Culinary Journey


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Culinary Journey
Mapping the historical reservoir of Vietnamese, Malaysian and Indonesian Cuisines

Published in: Travel, Technology, Spiritual

Culinary Journey

  1. 1. Culinary Journey Mapping the historical reservoir ofVietnamese, Malaysian and Indonesian Cuisines November 2011 “Crafting Winning Strategy 1 Based on Consumer Insight”
  2. 2. Flow of the Presentation Section 1 :  The Starting Point  Objective of the Presentation Section 2 : Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia  Country Overview  Tracing the historical reservoir  Tracing historical reservoir of the cuisine today & and the sensorial Section 3: Marketing Implications
  3. 3. Section 1 3
  4. 4. The Starting Point : Food & Culture • Apart from satisfying biological needs, food is also an expression of culture/ historical reservoir i.e. • An essential symbolic function of food is cultural identity. Beyond self-identification, incorporation of food can signify collective association. • What one eats defines who one is, culturally speaking, and, conversely, who one is not. In the Middle East, for example, a person who eats pork is probably Roman Catholic or Orthodox Christian, not Jewish or Muslim. • While most people believe that consumers make consumption choices based on personal preferences Bourdieu (1984) showed that consumer preferences are highly predictable once their economic status & cultural capital is known. 4
  5. 5. Objective of this Presentation Based on the indelible link between Food & Culture : • Help provide a “birds eye perspective” of the historical reservoir of local Vietnamese, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisine. • Map implications for marketers 5
  6. 6. Research Approach : Secondary Data & IDI’s • Discussions with NUS Post Scholars: Dr. Nir Avieli • Secondary Research. • Food & Culture – Kittler/Sucher • Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999 • Goody, Jack. Cooking, Cuisine, and Class: A Study in Comparative Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982. • Ling, Kong Foong. The Food of Asia. Singapore: Periplus, 1998 • Robson, J. R. K., ed. Food, Ecology, and Culture: Readings in the Anthropology of Dietary Practices. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1980. • Owen, Sri. Indonesian Regional Food and Cookery. London and New York: Doubleday, 1994. • Owen, Sri. The Rice Book: The Definitive Book on the Magic of Rice Cookery. London: Transworld, 1993. • Rice Talks: A study of food and culture in Vietnam by Dr.Nir Avieli, 2003 6
  7. 7. The Research Framework Used: Role of food within a culture is a function of: (1) the frequency of food consumption, as described through the core and complementary foods model; (2) the ways in which a culture traditionally prepares and seasons its foods, as examined by flavor principles; (3) the daily, weekly, and yearly use of food, as found in meal patterns and meal cycles; (4) changes in food functions that emerge during structural growth in a culture. Kittler P G , Sucher K P Diabetes Spectr 2004;17:200-204
  8. 8. Section 3a- Vietnam 9
  9. 9. Overview of Vietnam Vietnam Population: Over 83 million - 85% ethnic Vietnamese, 3% ethnic Chinese, members of 55 ethno-linguistic groups. Languages: Vietnamese, French, Chinese, English and local dialects. Religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Muslim and Christian minoritiesFood forms a critical part of fabric of Vietnamese life In fact a closer look reveals that theshape of country resembles two rice baskets on a rice pole. Further exemplified by theirgreeting “Eat tet”i.e. “Have you eaten”? Many proverbs anchored on Food -Father eatssalty food, the children will be thirsty." = Bad actions will later bring bad luck/consequencesto descendants, . Eating lying down= A rather polite folksy way of saying having sex. 10
  10. 10. Tracing the Historical Reservoir of Vietnam Time Line 300BC : •111BC-938 CE- •10-15 century •13th century CE- •Early 16th century – Indian Mongol Invasion Portuguese and other•Dong Son •Chinese Buddhistculture Domination influenced •1292 CE – Marco European traders and• Wet rice with occasional Champas in Polo visits 13th Missionariesfarming, resistance from Central and century-Japanese •1858- 1954- Frenchdomestication the Viets South Vietnam and Chinese trade Invasion followed byof waterbuffalo, bronze begins and formation of Frenchcasting flourishes Indochina 11
