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Le modulor final

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Le modulor final

1. 1. MODULOR BY ARCHITECT LE-CORBUSIER LE-MODULOR 1:1.618 Vitrivius man Golden ratio architecture Fibonacci series Lecture no:5 Date : 05/03/2014 Day : wednesday
2. 2. ABOUT Undoubtedly one of the greatest architectural minds of the 20th century, his unique approach using reinforced concrete, separated him from ordinary architects of his time. Le Corbusier was born on October 6, 1887 in the town of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Although born Swiss, he lived most of his life in France.  He trained as an engraver and goldsmith but, from 1904, he began his studies in architecture. In 1943 Le Corbusier applied a similar interdisciplinary approach to developing "Modulor", a system of quantity, based on the male figure and the Golden Mean, used to determine the proportions of units in architecture and technology. This was also the foundation of Le Corbusier's work in furniture design.
3. 3. • Modular design, or modularity in design is an approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts that can be independently created and then used in different systems to drive multiple functionalities. UNDERSTANDING MODULAR DESIGN ABOUT MODULAR
4. 4. THE INITIAL THOUGHT BEHIND THE MODULAR
5. 5. APPROACH APPROACH This system is based on three aspects: human measurements the Fibonacci numbers the golden ratio LE-MODULAR Le Corbusier developed the Modulor between 1943 and 1955 in an era which was already displaying widespread fascination with mathematics as a potential source of universal truths.
6. 6. •Le Corbusier created the Modulor following the steps of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, the work of Leone Battista Alberti, and other attempts to discover mathematical proportions in the human body and then to use that knowledge to improve architecture. HUMAN MEASUREMENT VITRUVIAN MAN •"Vetruvio, architect, puts in his work on architecture that the measurements of man are in nature distributed in this manner, that is: •a palm is four fingers •a foot is four palms •a cubit is six palms •four cubits make a man •a pace is four cubits •a man is 24 palms •and these measurements are in his buildings"
7. 7. THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS are a sequence of numbers where the first number of the sequence is 0, the second number is 1, and each subsequent number is equal to the sum of the previous two numbers of the sequence itself. FIBONACCI NUMBERS FIBONACCI SPIRAL
8. 8. THE GOLDEN RATIO (1.618) Two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio between the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the same as the ratio between the larger one and the smaller. GOLDEN RATIO GOLDEN RATIO a + b = a a b
9. 9. LE MODULOR LE MODULOR A six-foot (about 183- centimeter) man, somewhat resembling the familiar logo of the “Michelin man,” with his arm upraised (to a height of 226 cm; 7’5”), was inserted into a square . The ratio of the height of the man (183 cm; 6’) to the height of his navel (at the mid-point of 113 cm; 3’8.5”) was taken precisely in a Golden Ratio. The total height (from the feet to the raised arm) was also divided in a Golden ratio (into 140cm and 86 cm) at the level of the wrist of a downward-hanging arm. The two ratios (113/70) and (140/86) were further subdivided into smaller dimensions according to the Fibonacci series The purpose of the Modulor was to "maintain the human scale everywhere"
10. 10.  Le Corbusier explicitly used the golden ratio in his Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion.  The Modulor is an anthropometric scale of proportions devised by him.  It is based on the height of an English man with his arm raised LE MODULOR LE MODULOR ARM UPRAISED VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS •The graphic representation of the Modular is a stylized human figure with one arm upraised standing next to two vertical measurements.
