ASSISGNMENTS A SECTION-AQ1 Why do you think the history and culture of ABC has helped to face challenge?Ans : Because ABC industry is considered to have its own life ,ABC airlines was invented rises andprovides various products and services to the people . its mature and provides better product services .The ABC airlines its goals are known .This is the stage where the industry initialized its planned actionsand adjust to the different players of the envieronment . rapid growth industry mature stages were theproduct services known to the people. Last stage is the shakeout stage wherein the industry experiencesmore problems and the stability and lonenity of the industry questioned .this stage is useful for the ABCairlines to comeout with the the problem whenever its arived.Q2 why did ABC airlines take extra emphasis on taking care of the employees and building relationship?Ans: because the September 11 attack which gives a severe blow to the airline industry. SECTION BQ1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ? WHY ITS IMPORTANT?ANS: ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE : Institutional arrangments and mechanism for mobilizinghuman,physical,financial and information resources at all the systems is called as structure of anorganization Culture is made up of the values belives, underlying assumptions, attitudes and behaviour thatresults when group arrives at a set of generally unspoken and unwrittenAn organization structure establishes just that in an organization - a structure....without which therewould be no chain of command for priorities to be established...nor would there be an escalationstructure when issues that need resolution arise. The structure also defines what different areas and
people in the organization do/responsible for. An organization is a collection of various roles that havebeen identified and defined and staffed so as to achieve the overall objectives of the organization. Thestructure is this preestablished definition.THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTUREThe importance of an organizational structure involves assisting business owners, CEOs, andentrepreneurs to conceptualize, visualize, and construct a hierarchical system to be implementedinto their organization. For example, the building blocks of an organizational structure include: achain of command, span of control, departmentalization, distribution of authority, andorganization heightCHAIN OF COMMAND An organizational structure involves a chain of command which determines and defines: job positions, who makes the decisions, and whos accountable for various duties.SPAN OF CONTROL Span of control determines and quantifies the actual amount of employees a manager supervises.DEPARTMENTALIATION Departments within an organization structure are sections of the structure divided into functional divisions (such as the Sales Department) relevant to specific tasks. Determining what activities, tasks, and talents are to be grouped to best achieve an originations objective is called the departmentalization process.DISTRIBUTION AUTHORITY Distribution of authority determines if decision-making authority is concentrated among a few high-level figures commonly seen in bureaucratic organizations or is the authority shared and distributed throughout a variety of departments working closet to the their corresponding tasks.ORGANIZATION HEIGHT Organization height defines how many departments, divisions, and layers there are between the highest levels and the lowest levels of an organization.Q2 what is the impact of culture on an organization?
Ans: 1> attitude 2>behavior 3>systems and processesAttitude: What most people choose to believe or say about their work and environment.Behavior: How people choose to act interpersonally and whether they choose to consistently deliver thedesired results.Systems and Processes: The effectiveness and ease of using the systems and processes people interactwith on a daily basis.The culture of an organization is the sum total of the common attitudes and beliefs held by peoplebased on their experiences. These experiences then influence the behavior and willingness of everyoneto work with or against the systems and processes. Whether you recognize it or not, every organizationhas a culture. With effort, that culture can become the one you design or it can evolve based onpeople’s positive or negative experiences.When organizations consider culture change most of them do a fairly good job planning for the threeimpacts on culture described above. They start by defining the mission and values – and how peopleshould talk about the organization (attitude). They will often come with a new set of behaviors(competencies) and put together a lengthy list of processes to work on to make them more effective orreduce waste. Planning the change is relatively easy. All too often though, efforts to change a cultureoften don’t last or take hold and this keeps the skepticism high about future change efforts.The one key factor that determines whether culture change will happen is leadership. Leadershipattitudes, behaviors and practices are often discussed as areas for improvement while planning culturechange. But once plans are ready for implementation, being able to attain real leadership improvementseems to be the single biggest challenge, as leaders have the biggest impact on the final outcome ofculture change.Q3 draw kolb’s Cycle of Learning and briefly describe the four learning styles.Ans: DAVID KOLB;S LEARNING THEORY MODEL: Kolb’s learning theory sets four distinct learning styles, which are based on a four –stage learningcyle.(which might also be interpreted as a ‘training cycle’Kolbs experiental learning style theory is typically represented by a four stage learning cycle inwhich the learner touches all the bases:1. Concrete Experience - (a new experience of situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation ofexisting experience)