  11. 11. Historical Reservoir drawn from …. Indian Stemming from Chinese Domination Hindu-Buddhist Champas French Rest of Asia Stemming from :Cambodia / Malay colonialism The Viets have through the decades sought to establish their unique & separate identity; specially in context of the Chinese. The Vietnamese value system is based on four closely interelated tenets: allegiance to the family, yearning for a good name, love of learning, and respect for other people. Vietnameses daily behaviors and perceptions are influenced from the synthesis of concepts which may be followed from numerous religions, specially Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism 12
  12. 12. Vietnamese Cuisine 13
  13. 13. The Story of the Rice Cake: “Purity & Most Basic Ingredients” “Two kinds of cakes: one was round and the other was square in shape. The round cake was made with glutinous rice dough and was called "banh day" by Tiet-Lieu. He named the square shaped cake "banh chung" which he made with rice, green beans wrapped in leaves. Rice is the most precious food item in the land and yet also the most abundant. I have created dishes that symbolize the harmony between the earth and heaven so that all of our people can enjoy.” 14
  14. 14. Vietnam : Mapping The Core and Complementary FoodsModel Seasonings Ingredients  Herbs : Basil, Coriander,  Rice and Noodles  Mint, lemongrass, Lime leaves, dill, spring  Wheat, Mung beans onions, Spearmint,  Vegetables, Beef,  Vietnamese Mint Chicken, Duck, Pork,  Sauces : Fish sauce, Soy sauce,  Fish and shrimp, Tofu  Shrimp paste, Hot chilly sauce  Black Pepper, Chilly Snacks/Sweets/ Feasts Fruits, Tapioca Flour, Foods eaten sporadically, by Mung Bean paste, individual preference, not a sugar, cultural habit Sesame seeds, Coconut milk Kittler P G , Sucher K P 2004;17:200-204 Snacks are often purchased from street vendors. Popular handheld snacks include spring rolls or pork meatballs on a stick. These foods and pho (beef noodle soup) are the equivalent of fast food in Vietnamese cities. Also common between meals are sweet fruits and ice cream, introduced during the Vietnam War era (1960s and 1970s). Another "imported" snack food is a baguette with pâté, a holdover from the years when Vietnam was a colony of France.
  15. 15. Dynamics of a meal •Meals are taken communally; using bowls, chopsticks and ceramic spoons, and is accompanied by an array of sauces, flavorings, dips, salads. •A meal is a complete entity with many dishes –there is no concept of ‘courses’ apart from ‘soup’ . •Eating out in Vietnam is far more common than in Western countries – usually, only the main evening meal is cooked at home. Breakfast is a light meal, but is considered important . Street breakfast in towns and cities of the north is mostly a variation of ‘pho’. Lunch is usually taken at a ‘com bui’.There is no tradition of ‘desserts’ in Vietnam. 17
  16. 16. Tet – The Feast  Tet marks the beginning of a new year on the lunar calendar, and the beginning of Spring. Food plays a major role in the Tet celebration. Tet is a time of excess, one does not enjoy Tet, one "eats" Tet.  3 or 5 duck eggs is offered to ancestors who have returned to their homes.  Sticky rice and salt are also offered in the streets to any hungry ghosts who might be wandering in the neighbourhood. 18
  17. 17. Key Influences on Vietnamese Food Rest of Asia Indian French Chinese :Cambodia / Via Stemming from Thailand Indianised Khmers colonialism Chopsticks, wok, From Cambodia, The Indianised Introduced the stir frying, Vietnamese kingdom of Baguette and pâté, steaming, braising adopted Bo Hoc Champa gave the this with local and clay pot (Prahok), a central Vietnamese curry. stuffing became stewing. Dishes like ingredient of a rice Wonton, dumpling, noodle soup called Ca ri is a popular BanhMi. Introduced Ka tieu, wheat bun Nuoc leo. dish in central Onions, Potatoes, noodles, Popiah, From the Thais, and South Tarragon, youtiao, Baozi, the Vietnamese Vietnam. asparagus, Coffee Yangzhou Fried rice adopted Xoi with cream, milk, etc . Xoai(Mango sticky butter, custards, Adaptations- The rice) and Lau and cakes Chinese soy sauce thai(Hotpot), very has been replaced popular in Saigon. Yin & Yang has a significant influence on by Nuoc mam or Vietnamese Food fish sauce and Nuoc Cham 19
  18. 18. Incorporation of The Principal of Yin & YangThe principle of yin and yang as represented in Taoism by the Taijituinfluences the Vietnamese food habits significantly. Influence :Principal of Yin and Yang, seek to match dishes withseasonal/climatic conditions and current physical state of thediners. Duck meat is considered "cool" so is served in summer, which is hot, and with ginger fish sauce, which is "warm." On the other hand, chicken, which is "warm," and pork, which is "hot," are used in cold winters. Seafood ranging from "cool" to "cold" is suitable to use with ginger ("warm"). Spicy, which is extremely yang, must be harmonized by sour, which is extremely yin. Balut- "Hột vịt lộn," meaning “Upside-down egg" ("cold"), must be combined with Vietnamese mint "Rau răm" ("hot"). Cold and flu patients must drink ginger water ("hot"). 20
