150 Business Models for your management presentation

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150 Business models and graphics for your business presentations.

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Powerpoint, presentations, business, slides, diagrams, charts, Break-even, Financing Life Cycle, Economies of Scale, Elasticity, Sales Cycles Market Potential, Portfolio Matrix, Product Model, Four P's, Push/Pull Strategy, Marketing Mix, PDCA Cycle, SWOT, Value Chain, Ansoff Matrix, BCG Matrix, 7-S Modell, Core Competencies, GE Business Screen, Nine Cell Industry Risk/Reward Diagram, Porter's Five Forces, Industry Competition, Generic Strategies, Geobusiness Modell, Porter's Diamond, Matrix Design, PIMS, Leavitt's Diamond, Belbin's Team Roles, Theory X/Y, Maslow's Hierarchy, Herberg's Theory, Cultural Web, Pareto Curve, CIM Concept, Value Drivers

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150 Business Models for your management presentation

  1. 1. 150 Business Diagrams... Powered by www.drawpack.com . All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 150 Business Diagrams Drawpack.com offers these premium Business Diagrams for students and professionals around the globe for their personal use for free. Please enjoy these Business Diagrams. You can send these slides to your personal contacts who might be interested in Business Diagrams. For further information about our service please contact us: [email_address] Please find our membership offer on www.drawpack.com
  3. 3. Key Words ... Break-even – Financing Life Cycle – Economies of Scale – Elasticity – Sales Cycles – Market Potential – Portfolio Matrix – Product Model – Four P’s – Push/Pull Strategy – Marketing Mix – PDCA Cycle – SWOT – Value Chain – Ansoff Matrix – BCG Matrix – 7-S Model – Core Competencies – GE Business Screen – Nine Cell Industry – Risk/Reward Diagram – Porter’s Five Forces – Industry Competition – Generic Strategies – Geobusiness Model – Porter’s Diamond – Matrix Design – PIMS – Leavitt’s Diamond – Belbin’s Team Roles – Theory X/Y – Maslow’s Hierarchy – Herzberg’s Theory – Cultural Web – Pareto Curve – CIM Concept – Value Drivers Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Markets and Structure of Flow Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Government markets Middlemen markets Resource markets Manufacturer markets Services, money Resources Money Taxes, goods Goods and services Services, money Taxes, goods Money Consumer markets Services Resources Money Taxes Money Goods and services Taxes, goods Services, money
  5. 5. A Company‘s Macroenvironment Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. COMPANY Substitute Buyers New Entrants Rival Firms Suppliers IMMEDIATE INDUSTRY & COMPETITVE ENVIRONMENT MACROENVIRONMENT The Economy at large Social Values and Lifestyles Population demographics Technology Legislation and regulations
  6. 6. Break-even Point Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Value $ Units sold Break-even Point Variable costs Fixed costs Profit Total costs Sales 0 0 Current sales level
  7. 7. Break-even Chart Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Sales Volume in Units (in thousands) Total cost Total revenue Target profit Fixed cost Dollars (in thousands) 10 30 20 50 40 0 200 800 600 400 1200 1000
  8. 8. Break-even Volume Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Total Revenue Total Costs Fixed Expenses* * Fixed Expenses = Marketing Expenses and Other Direct Expenses $ Millions 15 30 35 20 10 25 5 0 50 150 100 Break-even Volume (90,000) 200 Units Sold (‘000) Profit Loss
  9. 9. Break-even Regions Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. P&L break-even Cash flow breakeven Returned capital break-even Cash flow Cumulative revenue EVA break-even Opportunity cost based on capital risk assumed $
  10. 10. Financing Life Cycle Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Valley of Death Enterprise Cash Flow Enterprise Financing Time Break-even point Emerging Growth FFF & Angels Venture Capitalist Investment Banks & Banks Seed Capital & Early Stage Early Growth Later Growth Public Market Initial Public Offering Mezzanine 1st 2nd 3rd
  11. 11. Demand and Supply Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Price Quantity 0 G B E D F S A D S
  12. 12. Economies of Scale Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. *Long-run average costs (LACs) Increasing returns to scale, or economies of scale Average cost Output LACs*
  13. 13. Elasticity Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Demand is elastic and expenditure increases when price falls from P1 to P2 (-) (+) Price P 1 P 2 0 Quantity Demand is inelastic and expenditure increases when price falls from P1 to P2 (+) (-) Price P 2 P 1 0 Quantity e = 0 Quantity Price e = 0 e = - (total inelastic demand) (total elastic demand) 8 Quantity Price e = - 8 e > - 1 e = - 1 e < - 1
  14. 14. Inelastic and Elastic Demand Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Price Quantity Demanded per Period (a) Inelastic demand Quantity Demanded per Period (b) Elastic demand P 1 P’ 1 P’ 2 Q’ 2 Q 2 Q’ 1 Q 1 P 2
  15. 15. Sales and Profit Life Cycles Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Sales and Profits ($) Time Profit Sales Maturity Growth Introduction Decline
  16. 16. Market Potential, Market Volume, Market Share Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Volume or value Time Market potential Market volume Market share
  17. 17. The Product Life Cycle I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Sales over profits Stages over Time Introduction Growth Maturiy Shake-out Decline Sales Profits
  18. 18. The Product Life Cycle II Introduction Growth Maturity Commodity or Decline Time Unit Sales Volume Note: A = Moderate Growth, B = Commodity, C = Decline A B C Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved.
