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Introduction To HBase

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An introduction to HBase, its components and brief overview of its architecture.

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Introduction To HBase

  1. 1. Introduction to HBase Anil Gupta @bigdatanoob
  2. 2. What is NoSql? RDBMS vs NoSql HBase HBase Components Architecture HBase Cluster HBase Data Model Key -> Value Region Outline
  3. 3. NoSQL is acronym for Not Only SQL. These databases are non-relational. This term was coined in 1998. They do not use SQL as their primary language. NoSQL is not a replacement of Relational Database. NoSQL is designed for distributed data stores NoSQL was designed to store semi-structured and sparse data
  4. 4. NoSQL RDBMS Hardware Farm of Commodity(upto several thousand) 1-3 High End or Proprietary(costly) Data Type Semi-structured and Sparse Structured and dense Data Size PetaBytes(1015) TeraBytes(1012 bytes) Auto-Sharding Yes No Flexible Schema Yes No Referential Integrity No Yes Support for Joins No Yes Support for Aggregations Basic Advance
  5. 5. HBase is an open-source, distributed, versioned, key-value database modeled after Google's Bigtable. is optional for HBase has real-time read/writes(in milliseconds) HBase is highly fault tolerant(HA) and scalable + Random Read/Write access= + Apache Zookeeper
  6. 6. Selling Points of HBase Highly Scalable Auto-sharding Strongly Consistent Out of the box support for Historical Data Very high read throughput Readily compatible with Hadoop Highly Fault-tolerant(HA)
  7. 7. HBase Components 1. HBase Master(HMaster): HMaster is the Master Server.  HMaster is responsible for monitoring all RegionServers  Performs load balancing a.k.a sharding  Assigns regions to RegionServers  All the metadata changes go through Master  Periodically checks and cleans up the .META. table  Multiple HMaster can run in cluster but only one HMaster will be active at any time.
  8. 8. HBase Components(cont.) 2. RegionServer(HRegionServer): HRegionServer is the implementation of the worker module.  Runs as Java Service on worker nodes.  Machine running a RegionServer is considered a worker node.  Serves get/put/scan requests  Responsible for splitting and compacting regions  Runs on DataNode  Multiple RegionServers run in a cluster
  9. 9. Zookeeper in HBase ZooKeeper: It allows distributed processes to coordinate with each other through a shared hierarchical name space. It is distributed and highly reliable service. In HBase it is responsible for following:  Provide availability status of RegionServers  To ensure single active HMaster in the cluster  Provide location of “-ROOT-” table  Selection of new HMaster in case of failure of an active HMaster
  10. 10. HBase Architecture
  11. 11. HBase Cluster Worker Node Worker Node Worker Node DataNodeDataNode TaskTracker HRegionServe r DataNode TaskTracker HRegionServe r Worker Node DataNode Worker Node DataNode RegionServer Worker Node DataNode Worker Node DataNode Worker Node DataNode Worker Node DataNode Name Node HMaster Zoo keeper HMaster RegionServer RegionServer RegionServerRegionServer RegionServerRegionServer Name Node
  12. 12. Column Family and Column Qualifier Column Family: Columns Qualifiers in HBase are grouped into column families. The colon character (:) delimits the column qualifier family from the column family. Combination of <Column Family>: <Column Qualifier> is equivalent to a Column name. Physically, all column qualifiers of a column family are stored together on the file system. • Column Qualifiers within a family are sorted lexicographically and stored together Example: txn:amt , Here “txn” is the Column Family and “amt” is the Column Qualifier.
  13. 13. HBase Data Model • Table maintains data in lexicographic order by RowKey. • Everything except table names are stored as byte array • Only column families are defined at the creation time of table  Each family can have any number of columns(to a maximum of few millions)  Each row can have different columns in a column family  Each column consists of any number of versions  Columns only exist when inserted because HBase does not have NULL values
  14. 14. (RowKey, Column Family:Column Qualifier, Timestamp) is a “Key” in HBase. “Value” is stored corresponding to a “Key” Timestamp is used to support storing of Historical Data Table is always indexed on RowKey Key -> Value in HBase
  15. 15. Region Tables in HBase are divided into multiple Regions. 1 Region = 1 Partition of Table Regions are hosted by RegionServers 1 RegionServer can host 100’s of Regions RegionServer can host Regions from multiple tables. After a major compaction, every region has 1 HFile for each column family.
  16. 16. Random Facts About HBase Data in HBase is stored in HFile Format Values are stored as Byte Array in HFiles HLog is the file format used for storing “Write Ahead Logging” in HBase.
  17. 17. References http://hbase.apache.org/ https://hadoop.apache.org/ http://www.larsgeorge.com/2009/10/hbase- architecture-101-storage.html
  18. 18. Questions?

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