  19. 19. Sensorial – Vast Regional Diversity North Central South • Less Spicy, Fewer •Spicier than North •More flavorsome and varied spices/herbs. •Multiple dishes around Rice •Hot chilies • More MSG owing to a history of royal • Black pepper for hotness tradition • Coconut milk • Preference for beef •Glutinous rice •Tropical fruits •Vegetarian Buddhist • raw vegetables tradition, so many • herbs vegetarian dishesVietnamese food is fresh and light. Appeals to senses via Five spices, Five types of nutrients, Five colors - attractive to the eye, crispy and crunchy, spices on the tongue, aromatic herbs and touch. Ideal meal needs to have a balance between spicy (metal), sour (wood), bitter (fire), salty (water) and sweet (earth) 21
  20. 20. Thus in Sum  Purity, freshness, balance of Yin & Yang key to Vietnamese cuisine.  Rice , Fish and Vegetables form the core of the Vietnamese meals. The largest influence on Vietnamese has been that of Chinese (largely on the cooking styles, core and complementary food) & the French (largely on the peripheral and secondary food; exception Banhmi)  Food Sensorials:  Well rounded taste profile,  Aromatic owing to herbs and vegetables  Mouth Feel: Light , fresh and crunchy  Colors : Attractive  Flavor: Fish Soy Sauce  Traditional to Adapted Food:  Chinese :Fish Sauce  French : BanhMi 22
  21. 21. Section 2b- Indonesia 23
  22. 22. Overview of Indonesia Indonesian culture has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Owing to its vantage position on along ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East has resulted in a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. 24
  23. 23. Historical Reservoir drawn from …. Chinese Arab Stemming from Stemming from Indian trade and Stemming from trade trade and scholars migration Portuguese Dutch Spanish Stemming from Traders colonialism Indian merchants brought Hindu Buddhist religions whereas Chinese traders and immigrants contributed Confucianism and the Arab Traders Islam. These contrasting influences in turn resulted in the archipelago exhibiting high level of heterogeneity. Therefore an island like Bali remains predominantly Hindu and the rest of the world’s most populous Islamic nation continues to respect its earlier animist, Hindu and Buddhist traditions. 25
  24. 24. Impact on Indonesian Cuisine 26
  25. 25. Rice Integral to Life and Well Being.. Dewi Sri is believed to have dominion over the underworld and the Moon. Thus, Dewi Sri encompasses the whole spectrum of the Mother Goddess- having dominion over birth and Life: she controls rice: the staple food of Indonesians; hence life and wealth or prosperity; most especially rice surpluses for the wealth of kingdoms in Java; and their inverse: poverty, famine, hunger, disease (to a certain extent) and Death. She is often associated with the rice paddy snake . 27
  26. 26. The Dynamics of Home Eaten Meal• Indonesian tables generally bear not only serving platters with dishes to be shared and individual plates or bowls but also little satellite dishes for dipping sauces, spices, chopped herbs, and relishes like shrimp paste and fish sauce. Each diner has the right and freedom to fine-tune the dish to his or her individual taste by dipping, pouring, mixing, and sprinkling• Close look at different aspects of a meal : • Preparation – Rural Areas typically done by the lady of the house – Urban- Lady of the house & domestic help – Food could be freshly cooked or in the morning • Presentation – Rice coupled with a couple of meat/seafood and/or vegetables the norm. All the dishes are served at the same time. – Crunchies like Keropak • Consumption – Family usually eats together. 28
  27. 27. Food & Social Status in IndonesiaEconomically more affluent Difference lies in Variety and richness of number of dishes/ food on table key desserts. Rice & indicator of affluence meats remain commonEconomicallyless affluent Home Celebration/ Prepared Selamantan 29
  28. 28. Indonesia: Mapping The Core and Complementary Foods Model Seasonings Ingredients  Fresh: Red shallots, galangal,  Rice Turmeric. Garlic, spring onions,  Ambon – Sago ginger, lemon grass, Kaffir lime,  Irian Jaya-Sweet Pandan, Chinese celery Potato, Cassava, Corn  Dried: Coriander seeds, cardamom,  Seafood, Chicken, cinnamon, cumin and fennel, chilies beef,  Tamarind water, Lime juice and  Vegetables Vinegar  Terasi -fermented shrimp paste Snacks/Sweets/ Foods eaten Feasts sporadically, by Fruits, Tapioca Flour, individual Mung bean paste, preference, not a Palm Sugar,Cane cultural habit sugar Sesame seeds, coconut milkKittler P G , Sucher K P 2004;17:200-204