  19. 19. The Life Cycle Portfolio Matrix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. C A Strong Average Weak Development Growth Competitive shakeout Maturity Decline Saturation THE BUSINESS UNIT‘S COMPETITIVE POSITION THE INDUSTRY‘S STAGE IN THE EVOLUTIONARY LIFE CYCLE E F D B H G
  20. 20. Patterns of Strategic Change Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Continuity Incremental Flux Global
  21. 21. The Whole Product Model Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Generic Product Expected Product Augmented Product Potential Product
  22. 22. The Product-Positioning Map Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. High price Low quality High quality Low price C D E A B
  23. 23. The Four P‘s of McCarthy I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Product Place Promotion Price Environment Environment Environment Environment
  24. 24. The Four P‘s of McCarthy II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Low quality High quality Target Market Product variety Quality Design Features Brand name Packaging Sizes Services Warranties Returns Product Channels Coverage Assortments Locations Inventory Transport Promotion Sales promotion Advertising Salesforce Public relations Direct marketing Place Price List price Discounts Allowances Payment period Credit terms Marketing Mix
  25. 25. Push versus Pull Strategy Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Push Strategy Manufacturer Intermediaries Demand Marketing activities Demand End users Pull Strategy Manufacturer Intermediaries Demand Marketing activities Demand End users
  26. 26. The Expanded Marketing Mix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Product Price People Processes Place Promotion Customer Service
  27. 27. The 6 – Step Marketing Plan Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. 1 2 3 budget allocation product promotion price distribution 4 5 6 Action plan Forecasts Control quantify: costs sales profits market share organization structure measurement tools check frequency => Corrective actions firm market industry competition environment Situation (SWOT) Objectives Strategy sales market share market expansion leadership satisfaction segment – target price / quality product positioning differentiation diversification Marketing Plan
  28. 28. The PDCA Cycle Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Performance Time Path of continous improvement Check Do Act Plan
  29. 29. Enterprise Management Process Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Decision Process Enterprise Structure Mission & Strategy Enterprise Learning Value Improvement Customer Satisfaction Benchmarking
  30. 30. SWOT Analysis Diagram Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Substantial internal strengths Critical internal weaknesses Numerous environmental opportunities Major environmental threats Cell 1: Supports an aggressive strategy Cell 2: Supports an diversification strategy Cell 3: Supports a turnaround- oriented strategy Cell 4: Supports a defensive strategy
  31. 31. SWOT Analysis I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Strengths Opportunities Threats Weaknesses
  32. 32. SWOT Analysis II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>Market share </li></ul><ul><li>Key account share </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Supply diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>On market </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing / selling deadline </li></ul><ul><li>New products cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation power </li></ul><ul><li>- firm suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>- customers </li></ul>STRENGTHS / WEAKNESSES Firm, Organization OPPORTUNITIES / THREATS Environment, Market, Industry <ul><li>Market size </li></ul><ul><li>Key account size </li></ul><ul><li>Annual growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Market diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Price sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation power </li></ul><ul><li>- suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>- consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor types </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration level </li></ul><ul><li>Intrants / extrants </li></ul><ul><li>Market share evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical / horizontal integration </li></ul><ul><li>Technology substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Firm competitivity </li></ul><ul><li>- Product, service </li></ul><ul><li>- Profitability, H.R., … </li></ul><ul><li>Segments invested in </li></ul><ul><li>Firm’s integration level </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech vulnerability </li></ul>MARKET COMPETITION
  33. 33. SWOT Analysis III Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>Firm margins </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Production capacity level </li></ul>STRENGTHS / WEAKNESSES Firm, Organization OPPORTUNITIES / THREATS Environment, Market, Industry FINANCE / BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SOCIO - POLITICAL <ul><li>Reactivity / Flexibility level </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Agressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Working relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes / Social trends </li></ul><ul><li>Laws and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure groups </li></ul><ul><li>Trade union activities </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability to change </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise / Know-How </li></ul><ul><li>Patent ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Production technology </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity / volatility </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Patents and copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Production technology </li></ul><ul><li>Global benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Production capacity level </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Generic Value Chain I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Support activities Service Margin Margin Firm infrastructure Human resource management Technology development Procurement Primary activities Inbound logistics Operations Outbound logistics Marketing and sales
