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  1. 1. Drugs in Sport These days, a spectacular sports performance is met with as much suspicion as celebration by a cynical public, as drug use in sport becomes more prevalent
  2. 2. 4 Key Areas of Study <ul><li>I identify and explain the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Identify who are the main “players” in the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss why the issue is a current topic </li></ul><ul><li>What are the current topics in world sport </li></ul>
  3. 3. Athletic success has been praised and worshiped for centuries, yet in more recent times doubt covers the efforts of the magnificent. Why is there suspicion instead of celebration with today's outstanding sporting performances and what role has drugs played in contributing to this?
  4. 4. How have we come to a situation where an outstanding sporting performance such as Tour de France cyclist Lance Armstrong is being branded a cheat by sections within the sporting world? Discussion Points: <ul><li>Records are meant to be broken </li></ul><ul><li>The value and benefits of winning </li></ul><ul><li>History of drug taking in sport </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining the edge </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational cover ups </li></ul><ul><li>How do we value and judge performances today </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who are the key players <ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes & Coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Clubs/Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Chemists and distributors </li></ul><ul><li>ASDA </li></ul><ul><li>Media & Sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Fans </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of Drugs: <ul><li>Drugs have been a part of sport since the inception of competition. </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient Greece early Olympians used extracts of mushroom and plant seeds to enhance performance. During the Roman period chariot racers mixed drugs in the feed of their horses run faster. Gladiators doped to make their fights vigorous and bloody for the public. </li></ul><ul><li>A brief history highlighting the some cases of drug abuse is listed on the next slide. </li></ul><ul><li>Source:- The Observer, Feb 8, 2004. Drugs in Sport: a brief history ( brief history of drugs ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1886 The first recorded death: cyclist Arthur Linton overdoses on Trimethyl </li></ul><ul><li>1904 Marathon runner Thomas Hicks almost dies at the Olympics in St Louis after mixing brandy and strychnine.. </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s Amphetamines start to be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s Soviets begin to use male hormones; Americans respond with steroids. </li></ul><ul><li>1960 At Rome Olympics, amphetamines – taking Danish cyclist Knut Jensen collapse, fractures his skull and dies. </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Another amphetamine death: Britain Tommy Simpson, in the Tour de France . </li></ul><ul><li>1968 IOC issue list of banned substances. Testing begins at Mexico Olympics. </li></ul><ul><li>1972 Dr Bjorn Ekblom of Stockholm invents “blood packing” Removing blood and later restoring through transfusion. </li></ul><ul><li>1976 East German swimmers win 11 out of 13 Olympic events. In early 1990s it emerges they have been pumped with steroids by their coaches. </li></ul><ul><li>1987 EPO emerges as a way of boosting blood thickness; deaths follow in young cyclists. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1988 At Soul Olympics, Ben Johnson tests positive for an anabolic steroid after winning 100m gold medal. </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Twenty ex- East German swimming coaches admit giving anabolic steroids to their former charges. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 Diego Maradona banned from world cup for taking a cocktail of five drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Irelands Michelle Smith wins 4 Olympic swimming gold's at Atlanta. Found guilty of manipulating samples in 1998 and banned for 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>1998 The Festina team are expelled from the Tour de France after trainer is caught with 400 vials of performance enhancing drugs. Florence Griffith Joyner dies at the age of 38 from a heart seizure. </li></ul><ul><li>The list continues through to this present day. </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITY : Australian athletes and teams has also been accused and found guilty of partaking in performance enhancing drugs. List as many cases as possible where Australia has been accused of cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>Read article: Drugs in sport: the mud gets thicker. July 14, 2004. Click here for article </li></ul>
  9. 9. Athletes & Coaches: How are they involved? What benefits can they obtain? Winning is a very rewarding Outcome in sport. It can have life changing Effects on both athlete And the coach Profile So What? Money How do they get this? Sponsors What can they provide? Profile So What? Money How do they get this? Sponsors What can they provide?
  10. 10. Country, Sporting Clubs and Organizations: How do they become affected? <ul><li>Country : Winning medals at Olympics demonstrates countries power and world dominance as a race or lifestyle. E.g. Hitler & Berlin Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Further readings . “US Medal boasts economical with the truth&quot;. Athens News. August 31 . 2004. Find out more </li></ul><ul><li>Sporting Clubs . Success to teams and athletes guarantee further funding and government support. Can you list any sports/coaching bodies that get more money for better results. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations (ie FINA) don’t want to be seen as having a corrupt sport therefore they can cover up drug cheating to provide a healthy image. The USA track team are now being found guilty of previous incidences of cover ups. Read the following article. Speculating: The biggest drug scandal in history. Click here for article </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chemists & Distributors: Where do they fit into the issue? <ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Thrill of the chemists staying in front of the Testing bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Access to the stars </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption, Greed. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the following article. Just say go. Time Magazine. July 27 1998 No. 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Article access through here </li></ul>
  12. 12. ASDA/WADA “The Testing Bodies” <ul><li>ASDA : Australian Sports Drug Agency. Responsible for in and out of season testing of all sports: Web Site </li></ul><ul><li>WADA : World Anti- Doping Agency. There goal and warning to all athletes is clearly outlined by their Chairman's message which states: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Olympic Charter speaks of the promotion of &quot;friendship, solidarity, and fair play.&quot; The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation built upon these important values. It is one of the most recent and impressive examples of collaboration in international sport. </li></ul><ul><li>Through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee, WADA was created in November 1999 to support and promote fundamental values in sport. With one historic associative act, sport organizations and governments are now united in their efforts to achieve completely drug-free sport. This level of unprecedented solidarity constitutes today our greatest hope of eradicating the improper use of drugs in sport.” Web Site </li></ul><ul><li>Blood testing V Urine samples . We now have tests that can detect drug use from athletes samples, that have been stored from previous sporting events. This has put many famous performances under a new microscope. Our views on sporting heroes could change dramatically in the near future. Lance Armstrong </li></ul>
  13. 13. Media & Sponsorships <ul><li>The sponsorship cycle; Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Activity for home work: </li></ul><ul><li>List 3 reasons why the print media report extensively on drugs in sport issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Name 3 Drug related stories that have made newspaper headlines in the last 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do sponsors align themselves with sports bodies and their stars? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the pit falls for companies that sponsor stars who have tainted their image? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you list any clubs or athletes that have lost their sponsorships through bad behavior or drug usage? </li></ul>Television Sports Development Spectators Sponsors
  14. 14. The Public & Sport Fans <ul><li>With all the recent findings about athletes and their acceptance to the theory of “winning at all costs” the sporting public in to days society are unsure what is real anymore. </li></ul><ul><li>You have read the article “Just Say Go “ by Tim Blair in an earlier lesson. The following quote from his article was instrumental in forming this sense of disbelief with today's outstanding sporting performances. What a shame that our athletes think this way. </li></ul><ul><li>That's if athletes aren't already tainted by the popular belief that drug use is widespread. Such cynicism may be well founded. Every two years since 1982, Bob Goldman has conducted an informal questionnaire among Olympic-level U.S. athletes, asking: If you were offered an illegal substance that guaranteed you would win and not be caught, would you take it? In 1995, the answer from 195 of 198 athletes was yes. Asked if they would take a banned substance that would enable them to win every competition for five years but then kill them, more than half the athletes said yes. &quot;With the money athletes can make now, the kids don't really care about taking drugs,&quot; says Goldman. </li></ul><ul><li>A personal reflection on The use of Drugs in Track and field </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>