  29. 29. Key Influences on Indonesian Food Chinese Arab Indian Portuguese/Sp Dutch Stemming from trade and migration Stemming from trade Stemming from trade anish Traders Colonies Soybean, noodles Arab traders and Indian merchants Portuguese Dutch planted and stir-frying. scholars brought curries brought chili tomatoes, cabbage, Vegetables like introduced kebabs and dried spices peppers from the cauliflower, carrots, Oriental radish, and Arabian spices like cardamom, Americas radish, green beans Chinese cabbage, The Arab traders cumin and caraway. lettuce and coffee horse tamarind, bought the Vegetables Spanish introduced bean sprouts and concept of halal cucumbers, corn and chili Also contributed broad leaved meat. eggplants and peppers pastry, cakes, mustard. onions cookies , bread, Soybean paste cheese & steaks (tauco) and tahu (Tofu). The tempeh The Dutch invented (Soybean cake Kebabs became Curry, Stews the Rijstaffel based with whole on the beans) is an Satay Indonesian Selamantan- 32 adaptation, celebration meal Kecap Manis
  30. 30. Sensorial – Vast Regional Diversity Sumatra Java Very high use of spices and Overall taste profile aromatic herbs skewed towards sweet Every dish seems to have a few spoons of Kecap Minangkabau cuisine from Manis(sweet Soy sauce). West Sumatra is known for its fiery-hot, spicy Padang cuisine. They use hot chilies Use of aromatic herbs, with abandon! sourness and spice moderate Diversity in sensorial key example: the tribes in Borneo mostly retain their indigenous foods. Further islands across the archipelago exhibit island specific preferences. In a country with such diverse food traditions, the food sensorials can be broadly described as spicy, aromatic and rich. 33
  31. 31. Thus in Sum Indonesian cuisine as it exists today is a potpourri of different cuisines. However what is unique to Indonesia is the diversity in flavors that are seen across the country. Rice , poultry, mutton & seafood and vegetables form the core of the Indonesian meals. The largest influence has been that of Chinese , Arab and Indians (largely on the cooking styles, core and complementary food). Dutch influence limited to ingredients and secondary/ peripheral foods. Food Sensorials:  Overall taste profile- spicy, aromatic & rich Key Adaptations :  Chinese :Tempeh, Kecap Manis  Arabs : Satay, Halal  Indians: Spices & “biryani adaptations” 35
  32. 32. Section 3c- Malaysia 36
  33. 33. Overview of Malaysia Owing to its unique vantage position fusion characterizes all facets of Malaysian culture. A unified Malaysian culture is however something only emerging in the country. The important social distinction in the emergent national culture is between Malay and non-Malay, represented by : the Malay elite that dominates the countrys politics, and the largely Chinese middle class. 37
  34. 34. Historical Reservoir drawn from …. Thai/ Chinese Indonesian Indian Stemming from Stemming from trade and Stemming from trade and migration Geographical migration proximity Arab Europeans Stemming from Stemming from trade colonialism Kinship a key facet of Malaysian Culture evidenced by “Kampong spirit.” Integral part even today of village life; has however seen erosion in recent times in urban centers . Socialization with “family & community” key. Family integral to simple & good life. Legends abound in adventure and sagas about fairies, heroes, magic curses and heavenly celestial beings. 38
  35. 35. Malaysian Cuisine 39
  36. 36. Meal Dynamics.. No concept of courses, food is eaten /served simultaneously.  Preparation: Typically done by mother; often ladies from two generation i.e. grandmother/ mother  Presentation: Rice coupled with a couple of meat/seafood and/or vegetables the norm. Condiments used include a small crunchy salad, pickled vegetables & sambal condiment  Consumption: Family usually eats together. Preference for freshly cooked meals high  Urban centers there is a growing preference for fast food; in rural areas, local cuisine still preferred.  With people increasingly traveling long distances to work coupled with women increasingly joining the workforce the hawker food is being increasingly seen as a substitute for a home cooked meal. Packaged & supermarket are also seen as viable alternatives 40
  37. 37. Food & Social Status:Economically more affluent Variety on table key Variety on table key indicator of affluence indicator of affluence Difference lies in number Rice & meats remain of meat & vegetable & common deserts served.Economicallyless affluent Home Celebration Prepared Fasting & Feasting 41