  35. 35. The Generic Value Chain II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Marketing Management Advertising Sales Force Administration Sales Force Operations Technical Literature Promotion INBOUND LOGISTICS OPERATIONS OUTBOUND LOGISTICS MARKETING & SALES SERVICE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROCUREMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE MARGIN
  36. 36. The Generic Value Chain III Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Inbound logistics Outbound logistics Operations Marketing and sales Service Primary Activities Procurement Technology development Human resources management Firm infrastructure Margin Margin
  37. 37. The Ansoff Matrix I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Current Markets New Markets New Products Current Products Market penetration Market development Diversification Product development
  38. 38. The Ansoff Matrix II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Existing New Existing New New product development Market development Market penetration Diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES MARKETS
  39. 39. The Customer Growth Matrix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Existing New Existing New Customer extension Customer acquisition Customer loyalty Customer diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES CUSTOMERS
  40. 40. Product-Market Diversification Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Market Diversification Broad Product Diversification Narrow Moderate Moderate Broad Narrow
  41. 41. BCG’s Growth-Share Matrix I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. High Low Low High MARKET GROWTH RATE RELATIVE MARKET SHARE Star Cash Cow Dog Question Mark
  42. 42. BCG’s Growth-Share Matrix II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. High Low High Low RELATIVE MARKET SHARE MARKET GROWTH RATE A B C E D F G Divest Divest Dog Cash Cows Question Mark Star Targeted future position in the corporate portfolio Present position in the corporate portfolio
  43. 43. BCG’s Growth-Share Matrix III Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Low High High Low Question marks Cash generating businesses Star businesses Dog businesses RELATIVE MARKET SHARE MARKET GROWTH RATE 10x 1.0x 0.1x 10%
  44. 44. BCG‘s Growth-Share Matrix IV Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. 7 3 2 1 4 6 Market Growth Rate Relative Market Share Dogs Stars Question Marks Cash Cows 0.1 x 1 x 10 x 8 2% 8% 6% 4% 12% 10% 20% 18% 16% 14% 22% 5
  45. 45. The New BCG Matrix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. SIZE OF ADVANTAGES Many Fragmented Stalemate Volume Specialization Small Large Few NUMBER OF APPROACHES TO ACHIEVE ADVANTAGE
  46. 46. Underlying Relationship Between ROI and Market Share in the New BCG Matrix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Few Many Small Large SIZE OF THE ADVANTAGE NUMBER OF WAYS TO ACHIEVE COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE Market share Market share Volume Stalemate Specialization Fragmented Market share Market share ROI ROI ROI ROI
  47. 47. McKinsey‘s Seven ‚S‘s Framework Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Superordinate Goals Structure Staff Strategy Systems Style Skills
  48. 48. Disruption and the New 7-S’s Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>Vision for Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and creating </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities for </li></ul><ul><li>temporary advantage </li></ul><ul><li>through understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Soothsaying </li></ul><ul><li>directed at identifying new ways to serve </li></ul><ul><li>existing customers better or new </li></ul><ul><li>customers that no one else </li></ul><ul><li>serves now. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics for Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Seizing the initiative to gain </li></ul><ul><li>advantage by </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting the Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous and </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Thrusts </li></ul><ul><li>with actions that shape, mold, or </li></ul><ul><li>influence the direction or nature of </li></ul><ul><li>the competitors‘ responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Capability for Disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining for momentum by </li></ul><ul><li>developing flexible capacities for </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>that can be applied across </li></ul><ul><li>many actions to build a series </li></ul><ul><li>of temporary advantages </li></ul>Market Disruption VISION PLANNING RESOURCE PLANNING PUNCH-COUNTERPUNCH PLANNING
  49. 49. Core Competencies I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Banner Brand Business Units Core Products (Platforms) Core Competencies
  50. 50. Core Competencies II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Processes Capabilities Technologies Core Competencies