2. Reflective Observation (of the new experience. Of particular importance are anyinconsistencies between experience and understanding)3. Abstract Conceptualisation (Reflection gives rise to a new idea, or a modification of anexisting abstract concept)4. Active Experimentation (the learner applies them to the world around them to see whatresults)Kolb Experiental Learning StylesKolbs learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles, which are based on a four-stagelearning cycle.Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style.Various factors influence a persons preferred style. For example, social environment,educational experiences, or the basic cognitive structure of the individual.Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is actually theproduct of two pairs of variables, or two separate choices that we make, which Kolb presentedas lines of axis, each with conflicting modes at either end: Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) ----V---- Abstract Conceptualization - AC (thinking) Active Experimentation - AE (doing)--- V---- Reflective Observation - RO (watching) A typical presentation of Kolbs two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it). Kolb believed that we cannot perform bothvariables on a single axis at the same time (e.g. think and feel).Our learning style is a product of these two choice decisions.Its often easier to see the construction of Kolbs learning styles in terms of a two-by-two matrix.Each learning style represents a combination of two preferred styles. The diagram also highlights
Kolbs terminology for the four learning styles; diverging, assimilating, and converging,accommodating:Doing (Active Experimentation - AE) Watching (Reflective Observation - RO) Feeling (ConcreteExperience - CE) Accommodating (CE/AE) Diverging (CE/RO) Thinking (Abstract Conceptualization - AC)Converging (AC/AE) Assimilating (AC/RO)Kolb Learning Styles DefinitionsKnowing a persons (and your own) learning style enables learning to be orientated according tothe preferred method. That said, everyone responds to and needs the stimulus of all types oflearning styles to one extent or another - its a matter of using emphasis that fits best with thegiven situation and a persons learning style preferences.Here are brief descriptions of the four Kolb learning styles:Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO)These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive.They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solveproblems.They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints.
Kolb called this style Diverging because these people perform better in situations that requireideas-generation, for example, brainstorming. People with a Diverging learning style have broadcultural interests and like to gather information. They are interested in people, tend to beimaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. People with the Diverging styleprefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback.Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO)The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts aremore important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practicalopportunity. They excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organising it a clearlogical format. People with an Assimilating learning style are less focused on people and moreinterested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to logicallysound theories than approaches based on practical value.These learning style people is important for effectiveness in information and science careers. Informal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analyticalmodels, and having time to think things through.Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE)People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to findsolutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people andinterpersonal aspects. People with a Converging learning style are best at finding practical usesfor ideas and theories. They can solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions toquestions and problems.People with a Converging learning style are more attracted to technical tasks and problems thansocial or interpersonal issues. A Converging learning style enables specialist and technologyabilities. People with a Converging style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and towork with practical applications.Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE)The Accommodating learning style is hands-on, and relies on intuition rather than logic. Thesepeople use other peoples analysis, and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach. They areattracted to new challenges and experiences, and to carrying out plans. They commonly act ongut instinct rather than logical analysis. People with an Accommodating learning style will tendto rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis. This learning style isprevalent.Q4 STATE THE TWO PURPOSES OF LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY
ANS: LEARNING STYLE USEFUL IN IMPROVING STUDENTS LEARNINGInformation about style can help faculty become more sensitive to the differences students bringto the classroom. It can also serve as a guide in designing learning experiences that match ormismatch students styles, depending on the teachers purpose. Matching is particularlyappropriate in working with poorly prepared students and with new college students, as the mostattrition occurs in those situations. Some studies show that identifying a students style and thenproviding instruction consistent with that style contribute to more effective learning.In other instances, some mismatching may be appropriate so that students experiences help themto learn in new ways and to bring into play ways of thinking and aspects of the self notpreviously developed. Any mismatching, however, should be done with sensitivity andconsideration for students, because the experience of discontinuity can be very threatening,particularly when students are weak in these areas. Knowledge of learning style can thus helpfaculty design experiences appropriate for students in terms of matching or mismatching andenable them to do so thoughtfully and systematically.OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOMInformation about learning style is extremely helpful in student affairs. In counseling, forexample, style may suggest which approaches to counseling to use for particular students.Further, when students have problems in courses, it can guide counselors efforts at intervention.In orientation, it can help students understand their own preferences and strengths in learning andbe a stimulus for developing new ways of learning.Learning style is useful in the work setting as well. It enables administrative leaders to be moreinsightful about using staff members in ways that call on their greatest strengths--a particularlyimportant feature in the future as colleges and universities focus more on individuals ability toperform tasks than on where they are in the organizational hierarchy. At the same time, the useof information about learning styles reminds us that an institution that is seriously interested inthe development of students as a purpose needs to embrace such a concept for faculty andadministrators as well.ADDITIONAL RESEARCH NEEDEDThe most pressing need is to learn more about the learning styles of minority students--aparticularly important subject in the face of participation and graduation rates that indicate highereducation is not serving black students well. Changing demographics portend an even morediverse student body in the future, with increasing numbers of Hispanics and other ethnic groups.Instruments that take cultural differences into account need to be developed.Second, research is needed to clarify how much difference it makes if teaching methods areincongruent with a students style. Studies that speak to the role and potency of style, seen inconjunction with other important variables, would help teachers significantly. The developmentof better instrumentation to identify styles should be a key part of such research.
Third, research is needed to illuminate the connections and interaction between style,developmental stage, disciplinary perspectives, and epistemology. A better understanding of thelink between them would provide a helpful framework for examining teaching methodologies,the role of learning in individual development, and the use of the disciplines to promote morecomplex and integrative thinkingSTEPS TO PROMOTE MORE EFFECTIVE LEARNING1. Conduct professional development activities on the use of learning style in improvingteaching and student development functions.Professional development should go beyond traditional practices like sabbaticals and travel toprofessional meetings, as important as they are. Workshops, the use of minigrants forinstructional improvement projects, seminars, and other functions can be very useful in helpingthe participants understand the importance of style.2. Promote the concept of classroom research and make data about learning style anintegral part of it.Classroom research is an important strategy in achieving a greater balance in the way manyinstitutions prize research and undervalue teaching, and the definition of research should bebroadened to include not only research in the specialized disciplines but also in teaching-learningprocesses related to teaching in the disciplines (Cross 1987). Information about style, whenlinked with other data about students, holds great promise for helping faculty members toimprove their teaching. The collection and use of such data, done formally or informally, canalso contribute to a continuing dialogue among faculty and administrators as they learn fromeach other about teaching and learning.3. Establish curricular experiences that focus on helping students learn how to learn.Orientation activities or a credit course called "An Introduction to College" can be geared towardhelping students gain a greater understanding of how learning occurs and their responsibility inthe process. Inventories of learning style and other processes can be used to help make studentsaware of their own preferences and strengths. Attention should also be given to helping themdevelop strategies for succeeding in courses taught in ways that are incongruent with theirprimary learning abilities.4. In hiring new faculty members, take into account candidates understanding of teaching-learning practices that recognize individual differences, including learning style.In the next 10 to 20 years, colleges and universities will hire thousands of new faculty members.In the past, the Ph.D., with its emphasis on specialized study in the discipline and itspredominant orientation to research, was taken as the necessary credential for teaching, buttoday, with an increasingly diverse student body and research that clearly identifies the elementsof effective college teaching (Cross 1987), administrators are coming to a greater realization thatfaculty preparation should include other areas of knowledge as well. Research in student
development, learning theory, and ways to use the creative tension between content and processare all important prerequisites for effective teaching. Administrators have the opportunity tomake a major contribution to improved learning by hiring faculty who have such preparation.