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File System Modules

File System Modules in Linux

1 of 37
© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in>
All Rights Reserved.
File System Modules
2© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in>
All Rights Reserved.
What to Expect?
W's of a File System
Three levels of File Systems
Design a File System
FS relation with a Hard Disk Partition
FS relation with /
Writing a FS module
3© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in>
All Rights Reserved.
Why we need a File System?
Preserve Data for Later
Access
Update
Discard
Tag Data for
Categorizing
Easy & Fast Lookup
Fast & Reliable Data Management by
Optimized Operations
4© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in>
All Rights Reserved.
What is a File System?
Three things at three levels
Hardware Space – The Physical Organization of Data
on the Storage Devices
Kernel Space – Drivers to decode & access the data
from the Physical Organization
User Space – All what you see from / - The User View
Which ever it be, it basically does
Organize our data
For easy access by tagging
For fast maintenance by optimizing
5© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in>
All Rights Reserved.
The Three File Systems
Hardware (Space) File System - Storer
Kernel (Space) File System - Decoder
User (Space) File System - Show-er
Storer: Partition for the File System (/dev/*)
Creating the File System (mkfs.*)
Decoder: Driver for the File System (*.ko)
Show-er: Root File System (/xyz)
Connector of the 3: mount
Let's try an example
6© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in>
All Rights Reserved.
Recall