  51. 51. Core Competencies III Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Low Company View High Low Market View High Competency 5 Competency 3 Competency 4 Competency 1 Competency 6 Competency 2
  52. 52. The General Electric Business Screen Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Low High Medium Strong Average Weak COMPETITIVE POSITION INDUSTRY ATTRACITVENESS
  53. 53. Attractiveness/Competitive Position Strategies Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. High <ul><li>Grow </li></ul><ul><li>Seek dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize </li></ul><ul><li>investment </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>potential for </li></ul><ul><li>leadership via </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Build strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Specialize </li></ul><ul><li>Seek niches </li></ul><ul><li>Consider acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify growth segments </li></ul><ul><li>Invest strongly </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain position elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Identify growth segments </li></ul><ul><li>Specialize </li></ul><ul><li>Invest selectively </li></ul><ul><li>Specialize </li></ul><ul><li>Seek niches </li></ul><ul><li>Consider exit </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain overall position </li></ul><ul><li>Seek cash flow </li></ul><ul><li>Invest at maintenance levels </li></ul><ul><li>Prune lines </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize investment </li></ul><ul><li>Position to divest </li></ul><ul><li>Trust leader‘s statesmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Sic on competitor‘s cash generators </li></ul><ul><li>Time exit and divest </li></ul>Medium Low Strong Average Weak COMPETITIVE POSITION INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
  54. 54. Company Position/Industry Attractiveness Screen Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. HOLD HARVEST HARVEST BUILD BUILD HARVEST HOLD HOLD BUILD Industry attractiveness Medium Low High Low Medium High Business unit strengths
  55. 55. A Representative Nine-Cell Industry Attractiveness-Competitive Strength Matrix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Business C Business E Strong Average High Low Business F Business A Business B Business D Weak Medium Low priority for investment Medium priority for investment High priority for investment COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS/BUSINESS POSITION LONG-TERM INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
  56. 56. GE / McKinsey Multifactor Portfolio Matrix Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS BUSINESS STRENGTH Invest Manage Selectively for Earnings Invest Invest Manage Selectively for Earnings Manage Selectively for Earnings Harvest or Divest Harvest or Divest Harvest or Divest
  57. 57. Portfolio Positions and Defensive Strategic Market Plans Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Very Attractive Market Attractiveness Very Unattractive Very Strong Very Weak Competitive Advantage Harvest or Divest Protect Protect or Harvest Harvest or Divest Protect or Harvest Protect or Focus Protect or Focus Protect
  58. 58. Market Attractiveness – Portfolio Classification and Strategies Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. MARKET ATTRACTIVENESS Medium Weak 5.00 3.67 2.33 1.00 Strong Joints Hydraulic Pumps Clutches BUSINESS STRENGHT Low Medium High (a) Classification Aerospace Fittings Relief Valves Fuel Pumps Flexible Diaphragms 2.33 3.67 5.00 1.00 Invest / grow Harvest / divest Selectivity / earnings
  59. 59. The Risk-Reward Diagrams Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. High Low Low High REWARD (NPV) RISK
  60. 60. Contrasting Characteristics of Upstream and Downstream Companies Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Raw Primary Product Consumer materials manufacturer Fabricator producer marketer Retail Supply flow UPSTREAM ORGANIZATIONS DOWNSTREAM ORGANIZATIONS Centre of gravity of a manufacturing industry Consumer Contrasting characteristics of upstream and downstream companies Upstream Commodity Standardize Maximize end users Low-cost producers Sales push Line-driven organization Process innovation Capital budget Capital-intensive Technological know-how Supply and trading/manufacturing and engineering Downstream Proprietary Customize Target end users High margins Marketing pull Line/staff Product innovation R & D/advertising budget People-intensive Marketing skills Product development/marketing Supply stages in a manufaturing industry (supply chain)
  61. 61. Porter‘s Five Forces I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Potential Entrants Substitutes Buyers Suppliers Industry competitors Rivalry among existing firms Threat of substitute products Threat new entrants Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers
  62. 62. Porter‘s Five Forces II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. RIVALRY AMONG COMPETING SELLERS Potential New Entrants Buyers Suppliers of raw materials, parts, components or other resource inputs Firms in other industries offering Substitute Products
  63. 63. Forces Driving Industry Competition Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Potential Entrants Industry competitors Rivalry among existing firms Substitutes Buyers Suppliers Threat of substitute products or services Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of new entrants
  64. 64. Barriers and Profitability Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Low High High Low ENTRY BARRIERS EXIT BARRIERS PROFITS=LOW RETURNS=STABLE PROFITS=HIGH RETURNS=STABLE PROFITS=HIGH RETURNS=RISKY PROFITS=LOW RETURNS=RISKY
