,andthisremainsacommon
practice in mostcountries.Historically,landfillswere oftenestablishedin disusedquarries,miningvoids
or borrowpits
Many landfillsalsohave landfill gasextractionsystemsinstalledtoextractthe landfill gas.Gasispumped
out of the landfill usingperforatedpipesandflaredoff orburntina gas engine togenerate electricity.
Disposal (Incineration)
Incinerationisdisposalmethodthatinvolvescombustionof waste material.Incinerationandotherhigh
temperature waste treatmentsystemsare sometimesdescribedas"thermal treatment".Itconvert
waste materialsintoheat,gas,steam,andash
It iscarried outboth ona small scale byindividualsandona large scale byindustry.Itis usedtodispose
of solid,liquidandgaseouswaste.Itisrecognizedasapractical methodof disposingof certain
hazardouswaste materials.
Recycling
WASTE MANAGEMENT
7 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
The processof extractingresourcesorvalue fromwaste isgenerallyreferredtoasrecycling,meaningto
recoveryor reusesthe material.
Recycling(Physical Reprocessing)
The popularmeaningof ‘recycling’inmostdevelopedcountriesrefers tothe widespreadcollectionand
reuse of everydaywaste materials.
The most commonconsumerproductsrecycledinclude aluminumbeverage cans,andaerosol cans.
Othertypesof plastic(PVC,LDPE,PP,are alsorecyclable,althoughthese are notascommonly collected.
These itemsare usuallycomposedof asingle type of material,makingthemrelativelyeasytorecycle
intonewproducts.
Recycling(Biological Processing)
Waste materialsthatare organicin nature,suchas plantmaterial,foodscraps,andpaper products,can
be recycledusingbiogical compostinganddigestionprocessestodecompose the organicmatter.
The intentionof biological processinginwaste managementistocontrol andaccelerate the natural
processof decompositionof organicmatter.
Methodsof biological decompositionare differentiatedasbeingaerobicoranaerobicmethods.
Avoidance and Reduction
It isthe preventionof waste material beingcreated.Methodsof avoidanceinclude reuse of unwanted
products,repairingbrokenitems,designingsingle-useproductstobe reusable,anddesigningproducts
that use lessmaterial toachieve the same purpose.
Waste handlingand transport
Waste collectionmethodsvarywidelybetweendifferentcountriesandregions.Domesticwaste
collectionservicesare oftenprovidedbylocal governmentauthorities,orbyprivate industry.Some
areas,especiallythoseinlessdevelopedcountries,donothave a formal waste-collectionsystem.
Waste managementconcepts
Waste hierarchy:
The waste hierarchyreferstothe "3Rs" reduce, reuse andrecycle, whichclassifywaste management
strategiesaccordingtotheirdesirabilityintermsof waste minimization.
The waste hierarchyremainsthe cornerstone of mostwaste minimizationstrategies.
The aim of the waste hierarchyistoextract the maximumpractical benefitsfromproductsandto
generate the minimumamountof waste see:resource recovery
WASTE MANAGEMENT
8 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a
Polluterpays principle
The PolluterPaysPrincipleisaprinciple wherethe pollutingpartypaysforthe impactcausedto the
environment.
Withrespectto waste management,thisgenerallyreferstothe requirementforawaste generatorto
pay forappropriate disposal of the waste.