  38. 38. Malaysia: Mapping The Core and Complementary Foods Model Seasonings Core Ingredients Herbs: Lemongrass, shallots, ginger, Rice and Noodles Chilies, garlic, galangal, Turmeric, Kaffir Breads Lime, Laksa, Pandan leaves Seafood- Fish, shrimps & Spices: Fennel, Cumin, Coriander, cuttlefish, cardamom, cloves, Star anise, Mustard, Meat: chicken, mutton, cinnamon, fenugreek, Nutmeg, beef Sambal and Sambal belacan Vegetables  Tamarind, Mango, Asam, Carambola, Lemon and coconut Snacks/Sweets/ Foods eaten  Feasts sporadically, by  Cakes and individual preference, desserts made of not a cultural habit Coconut milk, palm sugar, glutinous rice etc.Kittler P G , Sucher K P 2004;17:200-204
  39. 39. Isolating Key Influences on Malaysian Food Chinese Thai/Indonesia Indian Arab Europeans Stemming from Stemming from Stemming from trade Stemming from Stemming from trade trade and migration Geographical proximity and migration colonialism •Noodles •Northern •Cooking •The Arab •Jellies and •Tofu Malaysian food techniques of • Soups traders bought colorants to •Nyonya Food has a Thai flavor frying spices in the concept of deserts. or Straits due to geography oil . Vegetables halal meat. Chinese food – and cultural like okra, purple Even today •Grilling as a resulted owing interaction eggplants, to marriages import of meats cooking between •Herbs/flavours brown mustard, is minimal. technique Chinese •Negri Sembilan, fenugreek and •Also pork is not immigrants once dominated curry leaves. consumed by and locals and by Minangkabaus •Breads/ Rotis is a blend of Malay Muslims. Chinese and enjoys a Sumatra •Curry local flavors flavor of coconut •Spice Mixtures •Kebabs became milk, beef and •Mee Goreng Satay. bird eye chilies and Nasi kandar 44
  40. 40. Thus Sensorials… Chinese Thai Europeans Stemming from Stemming from Indian Arab Stemming from Geographical Stemming from trade Stemming from trade trade and migration colonialism proximity Overall profile Overall profile Overall profile Overall profile Overall profile bland. aromatic but spicy. bland and bland. High reliance taste profile is aromatic. on “essence” of well balanced Use of spices Owing to use meat & despite high very high. Herbs of spices high vegetables. use of chilies & average. Cooking but is tempered Use of herbs herbs. Techniques- with use of average. Spices A function of Frying cream & cheese usage lower coconut base Overall profile aromatic and very spicy/tangy. Use of spices and herbs very high 45
  41. 41. Thus in Sum Process of “acculturation or “Traditional to adopted foods’ is key to Malaysian cuisine. “Fusion a hallmark“ across all spheres of its culture including food . Rice , poultry, mutton & seafood and vegetables form the core of the Malaysian meals. The largest influence has been that of Chinese , Thai and Indians (largely on the cooking styles, core and complementary food). Arab contribution limited to halal meat & satay- a key secondary food Food Sensorials:  Overall spicy taste profile,  Aromatic owing to herbs and vegetables  Mouth Feel: Fried , rich , spicy & tangy owing to coconut, spices & tamarind Key Adaptations :  Chinese :Nyonya Food  Arabs : Satay, Halal  Indians: Spices & “biryani adaptations” 46
  42. 42. Dairy Food Products- “Historical Reservoir” 47
  43. 43. History of Dairy… Traditionally a non-dairying region The history of dairy consumption in South East Asia is very short, but with an upward trend. 48
  44. 44. Introduction of Dairy … Malaysia & Indonesia : Colonial Trade brought early import of canned sweetened milk to Indonesia(1875), then Malaysia. This milk was ideal for long-distance trade as it keeps relatively well in the heat.  Adoption Triggers :  Imported for Europeans first, it spread to local elite, then throughout the population, as the small tin price decreased.  In addition, milk kitchens set up by the Dutch in towns and cities provided sweetened condensed milk for infants who didn’t get mother’s milk.  Around 1901, Nestlés sales network was marketing the product in Javanese villages.  Vietnam : Colonials brought the first dairy cows at the end of 18th century. US army commissioned Ice cream factories in 60’s and 70s. 49
  45. 45. Key Barriers …Historical Perspective Lactose Intolerance  In these regions, large proportions of the population are lactose intolerant.  With time decline being seen in lactose Genetics intolerance; function of increased exposure to milk? Easily available dairy substitutes Substitutes  Soy milk, coconut milk & Tofu seen as substitutes for dairy milk Negative Milk Perceptions and Poor Sensorials Product  Milk seen as a “body excretion” thus Perception & Sensorials mental barriers specially in Vietnam where cattle were used for draught power, manure and meat production but not for milk or dairy.  Milk and other dairy products associated with a smell 50