  65. 65. Four Routes to Strategic Advantage Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. KFS Intensify funtional differentiation Relative superiority Exploit competitor‘s weakness Strategic degrees of Freedom Maximize user benefit Aggressive initiatives Ask „why-why‘s“ Compete (wisely) Route 1 Avoid head-on competition Route 2 Route 4 Route 3 Business/Product Offered Old/Existing New/Creative
  66. 66. The Generic Strategies I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. D ifferentiation C ost L eadership F ocus
  67. 67. The Generic Strategies II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Cost Leadership Differentiation Cost Focus Differentiation Focus Broad Target Narrow Target Lower Cost Differentiation COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVE SCOPE
  68. 68. Five Modified Competitive Strategies Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Overall Low-Cost Leadership Strategy Broad Differentiation Strategy Focused Low-Cost Strategy Focused Differentiation Strategy Best-Cost Provider Strategy A Narrow Buyer-Segment (or Market Niche) A Broad Cross-Section of Buyers Lower Cost Differentiation TYPE OF COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE BEING PURSUED MARKET TARGET
  69. 69. Sweeney‘s Generic Strategies Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>Marketer </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li>Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Product/service </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>New product/service </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Caretaker </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes </li></ul><ul><li>Price/ cost </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Innovator </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Product/service </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul>Traditional Enhanced Enhanced Basic Customer service criteria Strategic change involves enhancing the operation‘s infrastructure Strategic change involves enhancing The operation‘s structure
  70. 70. Geobusiness Model Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. CONDITIONING VARIABLES CONTROL VARIABLES MOTIVATION VARIABLES
  71. 71. Porter‘s Diamond Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. RELATED AND SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES FIRM STRATEGY, STRUCTURE AND RIVALRY FACTOR CONDITIONS DEMAND CONDITIONS
  72. 72. Resource Allocation at Corporate Level Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Low High High Low EXTENT OF CENTRAL DIRECTION PERCEIVED NEED FOR CHANGE Free bargaining Open competition Imposed priorities „ Formula“
  73. 73. PIMS Competitive Strategy Paradigm Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Market growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Entry conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Unionization </li></ul><ul><li>Capital intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase amount </li></ul><ul><li>Relative perceived </li></ul><ul><li>quality </li></ul><ul><li>Relative market </li></ul><ul><li>share </li></ul><ul><li>Relative capital </li></ul><ul><li>intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Relative cost </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>R & D spending </li></ul><ul><li>New product </li></ul><ul><li>introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Change in relative </li></ul><ul><li>quality and variety </li></ul><ul><li>of products/services </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>channels </li></ul><ul><li>Relative vertical </li></ul><ul><li>integration </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce </li></ul><ul><li>productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability (ROS, </li></ul><ul><li>ROI, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow </li></ul><ul><li>Value enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Stock (share) price </li></ul>Market structure Strategy and tactics Performance Competitive position
  74. 74. International Strategy Options Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Export Licensing/ Foreign subsidiary Joint venture Licensing/ Joint venture Foreign branch Joint venture Foreign branch High Low Low High PRODUCT DIVERSITY MARKET COMPLEXITY
  75. 75. The Wheel of Competitive Strategy Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Product Line Target Market Marketing Sales Distribution Manufacturing Labor Purchasing R & D Finance and Control GOALS Definition of how the business is going to compete Objectives for profitability, growth, market share, social responsiveness etc.
  76. 76. Generic Competitive Strategies Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Return on Investment Market Share
  77. 77. The Strategic Triangle I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Customers Competitors Corporation Multiple market segments Target segments Value Value Cost Product/service differentiation
  78. 78. The Strategic Triangle II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Needs seeking benefits at acceptable prices Customers Competitor Company Value Value Cost differentials Assets and utilization Assets and utilization
  79. 79. Trilogy Strategy - Culture - Structure Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Strategy Culture Structure Environment Environment Environment Environment
  80. 80. Optimum Degree of Formal Organization Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Degree of formal organization Organizational effectiveness
  81. 81. The Flow of Formal Authority Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved.