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File System Modules

  • 1. © 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Modules
  • 2. 2© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. What to Expect? W's of a File System Three levels of File Systems Design a File System FS relation with a Hard Disk Partition FS relation with / Writing a FS module
  • 3. 3© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Why we need a File System? Preserve Data for Later Access Update Discard Tag Data for Categorizing Easy & Fast Lookup Fast & Reliable Data Management by Optimized Operations
  • 4. 4© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. What is a File System? Three things at three levels Hardware Space – The Physical Organization of Data on the Storage Devices Kernel Space – Drivers to decode & access the data from the Physical Organization User Space – All what you see from / - The User View Which ever it be, it basically does Organize our data For easy access by tagging For fast maintenance by optimizing
  • 5. 5© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. The Three File Systems Hardware (Space) File System - Storer Kernel (Space) File System - Decoder User (Space) File System - Show-er Storer: Partition for the File System (/dev/*) Creating the File System (mkfs.*) Decoder: Driver for the File System (*.ko) Show-er: Root File System (/xyz) Connector of the 3: mount Let's try an example
  • 6. 6© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Recall
  • 7. 7© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Understanding a Hard Disk Example (Hard Disk) Heads (or Platters): 0 – 9 Tracks (or Cylinders): 0 – 24 Sectors: 1 – 64 Size of the Hard Disk 10 x 25 x 64 x 512 bytes = 8000KiB Device independent numbering (h, t, s) → 64 * (10 * t + h) + s → (1 - 16000)
  • 8. 8© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Partitioning a Hard Disk First Sector – Master Boot Record (MBR) Contains Boot Info Contains Physical Partition Table Maximum Physical Partitions: 4 At max 1 as Extended Partition Rest as Primary Partition Extended could be further partitioned into Logical Partitions In each partition First Sector – Boot Record (BR) Remaining for File System / Format Extended Partition BR contains the Logical Partition Table
  • 9. 9© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Placement of a Hardware FS Each Partition contains a File System Raw (no FS) Organized Organized one is initialized by the corresponding Formating “Partition Type is to OS” W95*, DOS*, BSD*, Solaris*, Linux, ... “Format Type is to File System” ext2, ext3, vfat, ntfs, jffs2, … Particular Partition Types support only Particular File System Types
  • 10. 10© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Design a FS Let's Take 1 Partition With 2N blocks of 1 sector each Size = 2N x 512 bytes = N KiB Given 3 data pieces Source Code – 384 bytes Image – 768 bytes Document – 500 bytes Place optimally for further operations
  • 11. 11© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C 384b Img 768b Doc 500b
  • 12. 12© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C 384b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b Img 768b Doc 500b
  • 13. 13© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C 384b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b C 384 1 1 Img 768 2 3 Doc 500 4 4 XXX X X X XXX X X X ...
  • 14. 14© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C 384b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b C 384 1 1 Img 768 2 3 Doc 500 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
  • 15. 15© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C ... 512b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b C 384 1 1 Img 768 2 3 Doc 500 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... … C 488b
  • 16. 16© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C ... 512b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b C 1000 1 5 0 0 0 Img 768 2 3 0 0 0 Doc 500 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... … C 488b
  • 17. 17© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C ... 512b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b C 1000 4 8 0 0 0 Img 768 5 6 0 0 0 Doc 500 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... … C 488b
  • 18. 18© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C ... 512b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b … C 488b4 FST ... C 1000 5 9 0 0 0 Img 768 6 7 0 0 0 Doc 500 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
  • 19. 19© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Design C ... 512b Img ... 512b Doc 500b ...Img 256b … C 488b4 FST ... C 1000 5 9 0 0 0TS rw- Img 768 6 7 0 0 0TS rw- Doc 500 8 0 0 0 0TS rw- 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 --- ...
  • 20. 20© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Kernel Space File System Also called the File System modules Examples: ext2, ext3, vfat, ntfs, jffs2, …, real_sfs, ... Role: Decode the Hardware FS Layout to Access Data from the User Space (by implementing the decode logic) Through the following 2 Interactions: Interface with the Hardware FS Layout in the hardware partition Interface with the User Space FS to give a unified view, as at / First part done through Block Driver Second part done through VFS Kernel provides VFS to achieve the virtual user view
  • 21. 21© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. VFS Specifics Inherited from the Linux specific FS Promoted to a super set of various FS Providing a unified view to the User Default values for various attributes owner, group, permissions, … File Types Same seven types as in ext2/ext3
  • 22. 22© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Virtual File System Interactions complete vfat VFS ext2 Partition 1 .... Partition 2 ... Partition N ... User Space File System View @ / .... Block Driver Block Driver.... .... real_sfs Block Driver
  • 23. 23© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Virtual File System Internals Super Block Directory Entry Table Inode Table d > File Name > Inode Number > File Meta Data > File Data Block Nos > FS Meta Data > Root Inode Number d Data Block r
  • 24. 24© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. VFS Interaction Internals vfat VFS ext2 Buffer Cache Block Drivers Directory Cache Inode Cache .... Block Drivers
  • 25. 25© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. VFS Translation Callbacks Five categories File System level Super Block Operations Super Block level (Meta Meta Data) Inode Operations Inode level (Meta Data) Directory Entry Operations File level (Data) File Operations through the Buffer Cache Buffer Cache level Actual Data Operations
  • 26. 26© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Registration Header: <linux/fs.h> APIs int register_filesystem(file_system_type *) int unregister_filesystem(file_system_type *) File System Operations get_sb/mount: (Invoked by mount) get_sb_bdev/mount_bdev -> Fill the Super Block kill_sb: (Invoked by umount) kill_block_super
  • 27. 27© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Fill the Super Block Block Size & Bits Magic Number / File System Type Super Block Operations Root Inode Inode Operations Inode Mode File Operations
  • 28. 28© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Super Block Operations Header: <linux/fs.h> APIs write_inode: Update File Meta Data statfs: Get the File Status (Invoked by stat) simple_statfs (Handler from libfs)
  • 29. 29© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Inode Operations Header: <linux/fs.h> APIs lookup Search the file name by absolute path Traverse the inode chain if found matching inode, then populate the dentry with the inode information Inode Information Size Mode File Operations ...
  • 30. 30© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File Operations Header: <linux/fs.h> APIs open → generic_file_open read → do_sync_read → generic_file_aio_read → do_generic_file_read → readpage write → do_sync_write → generic_file_aio_write → generic_file_buffered_write → write_begin & write_end release readdir: Change Directory (cd). List Directory (ls) Directory Entry Fill Function fsync: Sync the File (sync) simple_sync_file
  • 31. 31© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Address Space Operations The Buffer / Page Cache level Operations Header: <linux/fs.h> Page Operations readpage (Invoked by read) write_begin, write_end (Invoked by write) writepage (Invoked by pdflush kernel threads) Page Functions PageUptodate, PageDirty, PageWriteback, PageLocked SetPageUptodate, ClearPageDirty, unlock_page, ... page_address, ...
  • 32. 32© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. ext2/3 Data Block Organization size ... db10 ib dib tib... db0uidmode DB0 ... DB10 ... DB11 ... ... ... ... ... DB... DB... DB...
  • 33. 33© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Dive into the Real Driver
  • 34. © 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Pieces – Set 1 Hardware Space File System Design (Logic) – real_sfs_ds.h File System Creator (Application) – format_real_sfs.c / mkfs.sfs.c Kernel Space File System Decoder (Driver) – real_sfs_ops.[hc] File System Translator (Driver) – real_sfs.c File System Show-er (VFS) User Space File System Connector (mount)
  • 35. © 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. File System Pieces – Set 2 Hardware Space File System Design (Logic) – ddk_fs_ds.h File System Creator (Application) – mkfs.ddkfs.c Kernel Space File System Decoder (Driver) – ddk_fs_ops.[hc] File System Translator (Driver) – ddk_fs.c File System Show-er (VFS) User Space File System Connector (mount)
  • 36. 36© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. What all have we learnt? W's of a File System Three levels of File Systems And relation between them Design a File System FS relation with a Hard Disk Partition FS relation with / Role of VFS Writing a FS module Simplified Interaction with the Block Driver 5 Operation Sets with VFS
  • 37. 37© 2010-19 SysPlay Workshops <workshop@sysplay.in> All Rights Reserved. Any Queries?