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Waste management anil

  • 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT 1 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a Waste Management Waste is anyunnecessaryinputor undesirable output from encompassing all types of resources. It is a negative to be eliminated or avoided. It is an activity that adversely affects the value equation for the customer. Waste reduces the value of product rather than increasing or enhancing value. Definition: Waste Management (WM) is a multidisciplinary activity involving engineering principles, economic, urban andregional planning,andmanagementtechniques.Itiscloselyrelatedtosocial sciences.Since it cannot be avoided the efforts are required to minimize the overall wastivity of the system under consideration. Waste is any unnecessary input to or output undesirable output from any system. The waste is unwantedbutunavoidableresulting in any organization. It gets generated from all types of resources. Waste management is a multi-disciplinary activity involving engineering principles, economics, urban and regional planning and management techniques. COMPOSITION OF WASTE Most waste is composed of the following materials: Paper - newspaper*, office paper*, packing materials, cardboard* Plastic - beverage containers*, high tech waste*, packing materials Metals - cans*, high tech waste*, scrap metals*, appliances*, building materials* Glass - windows*, bottles* Food waste and organic material — leaves, peelings and scraps, spoiled food, grass clippings Human and animal waste - feces Wood - furniture, building materials, pallets
  • 2. WASTE MANAGEMENT 2 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a TYPES OF WASTE Lean System: [1] Waiting Time Waste [2] Transportation Waste [3] Processing Waste [4] Inventory Waste [5] Unnecessary Motion Waste [6] Product Defect Waste [7] Overproduction Waste Managing Wastes: [1] FocusedFactory Networks [2] Group Technology [3] Jidoka- Quality At The Source [4] Just-In –Time Production[5] UniformPlantLoading[6] KanbanProductionControl System[7] MinimizedSet-UpTimes Biodegradable (Wet) waste: It comprises of food, vegetable and non veg. waste. Non biodegradable (Dry) waste: It comprises of plastic bottles, papers, plastic wrappers, HDPE (high- density polyethylene), LDPE bags etc. CATEGORIES OF WASTE  Waste Of OverProduction  Waste Of WaitingTime  Waste Of Transportation  ProcessingWaste  InventoryWaste  Waste Of MotionAndEffort  Waste From ProductDefects TYPES OF WASTE (• Scrap • Surplus• Obsoletion) Basisof Recyclablesof the Waste Basisof Resource Wasted Basisof Source of Origin Basisof Property WASTIVITY Wastivityof the systemisdefinedasthe ratioof the waste to the input. Wastivity= Waste /Input Gross Wastivity= Total Waste Generated/Total Input All thatwaste is notthe waste.Some partof itcan be recycled NetWaste = Total waste - Waste Generatedrecycledwithinsystem
  • 3. WASTE MANAGEMENT 3 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a NetWastivity= Waste WhichCan Be Recycled/Total output PROBLEMS WITH THE WASTE MANAGEMENT  Generation  Reduction  Collection  Recycling  Disposal GENERATION OF WASTE  Wrong designof the storage systems  Carelessnessof the people  Frequentpowerfailurescreate waste  Poormanagementof the material  Poormaintenance  Poordistributionnetwork  Use of oldtechnology  Inadequate supervisionandcontrol  Unhygienicworkenvironment  Insufficientskill anduse of unsafe practices WASTE CONTROL PROGRAM  Recyclingandprocessingof waste  Waste disposal projects  Separationof different typesof waste  Recognize the waste forwhole system  Identifiesthe stage atwhichwaste isgenerated  Total aggregate waste atall the stages SALVAGEBALE WASTES SHOULD BE RECYCLED Analyze how to recycle and dispose the scrap , Use the scrap for producing by products, Transfer the surplus from one department to another , Sell the scrap as raw material, Sell scrap through advertisement and auctioning , sell the surplus in open market, Return the surplus to vendor of possible, Donate the rejected material. FOUR KEY ASPECTS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT  Waste Processing: Waste processing is the range of activities characterized by the treatment and recovery (use) of materials or energy from waste through thermal, chemical, or biological means. It also covers hazardous waste handling. Generally, there are two main groups of
