Case as a grammatical category used in theanalysis of word classes to define the syntacticrelationships between words in a sentence.Crystal (Ba’dulu, 2004: 78) Case is a grammatical category of noun oradjective showing its relationship with otherwords in a syntactic construction. Kridalaksana(Ba’dulu, 2004: 78)
Example of Case System:a set of affixes (almost always suffixes) that markthe relations that NPs bear to their governors.CASE SYSTEM occurs in Australian Language, Pitta-Pitta.Each case is represented by a single form.There is one complication.The subject of an intransitive verb is unmarked.The subject of a transitive verb is marked by a suffix–lu (the ergative case) that marks instruments.
CASE SUFFIXES SUFFIXES SENTENCESNominative -Ø The dog ran away (INTRANSITIVE SUBJECT)Ergative / -lu The man hit the dog with a stickinstrumental (TRANSITIVE SUBJECT and instrumental)Accusative -nha The dog bit the man (direct object)Dative / pergressive -ku The dog is fond of the man, The dog swam through the floodPurposive / possesive -nga The woman’s dog went for the paperlocative -ina The dog swam in the creekallative -inu The dog went to the creekablative -inya The dog name back from the creekcausal -la The dog hid from the policeman
The nominative is used for nouns in isolation and for the subject of an intransitive verb. It characteristically expresses the role of neutral patient, including entities that ‘locomote’ (with ‘go’, ‘come’, etc). These might seem to have agent subjects, but the mover is also the moved and the activity does not extend to an external entity. karna karnta-ka man go-past The man went
The ergative marks the subject of a transitive verb. It expresses the role of agent. It also encodes the role of instrument.karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarli-nha parnkuparnku-luman-erg hit past dog-acc walking:stick-erg (insr)The man hit the dog with a stick.
The accusative marks the direct object expressingthe characteristics role of affected patient.karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarli-nha parnkuparnku-luman-erg hit past dog-acc walking:stick-erg (insr)The man hit the dog with a stick.
The dative function of –ku is restricted.It marks the complement:yatha ‘to like’tiwa ‘be jealous of’wapa ‘to look for’wantili ‘to wait for’ karna yatha-ya piyawarli-ku man like-pres dog-dat The man likes the dog.
The pergressive function:‘through’‘across’‘along’ karna yurta-ka ngarraru-ku man swam-past flood-dat (pergressive) The man swam through the flood
Exampe of purposive: karna karnta-ka kupi-nga man go-past fish-purp The man went for (to get) fishExample of possesive: karna-nga piyawarli pantyi-ya man-purp dog ail-pres The man’s dog is sick
It indicates location in general. Adverbs are used to give specific orientation of oneentity in relation to another. karna nhangka-y kunti-ina kukuina man sit-pres house-loc behind The man is (sitting) behind the house
It indicates destinations.-inya ablativeIt indicates ‘from’, i.e. source. karna karnta-ka Mount Isa-inya Dajarra-inu man go-past Mt Isa-abl Dajarra-allative The man went from Mt Isa to Dajarra
It marks causes ‘sick from (drinking) whisky, and entitiesthat are to be avoided.Example:Bad spirits – not just bad whisky! karna wilakana-ya yampi-la man hide-pres m:in:law-causalThe man is hiding from (sc. to avoid) his mother-in-law
LATINCase System of Latin : a.Suffixes express case b.Number c.Gender class d.Irregularities, etc
Notes :-The cases are distinguished on the basis ofdifferentiation in a single paradigm.-The vocative is marked by a separate form onlyin the second declension singular.-There is SYNCRETISM (neutralisation) betweenthe nomative and vocative.
Nominative : marks the subjectVocative : used to address someoneAccusative : marks direct object and the object of some prepositionsGenitive : correspons to ‘s and of in EnglishDative : marks indirect object of dare ‘to give’ and the complement of a score or so of verbsAblative : marks a number of distict roles
Adjective and determiners agree with theirhead nouns in number, case and genderThe adjective used in the sentences belowdecline like puella, servus, or bellumaccording to the gender of the noun theymodify
Rex bonus dat unum servum puellae(The good king gives one/a slave to the girl)Regis servus iit ex Britaniā in Italiam(The king’s slave went from Britain to Italy)Illa puella manet in Italiā cum amicis(That girl is staying in Italy with friends)
English, like the other Indo-Europeanlanguages, once had a case system like theLatin. Old English had a case system almostidentical with that of modern German (thesystem was almost identical not the forms,although the forms were very similar tothose of German)
During the middle this period these werelost (very careless) except for the sibilantending of the genitive (cognate with the –isof Latin regins in the paradigms above) westill have this, but it is not case makeranymore. It is derivational affix that isadded to noun phrases to producepossessive determiners.