  46. 46. Current Picture: Fast growing markets, per capitaconsumption low.. Key Growth Triggers • Rising per capita income • Increasing association of milk and nutrition needed for a growing child • Product range beyond liquid milk; not a part of SEA diet • Government schemes for infant feeding, targeted school milk program • Western influence has resulted in higher use of cheese & butter  Fastest Growing Markets, Significantly lower versus Europe/ America and even per capita consumption in India.For example : In Vietnam per capita has grown from around 1 kg to 10 kg now
  47. 47. But…Within the Core & Complementary Foods Framework… Role of Milk & other dairy products however not integral to Core & Complementary foods  Seek to make dairy based offerings a part of core (substitute to tofu?) or complementary food (dairy based flavor enhancers?)  Market Development:  Strengthen benefits : Recent anthropological studies in China show milk perceived as integral for child ‘s growth and nutrition; seek to establish similar connect with other age segments not just children  Burst Myths if widespread address Kittler P G , Sucher K P Diabetes Spectr 2004;17:200-204 myths via support of trusted, credible authority support:  Government  Celebrity Endorsement
  48. 48. But…Within the Core & Complementary Foods Framework… Role of Milk & other dairy products however not integral to Core & Complementary foods  RTB Simplification : Given stage of development need to understand if there exists a case for simplification of RTB ?  Lactose Intolerance: On ground activation ideas to push products that can be consumed by a lactose intolerant consumers like yogurt etc.  Sampling : On ground sampling of products that help address “negative Kittler P G , Sucher K P Diabetes Spectr 2004;17:200-204 milk sensorials” eg. UHT milk by adding additives flavors like chocolate, banana, strawberry etc, powder milk etc..
  49. 49. Key Implications 54
  50. 50. Implication 1-(1/4) Key Observations :  Most Southeast Asian societies have been in contact with each other and with other societies, such as India and China,  Owing to colonialism, trade, influx of scholars & geographical proximity.  Significant Chinese populations across these markets – hence have strong Chinese dietary strains in their cuisines.  While this resulted in “acculturation” i.e. the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group ; the emergent codes specifically in context of food were not homogeneous  Thus within Southeast Asia food serves as an ethnic and national marker, distinguishing one group from another.  Heterogeneity stems from the way people think, work, survive, and express themselves; the economic surplus of the country of focus; social forces and the countries indigenous cultures. 55
  51. 51. Implications 1- (2/4) Acculturation is a fourfold model along two dimensions. Assimilation Integration High- Low High- High Indigenous Host Culture Absorption Marginalization Separation Low -High Donor Culture Retention 56
  52. 52. Implications 1- (3/4) Acculturation Model examples in the context of Food: Assimilation Integration Chinese Fried Rice & Indian Satay/ Laksa Biryani Adaptations Indigenous Host Culture Absorption Separation Chinese dialect groups & Marginalization the tribes in the rain forests of Borneo Retaining Donor Culture 57
  53. 53. Implications 1 - (4/4) Implication 1: Host or Donor Countries as Source of Ideas for Innovation ? Thus :For every country of focus the countries marketers should seek to identify food categories that are “assimilated, integrated or separationist” and for each of these then seek to understand consumers in both the donor & recipient countries as a possible source of innovation ideas. Areas that could be explored could be anchored in  Ingredients  Seasonings  Cooking Style & Medium In fact marketers could establish protocols using research techniques like Neuro Linguistic Processing to understand taste expectations from host & donor country & then develop options for each. 58