  • 4. WASTE MANAGEMENT 4 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a processes to be considered, (1) Biological processes, such as open composting, enclosed composting, anaerobic digestion, and vermiculture, and (2) Thermal processes, such as incineration, and gasification. Examples of reuse in initiatives include: (1) Product reuse - rethreading tires, recovery of demolitionmaterials,reuse of plastic bags, second hand clothing, reconditioning and repair of furniture and appliances; (2) Materials reuse – Liquid-paper board for seedlings planters, bottles, scrap paper for notes/phone messages, mulching; (3) Durable packaging - e.g. milk crates, bread trays, string or calico shopping bags. Some of the positive effects associated with processed waste include, more effective use of resources, employment opportunities in the service and repair industries, support for charity basedstores,betterprotectionof productsasdurable packagingismore robust, and changes in attitudes towards disposable products.  Waste Minimization:Itcan be reduced through imparting education and improved production process rather than aiming to increase technology to improve treatment of waste. The use of resources and by reducing the amount of waste to be disposed of the cost of waste management is also decreased. Waste avoidance for individuals: Buying goods in bulk; reconsidering superfluous purchases; purchasing products in materials/packaging that is readily recycled; use of alternatives, e.g. landscapingthatcreatesmulchedgardensinplace of lawns;anduse of composting and vermin- culture practices. Waste minimization in industry: Change in product design to reduce materials consumption; using crates instead of pallets to avoid the need for shrink wrap; incorporate Eco-Design technology into production processes; adoption of Cleaner Production practices that ensure avoidance through efficiency measures; and conduct regular audits and monitoring of waste reduction/resource recovery practices. Waste minimization for Local Government: Encourage community 'avoidance' activities, e.g. promote competitions rewarding initiative in this area of resource recovery; lead by example, e.g. display mulched gardens throughout the municipality; and provide facilities and infrastructure to assist industry, business and the community to undertake resource recovery practices,e.g.kerb-siderecyclingandresource exchange registers,initiategreenerprocurement programmes.  Waste Disposal: Historically,effortsinthe managementof waste have focused primarily on the disposal part of the waste. Whilst there is now a general move towards the recovery of resources from waste, disposal is still the most common form of managing waste. Dumping, land-fillingof waste andincinerationare some of the mostcommonmethodsof waste disposal.  Waste Recycling: Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw materials, which are then reprocessed either into the same material (closed loop) or a new product(openloop),generallyincludingwaste separationand material reprocessing. There are various materials that are capable of being recycled, and technology is advancing to allow the recycling of more materials.
  • 5. WASTE MANAGEMENT 5 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a The benefits of recycling do not lie solely in diversion of waste away from disposal but, even more importantly,inthe reductionof the amountof virginresources that need to be harvested and processed for the manufacture of new products. DISPOSAL METHODS  Land filling: Select low lying sites at least 45 m away from habitation, start filling at one end, garbage should be properly compacted and covered with earth. It results in the release of METHANE from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Methane is a greenhouse gas, which is more potent than carbon dioxide.  Burial: Dig deep trenches, cover garbage with soil, deposit garbage daily.  Incineration:That involvesthe combustion of organic materials and/or substances. It converts the waste into incinerator bottom ash, flue gases, and heat which can in turn be used to generate electric power.  Composting:The composting of organic materials such as food scraps. It releases some carbon dioxide. However, most of it is stored within the compost therefore not released into the atmosphere. Ares should be located away from habitation, use composite manure in fields.  Vermi-composting:Itisthe consumptionof organicmaterial byearthworms.Thisspeedsupthe processof decompositionandprovidesa nutrientrich endproduct,calledvermicompost, in the form of worm castings.  Biogas: Typicallyrefersto a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of bio-fuel.  Recycling: Once a product has been used, it has the potential to be recycled into something new.While manufacturingproductsfromrecycledinputsstill requires some energy. Store each type separately; do not mix with wet garbage.  Sewers and drainpipes: Drains should not get blocked, sewers should have no leakage.  Soak pits: A soak pitisa coveredpitduginthe ground,inwhich effluent from the septic tank is discharged.Itisgenerallyduginthe previous soil which can absorb the effluent. The container which receives the wastewater should be cleaned fortnightly.  Exhaust fans & ventilator hoods: Exhaust fumes discharged into the air should not cause a nuisance; filter on hoods should be cleaned regularly. COST INVOLVED IN WASTE MANAGEMENT  Manpower cost  Installation of machines cost  Operating Cost of machines  Treatment cost  Imparting knowledge and skills HOW TO MANAGE WASTE EFFECTIVELY  By adopting new technology and machines.
