Functionalism• Religion hinders Social Change.• Durkheim, Parsons, Malinowski, BellahMarxism & Neo-Marxism• Religion hinders Social Change• Marx, Maduro, WorsleyWeber• Acts as a Catalyst for Social Change• Weber, Bruce, Martin Luther King, Christian New RightGlobal Context• Acts for and against Social Change• Weber, Nanda, Redding, Lehman
Offers us answers to Offers us hope and the unanswerable confidence for the (Afterlife) future Religion... Gives us shared Unifies norms and values people, giving (Value Consensus) stability and trust.
DurkheimLook at Aborigines in Australia who saw Worshipped the totem = Worshipping items as Sacred or Profane stable society, Malinowski Looks at The Trobriand Islanders who At times of potential risk women did survived off fishing. religious rituals to protect husbands. ParsonsReligion has a code of laws that have to Religion bonds us in times of trauma be followed for a passage to afterlife. e.g. funerals etc.
Christianity is the faith of America Everyone pledgesallegianceto the flag Being religious = Being American. Not so much a belief just the name and identity.
1. Most people in the 1.London Bombings Uk do attend prove religion can Funerals to grieve. cause terrorism not 2. People turn to stability.religion to deal with 2. Religion can trauma (9/11) radicalise young men. 3. We use prayer to 3. Studies were smallgive ourselves hope. scale
It is a man made It is the ‘Opium ofideology made to the people’oppress the poor. Relgion...It creates a False Limits social change Class in capitalist Consciousness. societies.
• God created aLegitimating hierarchy in society. Social • Positions in church and Hymns reinforce socialInequalities status. • Religion explains Disguising inequalities in Supernatural termsExploitation • God made inequality not government. • ‘Poverty is a virtue’Keeping Poor • Scriptures reinforce Passive the idea that being poor is good.
i i Leach – Church Of England has a very Marxist theory fails toupper class background recognizeand has lost touch with secularization real people. Hook – The Pope has a Churches give a huge very conservative amount of money to stance and creates the poor (Oxfam,poverty in Africa & AIDS Salvation Army etc)
Maduro – Liberation Theory• He showed how Priests in South America helped mobilise and free the poor using church linksWorsley – Millennium Movements• Looked at Cargo Cults during colonial times in the west Pacific.• In the 1950’s the people used group mentality to overcome the authority.• Proletariat are aware that they are treated unfairly by rich.
• He believes that in some cases religion can act as a catalyst for social change.1. • He looked at the relationship between Calvinism and capitalism in the west. • Calvinist were ascetic – churned all there money back2. into business. • They believe God had chosen them to be the elite and in order to prove themselves they have to deny themselves pleasure and work hard.3. • This attitude is typical of a capitalist society.
Is the theory relevant to today? Yes NoPressure groups Religious Islam and are big source terrorists are Catholics reduce of social attempting womans powers change. social change. in the church.
He took the moral high ground and mobilised public opinion towards black people Rosa Parks wasUsed his religious influenced and connections to refused to move create bus for a white boycott. person on the bus. Martin Luther King
Want to abolish homosexuality The New Christian Very Anti - conservativeevolution beliefs Right Against stem cell research
Does religion create social change?Nanda – looked Redding – Looks Lehman – looked at India and at East Asian and atfound the new found that Post Pentecostalismfound wealth, Confucian that adapts, not promoted by promotes a hard changes, the their Hindu working ethos culture around gurus, is used which led to the it. It uses media for religious development of to spread the rituals. capitalism. word.
Weber Religion promotes social change Global ContextWho believes what? Marxists Religion restricts social change. Functionalists