  54. 54. Implications 2 - (1/2)Observation 2 : Food within Southeast Asia serves as a ethnic & national marker, distinguishing one group from another. But despite the diversity, distinct commonalities exist. •All throughout the region, rice forms the core food, is the basis of cakes, desserts and other snacks. Rice as staff of life— food that shapes tastes and dietary patterns—certainly is a common denominator. •The flavor of coconut at all its stages is savored throughout the region. •Ingredients like coconut milk, lemon grass, galingale, ginger, Asian basil, mint, fish sauce, and shrimp paste are used throughout the region; although the proportion varies.Implication: Thus processed food manufacturers should consider exploring the “masscustomization” for offering core complimentary or secondary food solutions for the region i.e.Mass customization is the method of "effectively postponing the task of differentiating aproduct for a specific customer until the latest possible point in the supply network.” 59
  55. 55. An example of “Range of Offerings – To meet diverse needs”(2/2) Ultimate goal would be to offer solutions that individuals / local diners can customize to their tastes & preferences at the time of cooking/ on the table. This process of customizing to ones palate is core to the region and each diner has the right and freedom to fine tune his dish to his or her individual taste by dipping, pouring, mixing, and sprinkling sauce/condiments. 60
  56. 56. Implication 3 -(1/2)  Observation 3 : Influences on cuisine from the donor country are imbibed by the host country through the process of acculturation that involves:  Retaining : Retaining certain elements that are core & indigenous to its culture (stemming from social & economic reasons). Example : use of palm sugar in Malaysia for desserts, use of fish sauce in Vietnam etc.  Fusion : Customizing overseas influences with local preferences i.e. Kebabs to Satay or soy sauce with sugar etc.  Implication 3:  All successful innovation for multicultural communities needs to mimic this process. Thus for each category of interest at the outset, the flavor house must identify:  Are there any core preferences that are integral to that category for the locals. These core preferences can be identified via heuristics- i.e. thumb rules that consumers use in decision making. If an ingredient/ cooking style is integral for the product meeting a key thumb rule it should be defined as core.  Explore innovation ideas that look to impact the “non core elements of the dish” via looking at opportunities for fusion of local food preferences with overseas food trends. 61
  57. 57. Elucidating the Example (2/2) Lays a winning example of retaining the core but yet innovating to suite local palate preferences. 62
  58. 58. Key implications 4 (1/1)  Observation 4: In a lot of food categories “source of origin” stories are leveraged for credibility and authenticity to ensure relevance and differentiation in the mind of the consumer.  Implication 4 :  Source of origin stories can be further strengthened by looking at “origins” that trace the historical reservoir of the dish/ ingredient .  Specially for assimilated foods maybe pertinent to talk about the process of “fusion” of the food in the local cuisine . This maybe specifically relevant to markets like Indonesia & Malaysia where adaptation of cusines from other countries has been widespread. 63
  59. 59. Key implication 5 (1/2)  PACKAGING IMPLICATIONS  When it comes to food purity and tasty are generics that the overall positioning of the brand & the packaging must deliver upon.  However, if one were to suggest guidelines inputs based on an analysis of the historical reservoir some thoughts are:  Food is seen as having an indelible link with life, purity, freshness and simplicity key. This should be captured in packaging & positioning of the brands.  Yin & Yang balance of ingredients also remains an under-explored opportunity for food manufacturers  In Malaysia & Indonesia given the adaptation & fusion “authenticity of taste maybe should be accorded a higher weightage 64
  60. 60. Elucidating the Example (2/2) Indelible link of the food with life, purity, freshness and simplicity stands well captured in the packaging of the local players 65
  61. 61. Implication 6 Observation 5 : Migration Going Forward:  There are now 215m first-generation migrants around the world: that’s 3% of the world’s population. If they were a nation, it would be a little larger than Brazil. There are more Chinese people living outside China than there are French people in France. Some 22m Indians are scattered all over the globe. Small concentrations of ethnic and linguistic groups have always been found in surprising places—Lebanese in west Africa, Japanese in Brazil and Welsh in Patagonia, for instance—but they have been joined by newer ones, such as west Africans in southern China.- Source Economist Implication 5: This is currently & more so in the future likely to give rise to adopted foods. Thus food marketers need to track and monitor these migrants to decide their portfolios & innovation strategies in times to come 66
  62. 62. Thank you! 67