11. 11. According to the quantities of 113 and 226, Le Corbusier developed two vertical measurements, the red series and the blue series, which are descending scales related to the height of the human figure. RED SERIES BLUE SERIES LE MODULAR LE MODULAR
12. 12. Basic plot: 113, 70, 43 cm. When these quantities are combined, they provided other measurements related with the modulor. For example: 43+70=113, 113+70=183 and 113+70+43=223, these three results define the space human body occupies. BASIC PLOT 113 70 43 LE MODULOR LE MODULOR
13. 13. ARCHITECTURAL IMPLIMENTATION CHANDIGARGH
14. 14. ARCHITECTURAL IMPLIMENTATION CHANDIGARGH
15. 15. ARCHITECTURAL IMPLIMENTATION OTHER EXAMPLES Unite the habitation Notre Dame du Haute
16. 16. INTRODUCTION: VILLA SAVOYE,POISSY- FRANCE 1929-31 Introduction Located in a suburb near Paris Architect-le corbusier Constructed-1929-1931
17. 17. INTRODUCTION: VILLA SAVOYE,POISSY- FRANCE 1929-31 Introduction VILLA SAVOYE IS RELATED TO THE WHOLE RANGE OF LE CORBUSIER’S ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING IT IS SITUATED ON SMOOTHLY SLOPING HILL TOP IN MIDST OF FIELDS IT ILLUSTRATES WITH EXTREME CLARITY AND IS PERHAPS THE MOST FAITHFUL IN ITS OBSERVATION OF HI FIVE POINTS I.E PILOTIS, ROOF GARDEN, FREE FLOOR PLAN , ELONGATED WINDOW, AND FREE FAÇADE PALLADIAN GRID IS FOLLOWED GOLDEN PROPOTIONS ARE ANALYSED COLUMNS OF THE BUILDINGS ARE DEFINED BY A SYSTEM OF WALLS INDEPENDENT OF STRUCTURE ENTRY TO THE PROPERTY IS THROUGH A GATE AT ONE END OF HIGH STONE WALL
18. 18. Introduction Le Corbusier used the golden ratio in his Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion. He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man", the work of Leon Battista Alberti, and others who used the proportions of the human body to improve the appearance and function of architecture. In addition to the golden ratio, Le Corbusier based the system on human measurements, Fibonacci numbers, and the double unit. VILLA SAVOYE,POISSY- FRANCE 1929-31 THE PILOTIS ROOF GARDEN FREE FLOOR PLAN ELONGATED WINDOW FREE FACADE IDEOLOGY
19. 19. FIVE POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE: Introduction Le Corbusier's Five Points of Architecture are best summed up in his work "Villa Savoye". 1) Raised Structure: The bulk of the structure is elevated from the ground and is supported by "pilotis", or, reinforced concrete stilts. These stilts provide the structural support for the dwelling. 2) A Free Facade: the stilts that support the structure allow for non-supporting walls that can assist the archietct's design as he sees fit. 3) Open Floor Plan: like the free facade, the open floor plan is made possible by the system of supporting stilts. This open space was free for the architect to configure into rooms or to re-purpose to fit a certain design. 4) Ribbon Windows: The second floor of the Villa Savoye includes long strips of ribbon windows that allow unencumbered views of the large surrounding yard. These strips of elongated windows allowed for impressive views of the exterior and let in a great amount of natural light. 5) Rooftop Garden: The idea of the rooftop garden was to replace the green area that had been consumed by the building's footprint and to transplant it to the roof of the building., and which constitute the fourth point of his system. The fifth point was the roof garden to compensate for the green area consumed by the building and replacing it on the roof.