  82. 82. Functional, Divisional, Multidivisional Structures Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Logistics Manufacturing Sales Finance CEO CEO Cement Concrete Chemicals R&D Controlling CEO Europe Asia Motor Marine North America Motor Marine Fire Motor Marine Fire CEO Europe North America Asia Cement Concrete Chemicals
  83. 83. A Matrix Design Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Marketing Department Manager Research and Development Department Manager Purchasing Department Manager Production Department Manager FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION PROJECT DEPARTMENTALIZATION Alpha Project Project Leader Beta Project Project Leader Gamma Project Project Leader E E E E E E E E E E E E
  84. 84. Models of Virtuality Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Virtual Face Co-alliance Model Star-alliance Model Value-alliance Model
  85. 85. Leavitt‘s Diamond: The Interaction of Social Forces in an Organization Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Task Technology People Structure
  86. 86. Action-centred Leadership Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. GROUP NEEDS INDIVIDUAL NEEDS TASK NEEDS
  87. 87. Belbin‘s Team Roles Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Company Worker Plant Shaper Finisher Resource-Investigator Team Worker Monitor-Evaluator Chairman TEAM
  88. 88. Group Development Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Stage V Adjourning Stage IV Performing Stage III Norming Stage II Storming Stage I Forming Group effectiveness Time
  89. 89. Theory X and Theory Y Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Theory X no responsability, no Initiative passive work attitude strong rules and control confirms following leads to leads to V icious circle of theory X Theory Y no responsability, no Initiative passive work attitude strong rules and control strenghten following allow leads to Strenghten effect of Theory Y
  90. 90. Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Human Needs I Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Esteem Needs (self-esteem, recognition, status) Self-Actualization Needs (self-development and realization) Social Needs (sense of belonging, love) Safety Needs (security, protection) Physiological Needs (hunger, thirst)
  91. 91. Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Human Needs II Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Self- Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs GENERAL EXAMPLES ORGANIZATIONAL EXAMPLES Challenging Job Job Title Friends in Work Group Pension Plan Base Salary Achievement Status Friendship Stability Shelter
  92. 92. Herzberg‘s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>SALARY </li></ul><ul><li>ADMINISTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>SUPEVISION </li></ul><ul><li>COMPANY POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>WORKING </li></ul><ul><li>CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ACHIEVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RECOGNITION </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANCEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE OF WORK </li></ul>HYGIENE FACTORS MOTIVATORS
  93. 93. Parallels Among Need Theories of Motivation Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Achievement Work Itself Responsibility Advancement and Growth Recognition Supervision Interpersonal Relations Security Company Policies Pay Working Conditions Self-Actualization Needs Self-Esteem Esteem Needs Respect of Others Belongingness Needs Interpersonal Security Security Needs Physical Security Physiological Needs Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs Need for Affiliation Need for Power Need for Achievement Herzberg‘s Two-Factor Theory Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer‘s ERG Theory Other Key Needs Motivation Factors Hygiene Factors
  94. 94. Managerial Grid Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Concern for production Concern for people Country Club Management (1,9) Production is incidental to lack of conflict and „ good fellowship“ Team management (9,9) Production is from integration of task and human requirements Dampened Pendulum (5,5) (Middle of the road.) Push for production but don‘t go „all out“. Give some but not all all: „be fair but firm“ Task Management (9,1) Men are a commodity just as machines. A manager‘s responsibility is to plan, direct and control the work of those subordinate to him Impoverished Management (1,1) Effective production is unobtainable becaus people are lazy, apathetic and indifferent. Sound and mature relationships are difficult to achieve because, (human nature being what it is) conflict is inevitable
  95. 95. Situational Leadership Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. R4 Able and Willing or Confident R3 Able but Unwilling or Insecure R2 Unable but Willing or Confident R1 Unable and Unwilling or Insecure FOLLOWER READINESS MODERATE LOW HIGH FOLLOWER DIRECTED LEADER DIRECTED Share ideas and facilitate in decision- making Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance S3 S2 S4 S1 LEADER BEHAVIOUR TASK BEHAVIOUR (Guidance) (HIGH) (LOW) (Supportive Behaviour) RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR PARTICIPATING SELLING TELLING DELEGATING
  96. 96. Cultural Web Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. THE PARADIGM Power structures Control systems Rituals and routines Symbols Stories Organizational structures
  97. 97. Dynamics of Paradigm Change Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The paradigm Development of strategy Corporate Performance Implementation Step 1 Tighter controls Step 2 Reconstruct or develop new strategy Step 3 Abandon paradigm and adopt new one if unsatisfactory
  98. 98. Four Organizational Cultures Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Power Culture Task Culture Role Culture Person Culture
  99. 99. Integrated Model of Strategic Management Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Vision, values, and expectations Mission Goals, objectives <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>and choice </li></ul>Policies and procedures <ul><li>Situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Enviromental </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities/ </li></ul><ul><li>threats </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>resources and </li></ul><ul><li>competences </li></ul>Strategy implementation and planning Strategic control Why? What? How? Guidelines
  100. 100. M-O-S-T Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Mission Objectives Strategy Tactics WHAT an organization is seeking to do HOW an organization will achieve it