  • 6. WASTE MANAGEMENT 6 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a  The ideaof minimizationisnotcenteredontechnological advances, it can be viewed a method of managingexistingresourcesandtechnologyin order to maximize the efficiency of available resource use.  Reduced environmental liability for your business.  A boostto yourbusinessimage bybeingenvironmentallyaware.  By raisingstaff morale andenvironmental awarenessbyconductingtrainingsessions.  Increasedinvestmentandbusinessopportunities - manylarge companiesandgovernment organizationsmaynotworkwithbusinessesthatdonot have an EMS at theirplace. WHY?????WASTETO BE MANAGED  Preventsfromspreadingharmfuldiseases  Conservingresources  Storingrecyclingvolumes  Reducesthe amountof solids  Increasedamountsof waste recovery  Energyproduction fromwaste Some of the energyreleasedduringcombustioncanbe harnessedandusedtopowerotherprocesses. Thisresultsinoffsetgreenhouse gasemissionsfromavoidedfossilfuel use.  Preventingnegativeimpactof wastesonthe local andglobal environment  Preventingenvironmentfrompollution&contamination Disposal (Landfill) Disposingof waste ina landfillinvolvesburyingwaste todispose of it,andthisremainsacommon practice in mostcountries.Historically,landfillswere oftenestablishedin disusedquarries,miningvoids or borrowpits Many landfillsalsohave landfill gasextractionsystemsinstalledtoextractthe landfill gas.Gasispumped out of the landfill usingperforatedpipesandflaredoff orburntina gas engine togenerate electricity. Disposal (Incineration) Incinerationisdisposalmethodthatinvolvescombustionof waste material.Incinerationandotherhigh temperature waste treatmentsystemsare sometimesdescribedas"thermal treatment".Itconvert waste materialsintoheat,gas,steam,andash It iscarried outboth ona small scale byindividualsandona large scale byindustry.Itis usedtodispose of solid,liquidandgaseouswaste.Itisrecognizedasapractical methodof disposingof certain hazardouswaste materials. Recycling
  • 7. WASTE MANAGEMENT 7 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a The processof extractingresourcesorvalue fromwaste isgenerallyreferredtoasrecycling,meaningto recoveryor reusesthe material. Recycling(Physical Reprocessing) The popularmeaningof ‘recycling’inmostdevelopedcountriesrefers tothe widespreadcollectionand reuse of everydaywaste materials. The most commonconsumerproductsrecycledinclude aluminumbeverage cans,andaerosol cans. Othertypesof plastic(PVC,LDPE,PP,are alsorecyclable,althoughthese are notascommonly collected. These itemsare usuallycomposedof asingle type of material,makingthemrelativelyeasytorecycle intonewproducts. Recycling(Biological Processing) Waste materialsthatare organicin nature,suchas plantmaterial,foodscraps,andpaper products,can be recycledusingbiogical compostinganddigestionprocessestodecompose the organicmatter. The intentionof biological processinginwaste managementistocontrol andaccelerate the natural processof decompositionof organicmatter. Methodsof biological decompositionare differentiatedasbeingaerobicoranaerobicmethods. Avoidance and Reduction It isthe preventionof waste material beingcreated.Methodsof avoidanceinclude reuse of unwanted products,repairingbrokenitems,designingsingle-useproductstobe reusable,anddesigningproducts that use lessmaterial toachieve the same purpose. Waste handlingand transport Waste collectionmethodsvarywidelybetweendifferentcountriesandregions.Domesticwaste collectionservicesare oftenprovidedbylocal governmentauthorities,orbyprivate industry.Some areas,especiallythoseinlessdevelopedcountries,donothave a formal waste-collectionsystem. Waste managementconcepts Waste hierarchy: The waste hierarchyreferstothe "3Rs" reduce, reuse andrecycle, whichclassifywaste management strategiesaccordingtotheirdesirabilityintermsof waste minimization. The waste hierarchyremainsthe cornerstone of mostwaste minimizationstrategies. The aim of the waste hierarchyistoextract the maximumpractical benefitsfromproductsandto generate the minimumamountof waste see:resource recovery
  • 8. WASTE MANAGEMENT 8 | P a g e P r o f . ( D r . ) A n i l M i s h r a Polluterpays principle The PolluterPaysPrincipleisaprinciple wherethe pollutingpartypaysforthe impactcausedto the environment. Withrespectto waste management,thisgenerallyreferstothe requirementforawaste generatorto pay forappropriate disposal of the waste.