The dog’s boneThe man down the street’s dogThe man over there’s dogWe write the genitive or possessive ‘swith an apostrophe to distinguish itfrom the plural –’we’ means educatedpeople over 35
With pronouns there is a two-way casedistinction: nominative versus oblique(non-nominative). This distinction is madesuppletively, i.e. by using different stems.Me supplies the oblique case of I, him ofhe and so on
nominative obliqueFirst person singular I meThird person singular he him she her it itFirst person singular we usSecond person plural you youThird person plural they them
In text book English the nominativeforms are used for subject and theoblique forms for all otherfunctions. In real English thenominative forms are used incertain other constructions, eg:between you and I.
In English, nouns can be distinguished two cases,namely:•The Unmarked Common CaseEx: girl (singular) and girls (plural)•The Marked Genitive CaseExample: girl’ s(singular) and girls’ (plural)
-A case grammar is an approach to grammarthat gives emphasis on the semanticrelationships in a sentence.-In the case of grammar, verbs are consideredas an important part of the sentence and havesome semantic relationship with the nounphrase. These relationships are called theCASE.-Example:Smith killed the policeman with a Revolve.This revolver killed the policeman.
1.Agentive Case* It is the case on a noun or noun phrase that refers to people oranimals who perform or initiate action. Example: John chew the candy. “John mengunyah permen.” John is in the agentive. But the subject of the verb does notneed to always be in the agentive case. In the sentence: John likes candy. “John menyukai permen.” John did not do an act, but his attitude toward the candy iscalled. John in this sentence are not in the agentive case but inthe dative case. It will be discussed in the next category.
2. Benefactive Case It is the case on the noun or noun phrase thatrefers to people or animals who have benefitedfrom the action verbs. In the English language isconnected with the preposition “for”. Example: Tom did it for Huck. “Tom melakukan itu untuk Huck.” Huck is in the benefactive case. John cooked a chicken for Louise. “John memasak ayam untuk Luise.” John cooked Louise a chicken. “John memasakan Louise ayam.” Louise is in the benefactive case.
3. Comitative caseIt is a case in noun phrases that bear a conjunctiverelationship with other noun phrases in a sentence.In English associated with the preposition “with”.Example:- Tom ran away with Huck. “Tom melarikan diri dengan Huck.”- Tom and Huck ran away.“Tom dan Huck melarikan diri.”
4. Dative CaseIt is a case of the noun or noun phrase that refers to aperson or animal that is affected state or action verbs.Example:Gregory was frightened by storm.“Gregory ditakut-takuti oleh angin topan.”I persuaded Tom to go.“Saya membujuk Tom pergi.”Gregory and Tom are in the dative case. Both Tomand Gregory is influenced by something. Gregoryintimidated and Tom experienced persuasion. Thiscase is also called experiences case.
5. Factitive Case It is a case in phrase or noun phrase that refers tosomething that is made or created by the action verbs. Example: Tony built the shed. “Tony membangun bangsal.”The shed is in the case of factitive. On the other sentence: Tony repaired the shed. “Tony memugar bangsal.” The shed is not located in factitive case because theshed had been there / standing at the time of restorationwas carried out. In the sentence, the shed is in theobjective case. Factitive Case is also calledresult/resultativecase.
6. Objective Case It is the case in the phrase or noun phrase that refers toanyone or anything that has a neutral relationship to theaction verbs. Noun or noun phrase in the objective case noaction, do not act, nor is the instrument / equipment / meansof action. Example: Marry slided the onion with a knife. “Marry mengiris bawang putih itu dengan pisau.” The onion sliced easily. “bawang putih itu teriris dengan mudah.” The onion was thick. “bawang putih itu tebal.” The Onion is not the agent (such as Marry) nor instrument(such as a knife); but instead is in the objective. The notion of objective case had everything to do with thetraditional sense of the object. However, not everything thatis in the objective case can be an object and not all objectscan be considered to be in the objective case.
7. Ergatif Case It cases is causative, which refers to thesyntactic relation that exists between a sentence. Example: The car moved. “Mobil itu bergerak.” John moved the car. “John menggerakkan mobil itu.”
8. Instrumental CaseIt is about an inanimate instrument which is the causeof an action or state expressed by the verb, which inEnglish by using the preposition “with”.Example: 1. Bella opened the door with the key. “Bella membuka pintu itu dengan kunci.” 2. The door was opened with the key by Bella. “Pintu itu dibuka dengan kunci oleh Bella.” 3. The key opened the door. “Kunci membuka pintu itu.”
9. Locative Case It is the case on a phrase or noun phrase thatrefers to the location / site of action verbs. Example: Irene put the dictionary on the table. “Irene menaruh majalah itu di atas meja.” The table is in the locative case. In English, it can be seen by using of the preposition: on, in, at, from.
Ba’dulu, Abdul Muis and Herman.2005. Morfosintaksis. Jakarta:Rineka Cipta.Sofwan, Ahmad. 2011. Bahan AjarMorfosintaksis. DiponegoroUniversity.