  101. 101. Network Analysis, PERT, CPA Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. 1 0 0 3 4 4 5 9 9 6 12 12 2 5 6 4 7 8 A 5 C 2 G 4 E 5 H 3 F 5 D 1 B 4 KEY: Activity Critical path Event Event number Earliest event time Latest event time
  102. 102. The Five Phases of Growth Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Large Small SIZE OF ORGANIZATION AGE OF ORGANIZATION Young Mature creativity direction delegation coordination collaboration leadership autonomy control red tape &quot;?&quot; evolution: stages of growth revolution: stages of crisis
  103. 103. The Chasm Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Technology Enthusiasts Visionaries Pragmatists Conservatives Skeptics The Chasm The Mainstream Market The Early Market
  104. 104. Inventory Profile Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Order quantity Q Time Inventory level Steady and predictable demand (D) Slope = demand rate Average inventory = Q / 2 Instantaneous deliveries at rate of D / Q per period Q / D
  105. 105. Economic Order Quantity Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Costs Order quantity Order costs Economic order quantity (EOQ) Total costs Holding costs
  106. 106. Pareto Curve for ABC-Products Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Cumulative % of total value % of total number of items Class C items Class A items Class B items
  107. 107. CIM-Concept Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. CAD/CAM CAD CAP CAM C A D PPS Production Programm Planning Quantity Planning Time and Capacity Planning Place Order Control Order CIM
  108. 108. The Business Process Re-engineering Approach Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Function 1 Function 2 Function 3 Function 4 Micro operations Customer needs fulfilled Business processes Customer needs Business processes Customer needs fulfilled Customer needs Micro operations Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4
  109. 109. Total Quality Management Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. <ul><li>Whole operation involved </li></ul><ul><li>Quality srategy </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Staff empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Involves customers and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Quality systems </li></ul><ul><li>Quality costing </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Quality planning </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical methods </li></ul><ul><li>Process performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>Error detection </li></ul><ul><li>Rectification </li></ul>Inspection Total quality management Quality control Quality assurance
  110. 110. Supply Chain Management Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Operation Second-tier suppliers First-tier suppliers First-tier customers Second-tier customers Supply side Demand side Purchasing and supply management Physical distribution management Logistics Materials management Supply chain management
  111. 111. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. R eturn on I nvestment ROI P ay B ack D iscounted C ash F low (DCF) Main methods of capital expenditure appraisal Net Present Value (NPV) Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
  112. 112. Net Present Value (NPV) Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. R eturn on I nvestment (ROI) P ay B ack I nternal R ate of R eturn (IRR) N et P resent V alue (NPV) D iscounted C as h F low (DCF) Main methods of capital expenditure appraisal
  113. 113. Variance Analysis Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Materials Usage Variance Wage Rate Variance Labour Efficiency Variance Materials Price Variance Materials Price Variance Labour Variance Variable Overhead Variance Fixed Overhead Variance Total Cost Variance Sales Volume Variance Sales Price Variance Total Sales Variance Profit Variance
  114. 114. The Link Between the Balance Sheets and the Income Statement Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Assets $170 Liabilities $100 Owner‘s equity $70 Revenues $480 Expenses $469.8 Net Profit $10.2 Assets $190 Liabilities $113 Owner‘s equity $77 Retained earnings $7 Dividends $3.2 Balance Sheet December 31, 2002 Income Statement Year 2002 Balance Sheet December 31, 2001
  115. 115. Working Capital Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Simple cycle of operations Cash Finished goods inventory Receivables Raw materials inventory
  116. 116. Financial Strategy Framework Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Due dilligence process Investor Investment strategy Alternative Investments Time to close deal Risk/Reward Space Financial Strategy Opportunity Time to out of cash Entrepreneurial concerns Future alternatives Sources and Deal Structure Debt Equity Other Business Strategy Technological Strategy Market Strategy Financial Requirements Asset Requirement Burn Rate Operating Requirements Working Capital
  117. 117. Investor Perceived Risk-Return Space Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. High Moderate Low Low Moderate High PERCEIVED RETURN PERCEIVED RISK Banks FFF Entrepreneur Angels VCs Realistic Investors
  118. 118. Du Pont Scheme Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Return on equity ROE = Earnings after tax Owner‘s equity Financial leverage mul ti plier Tax effects Return on invested capital ROIC = Earnings before interest and tax Invested capital Operating profit margin Earnings before interest and tax Sales Capital turnover Sales Invested capital Financial structure ratio Invested capital Owner‘s equity Financial cost ratio Earnings before tax Earnings before interest and tax Tax effect ratio Earnings after tax Earnings before tax Sales Operating costs Invested capital Owner‘s equity Cost of debt Tax rate Cash Working Capital requirement Fixed assets
  119. 119. The Drivers of Value Creation Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Operating margin = EBIT Sales Capital turnover = Sales Invested capital Tax effect = (1 – Taxe rate) Aftertax cost of debt Estimated cost of equity Economic, political, and social environments Market structure Competitive advantages and core competencies EBIT Invested capital (pretax ROIC) Expected after tax ROIC Return spread (ROIC – WACC) Percent of debt financing Percent of equity financing Weighted average cost of capital WACC Sustainability of growth Market Value Added (MVA) If the present value of the future stream of expected return spreads is positive, MVA is positive and the higher the growth, the more value created. If the present value of the future stream of expected return spreads is negative, MVA is negative and the higher the growth, the more value destroyed.
