MORPHOLOGY OF THE PUEBLO LANDSCAPE Alexis, Anush, Mari, Nancy, and Ron
PUEBLO LANDSCAPEPRE WESTERNNo manipulated outdoor areas that distinguish humansfrom nature.The people dwell around the “emergence” or “breathing”space. The breath flows through the center reminding thepeople of the earth where people feel the strongestconnection to the universe and its natural energy thatconnects people with the natural world.No fences—open spaces.
PRE WESTERN PUEBLOLANDSCAPE-IIIntimacy and connection with the natural environmentMinimal separations of natural and human made landscapesThe design was holistic and accommodated communityUprooting plants were unnecessary and inconceivable
Free spaceNo fencesCommunity spaceNature owns the space, humans are the visitorsFree to roam between homesIntimacy and connection with the naturalenvironment
Houses were the center of the worldClimbed on, jumped on, slept on, and cooked onNot symbols of wealth, they were a most direct andelegantly simple expression of meeting the humanneed for shelterWithin the house, as without, spirits moved freelyHouses, like people’s bodies, came from and wentback into the earth.
POST WESTERNThe tactic was to dissolve social structure through Westerneducation and by destroying their land base.Barber wire is an ultimate sign of Western decimation ofculture as it created a barrier and was reminiscent of aprison.The emphasis of separation and segmenting students intovarious categories reflected Anglo values.Individualism was emphasized.
The floor plan was designed to create an aspiration ofmoving up reflecting the American value of upwardmobility.There was a disconnect between the creation of thelandscape and the culture of the natives. Theycouldn’t be connected to nature—they couldn’t touch.Nothing flowed naturally.In stark contrast to living in harmony with nature, theAnglos introduced a philosophy of overcoming andconquering nature
MEMBERS OF THEAlbuquerque Indian School baseba! team
QUESTIONSWhat is the purpose of thelandscape alterations?Are there other examples oflandscape alterations?
An example to us all: child development and identityconstructionin early 20th- century playgrounds
Introduction• By the late 19th-century industrialization and immigration in U.S. cities was causing moral panic among urban dwellers.• Reformers blamed disease, morality and disorder on growing immigrant neighborhoods.• Blame ﬂuctuated from the immigrants themselves to their often appalling living environment.
• At the turn of the century called the Progressive Era, a movement began to construct environments that would have a transformative effect on occupants.• There was a fear that the continued refusal of immigrants to blend into their neighborhoods might lead to clannishness.• It was the continued goal of reformers to encourage immigrants to assimilate into the dominant culture.
• Reformers determined that social diseases began ﬁrst by enveloping the child, then the home, the neighborhood, and ﬁnally the city.• They decided that to institute change they must begin with the earliest link – the child - to protect the last – the city.• The creation of reformatories and the juvenile court system were two of the institutions put into place by these new “child-savers.”
Children, although fervently cast as delinquent, were viewed as a potential solution to a lost order.
Gagen chooses to focus on the creation of playgrounds in addressing one dimension of the broader child salvation solution proposed by the reformers.
The creation of playgrounds was supposed to pull immigrant children off the streets and into a more corrective environment.
Gagen studieshow reformersconceptualized childdevelopment in order to facilitate the production of normative
Reformers believed that a child’s physical, visible actions formed a continuum with “inner” otherwise invisible identity.
As such, playgrounds were designed to be publicly viewed so that the correct development of children would be cultivated and witnessed by the surrounding community.
To help deﬁne gender identities,boys and girls were presented on the playgrounds differently.
It was Riis, however, that Gagen turnedto in evaluating why immigrant children in particular needed to conform to American ideals.
Riis depicted immigrant children as wretched, impoverished and crime-ridden
Through the new medium of photography, he allowed reformers and others to view theslum environment of these children from a safe distance.
• During live performances, Riis would often show slides in pairs, depicting a child before and after “salvation.”• Riis’ motive was to generate change and to help uplift and transform, and he believed the child was the best mechanism to accomplish this.
Part of Riis’inﬂuence came from his descriptions of the squalid living conditions most immigrants lived in as well as the photographs he could show to the people who had never seen them.
The establishment of playgrounds provide the bestopportunity to lureimmigrant children into the open and to supervise their leisure time in acontrolled, visible space.
Reformers response to Riiss illuminations was not to rid the streets of unruly children and return them to the very spaces that contributed to their `corrupt existences. Instead,they campaigned for public supervised playgroundsthereby providing exposed, visible spaces which the surrounding community could openly view.
children came under the controlling eye of the public and were simultaneously showpieces for that same public to learn from.
Playground reform and child development In 1906, the year after immigration reached a record high , the Play-ground Association of America (PAA) was founded.
The PAAs founding members were signiﬁcant social ﬁgures and were able tobolster the organisations ability to attract popular support. Theodore Rooseveltaccepted the position as honorary president
• The leaders of playground reform were profoundly inﬂuenced by the child-study movement. It was the work of G Stanley Hall, however, that affected playground reform most signiﬁcantly.• The leaders of the PAA took Halls theories as scientiﬁc fact and from them constructed the basic tenets of playground training.
• The basis of playground training draws from a fundamental principle, derived from Hall, that childhood directly mimicked the evolutionary stages of human development, in a vastly condensed time-frame.
Central to Halls theory was an insistence that boys would only develop into well-balanced, suitably civilized, yetsimultaneously masculine, men if they progressed through the correct developmental sequence.
At particular ages, reformers believed that children required speciﬁc activities to induce the successful realization ofrecapitulated instincts. Of particular interest to playground reformers were adolescent boys. It was here, sometime after the age of 11 years, that the `tribal instinct emerged.
Both the physicality of play and the manner in which its public display was orchestrated, however, differed for boys and girls.
Conclusions• Playground reform was a middle-class solution to the perceived & anticipated disintegration of urban order.• The reformer’s desire to provide public play spaces emerges as a complex landscape.• The playgrounds were intended to be inclusive regardless of social standing.