20. 20. Modular proportions in Villa savoye Villa savoye Le Corbusier also put the concept of golden section into the facades, using baseline of 12 degrees to determine the rule of dividing the main parts as well as the slope of the central ramp, the positions of bar windows, the sizes of the window-pane, the width ofthe roadway, etc
21. 21. Modular proportions in Villa savoye Villa savoye
22. 22. PLANS AND VIEWS Villa savoye Content…..size : 18/20 Bullets : square VIEW FROM INSIDE VIEW FROM OUTSIDE
23. 23. Villa savoye ABOUT 1/3RD OF THE SPACE IS OCCUPIED BY THE ROOF TERRACE SECOND LEVEL WITH ROOF GARDEN LIVING AREA
24. 24. Villa savoye RAMP TOWARDS TERRACE LIVING ROOM OPENING TOWARDS TERRACE (INTERIORS) ELONGATED WINDOWS
25. 25. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING location Ahmedabad function auditorium, meeting room, office  A ceremonial ramp makes for a grand approach into a triple-height entrance hall.  Arrival is on the first floor, where the executives’ offices and boardroom are located MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING
26. 26. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING  The interior arrangements take full advantage of prevailing winds.  the roof is used together with bar for evening entertainment.  the assembly hall is constructed of double thin brick walls panelled in wood.  either random or concrete seating 2 vertical tapestries are suspended from the ceiling for acoustical purposes.  the hall is indirectly lighted by reflections from the curved ceiling, which in turn is kept cool by 2 gardens and a water basin on the roof. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING
27. 27. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING Plan
28. 28. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING Building characteristic  The ground floor houses the work spaces of the clerks and a separate, single-storey canteen at the rear.  On the third floor is auditorium with a roof canopy and a curved, enclosing wall, in addition to a generous lobby.  The east and west façades are in the form of sun breakers , one of Corbusier’s many formal inventions.  while avoiding harsh sun, permit visual connection and air movement.`
29. 29.  On the second floor of the Mill Owners’ Building, the lobby is treated as “an open space defined by harsh, angular forms.  And the auditorium as an enclosed space delineated by soft, curvilinear forms.  Facades made of rough shuttered concrete, the north and south sides, built in rough brickwork, are almost unbroken. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING
30. 30. MILL OWNERS ASSOCIATION BUILDING
31. 31. UNITE D’HABITATION Architect: Le Corbusier Location: Marseilles, France Project Year: 1947-1952 Area: 386,130 sq.ft units: 366
32. 32. UNITE D’HABITATION After World War II, the need for housing was at an unprecedentedly high. The Unite d’ Habitation in Marseille, France was the first large scale project for the famed architect, Le Corbusier. Completed in 1952, the Unite d’ Habitation was the first of a new housing project series for Le Corbusier that focused on communal living for all the inhabitants to shop, play, live, and come together in a “vertical garden city.” Le Corbusier used his system of golden ratio in the Marseilles Unite D'Habitation in the general plan and section, the front elevation, plan and section of the apartment, in the woodwork, the wall, the roof and some prefabricated furniture.
33. 33. GOLDEN RATIO IN ELEVATION The elevation of the building is approximately two descending golden ratio rectangles resting side by side. The boundaries of the individual units and the openings to the balconies are also perfectly influenced by the golden ratio rectangle.
34. 34. GOLDEN RATIO IN INDIVIDUAL PLANS Section of Unité d'Habitation Floor Plan of Unité d'Habitation
35. 35. ARRANGEMENT OF BLOCKS Reinforced concrete framing with model of relationship of individual units to the larger organization. The apartment block is a large rectangular structure of reinforced concrete, 17 storeys high and sitting on massive pilotis. It houses just over 1,600 people. Its 337 apartments are of 23 types, accommodating from one or two up to about eight. Le Corbusier himself described the structure as like a huge rack into which apartments slot like drawers.
36. 36. MATERIALS The Unité introduced the world to raw concrete - béton brut - with its texture defined by the wooden planks shaping it when it was pour. It is specially build up to human scale and also emphasize the beauty of using bare concrete. Le Corbusier compare the bare concrete of the Unité to human skin, which shows it age and character it flaws.
37. 37. STRUCTURE 17 storeys high and sitting on massive pilotis. houses over 1,600 people. Its 366 apartments are of 23 types, accommodating from one or two up to about eight. Room heights within each apartment are (a very low) 2.4 m/ 7'5" and (a very high) 4.8 m/ 15'9". On the roof are sculpted ventilation shafts and facilities for a crèche, paddling pool and gymnasium. Another notably 'sculptural' feature is the staircase at one end of the block. Decoratively, the board-faced concrete finish is relieved by little else than a system of red, blue, yellow and green colored squares
38. 38. STRUCTURE Common roof spaces Another interesting aspect of the dwelling unit is to use the roof as a function, being one of the areas of greatest vitality. Included:  an athletics track, 300 meters  covered gym  a club  nursing  kindergarten  social space.
39. 39. INTERIOR Interior passage way
40. 40. INTERIOR
41. 41. THANK-YOU PRESENTED BY Asmita Anuradha Aniket Atit Annirudha Kajol Minal Mrudula naman