  120. 120. Business Design Process Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. What are my choices now? In the future? What are the key assumptions About customers and economics? What‘s important to customers? How can profit be made? What dimensions matter the most? How can I prepare for ongoing redesign? Which ones are best? Are the best choices internally consistens integratable? What‘s my best business design? How long will this design be valid? Economics Changing Customer Priorities Technology
  121. 121. The Company Center of Gravity Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Company The Customers The center of gravity The Company The Customers The Center of Gravity The Company The Customers The Center of Gravity The Entrepreneurial Phase The Growth Phase The Success Phase
  122. 122. The Traditional Value Chain Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Traditional Value Chain Start with Assets, Core Competencies Assets/ Core Competencies Inputs, Raw Material The Customer Channels Product/ Service Offering The Modern Value Chain Start with the Customer The Customer Channels Assets/ Core Competencies Inputs, Raw Material Offering
  123. 123. The Modern Value Chain Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Truly Understanding the Customer Customer Priorities Channels Assets/ Core Competencies Inputs, Raw Material Offering Purchase Criteria Customer Anger Preferences Power Decision-Making Process Buyer Behavior Functional Needs Systems Economics Purchase Occasion
  124. 124. Customer Solutions Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Profit 0
  125. 125. Product Pyramid Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Volume Price
  126. 126. Multicomponent Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Base Business Other Components
  127. 127. Switchboard Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Buyers Sellers
  128. 128. Time Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Cost Price $/Unit Time
  129. 129. Blockbuster Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Cost Revenue $/Project Project Type
  130. 130. Profit Multiplier Model Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Key Asset Other Forms
  131. 131. Entrepreneurial Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Base Business Spin-Outs
  132. 132. Specialization Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Return on Sales Generalist Specialist
  133. 133. Installed Base Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Profit Margin Hardware/Base Product Consumables/ Follow-on Product
  134. 134. De Facto Standard Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Market Share Profit Margin
  135. 135. Brand Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Price/Unit Market Price Brand Price
  136. 136. Specialty Product Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Revenue Five Years Ago Today S C S C 100 %
  137. 137. Local Leadership Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Profitability by Region Local Market Share 0
  138. 138. Transaction Scale Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Cost Revenue $/Unit Size of Transaction
  139. 139. Value Chain Position Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved.
  140. 140. Cycle Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. $/Unit Utilization Cost Price
  141. 141. After-Sale Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Follow-on Products/Services Base Product
  142. 142. New Product Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Time
  143. 143. Relative Market Share Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Relative Market Share Return on Sales
  144. 144. Experience Curve Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Cumulative Experience Cost/Unit
  145. 145. Low-Cost Business Design Profit Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. $/Unit Conventional Business Design Low Cost Business Design
  146. 146. GE's Business Design: „Sell the Solution, Not Just the Box“ Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Profit Zone Sell the Box, or ... Product ... Sell the Whole Solution Product Options Accessories Services Financing
  147. 147. The SMH Product Pyramid Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Profit Zone Omega, Longines, Rado Tissot, Certina, Mido, Pierre Balmain, Hamilton, Calvin Klein Swatch, Flik Flak Endura Lanco Blancpain
  148. 148. Coca-Cola's Business Design: Manage the Value Chain Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. Consumer Syrup Vending Fountain Bottling Logistics Grocery Distribution Coca-Cola Brand 1980 The Profit Zone Consumer Syrup Vending Fountain Bottling Logistics Grocery Distribution Coca-Cola Mega Brand Coca-Cola, diet Coca- Cola, Caff. Free, diet Caff. Free, Cherry, Diet Cherry 1996 Coca-Cola‘s participation, influence no participation
  149. 149. The Charles Schwab &quot;Switchboard&quot; Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Profit Zone Investors Mutual Fund Companies Schwab One Source Investors Mutual Fund Companies
  150. 150. Intel's Business Design: „Two Steps Ahead“ Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Profit Zone Cost Price $/Unit Quarters Post-Launch Q2 Q4 Q6 Q8 Q10 Intel AMD
  151. 151. Disney‘s Business Design Reinvention Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Profit Zone The Value Capture Cruises Publishing Videocassette Merchandise Hotels Retail Television Music Theme Parks Animated and Live-Action Films
  152. 152. The Thermo-Electron &quot;Spin-Out“ Business Design Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. The Profit Zone Thermo-Electron Thermo Trex Thermo Instrument Systems Thermedics Thermo Optek Thermo Spectra Thermo Voltek Thermo Sentron Thermolase Trex Medical
  153. 153. Microsoft's Business Design: Create-the-Standard Powered by www.drawpack.com ; All rights reserved. OEMs Windows Microsoft Applications Applications Developers Customers The Profit Zone
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