Urban Bus Designs for Wheelchair Users


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Urban Bus Designs for Wheelchair Users

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  • Urban Bus Designs for Wheelchair Users

    1. 1. Urban Bus Designs for Wheelchair Users Planner Network Conference 2005 Justice By Design? Anh Phan Nguyen Master’s City & Regional Planning UC Berkeley
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><li>What is in practice today in the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of urban transit design </li></ul><ul><li>Safety issues </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    3. 3. Research Focus: Urban Bus <ul><li>Common form of public transit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK/Europe Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexible form of transit system. </li></ul><ul><li>Safe, reliable, and affordable transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Myriad of problems accommodating people with disabilities (PWD); especially wheelchair users. </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    4. 4. Transit Needs <ul><li>Public transportation is a key lifeline to independence and sustainability for many people with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>As U.S. population ages and number of people with disabilities (PWD) rise, the use of assistive technology is critical to maintaining functionality in society. </li></ul><ul><li>6.8 million non-institutionalized Americans utilize mobility assist devices, including wheelchairs, scooters, walkers and canes (Kaye, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of wheelchair and walker users 2X 1980 - 1990 (LaPlante, 1996). </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    5. 5. Mobility Device Usage in the US (in 1,000's) (Kaye, 2000) Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies 64 78 0 142 Scooter 47 90 18 155 Power W/C 864 560 79 1,503 Manual W/C 897 614 88 1,599 All Wheelchairs (W/C) 65 < 18-64 < 18 yrs All Person Device
    6. 6. Transportation & Quality of Life <ul><li>1/3 of the 25 million people with disabilities report inadequate transportation as a significant barrier to successful integration into society (Project Action). </li></ul><ul><li>Wheelchair riders comprise < 0.3 percent of total bus passengers. </li></ul><ul><li>82% of wheelchair users indicate difficulty in using public transportation systems (NIDRR). </li></ul><ul><li>39% report wheelchair access problems (Kaye, 2000). </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    7. 7. High Floor Bus <ul><li>Unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanically Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Significant dwell time (2-4 min) </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    8. 8. <ul><li>Germany early 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Initial impetus to decrease dwell time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult w/children & strollers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People w/walking difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passenger encumbered w/luggage or shopping bags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ramp access @ various doors </li></ul><ul><li>Widely adopted internationally </li></ul>Low-Floor Bus Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    9. 9. Low-Floor Around the World <ul><li>UK/Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>late-1990s </li></ul></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    10. 10. Van Hool - Belgium <ul><li>2003 ‘Bus of the Year’ Award </li></ul><ul><li>AC Transit (SF-Bay Area) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A330 – 40’ (#143) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AG300 – 60’ (#57) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 or 4 doors configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Ramp @ 2 nd door </li></ul><ul><li>100% Low-Floor </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies A330 AG300
    11. 11. <ul><li>Wider doors </li></ul><ul><li>100% Low-Floor </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize “Kneeling” System </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in dwell time </li></ul>Van Hool – Improve Access Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    12. 12. Van Hool – Combi Orientation <ul><li>1 st U.S. transit agency to utilize forward- and rear-facing “combi” seating positions on urban bus </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    13. 13. Safety Issues (Source: RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety) Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    14. 14. Best Securement Design <ul><li>Wheelchair wheel clamps </li></ul><ul><li>Wheelchair tiedown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-point securement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupant Restraint System (shoulder & lap) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rear-facing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With stanchions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without stanchions </li></ul></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    15. 15. Wheelchair Wheel Clamps <ul><li>Good dwell time </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to use </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    16. 16. Wheelchair Tiedown & Occupant Restraint System (WTORS) <ul><li>Safest securement design (8-10g) </li></ul><ul><li>Cumbersome </li></ul><ul><li>Increase dwell times (~2-4 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective if not applied correctly </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    17. 17. Rear-facing Configurations <ul><li>Improve mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Wheelchair Tiedown & Occupant Restraint System (WTORS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand breaks & vertical stanchion </li></ul></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    18. 18. Front-facing vs. Rear-facing (Source: TCRB 50) <ul><li>Front-facing with ALL 4-point WTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Rear-facing, bulkhead, and stanchion </li></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    19. 19. Best Design? <ul><li>Rear-facing => Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Mix reviews from passengers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK/Europe (+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North America (+/-) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combi design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. does not utilize stanchion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use WTORS </li></ul></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    20. 20. Strategies <ul><li>Low-Floor Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Improved access and dwell times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con: Boarding/alighting via ramp requires driver operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Securement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less complex & cumbersome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Design = Equal access = Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participation & Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate with NGOs like ADAPT, AEI, and locals advocate groups </li></ul></ul>Intro Practice Comparison Safety Strategies
    21. 21. Thank You
    22. 22. Latin America <ul><li>Curitiba, Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Bogota, Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>100% low-floor </li></ul><ul><li>Off-fare ticketing </li></ul><ul><li>ITS, GPS </li></ul>
    23. 23. Japan
    24. 24. <ul><li>France Strasburg </li></ul><ul><li>ITS - AVL </li></ul><ul><li>100% low surface </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Design façade </li></ul>
    25. 25. Van Hool A330 <ul><li>134 forty-foot A330 </li></ul><ul><li>100% Low-Floor </li></ul><ul><li>3 doors configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Ramp @ 2 nd door </li></ul><ul><li>Combi-facing design </li></ul>
    26. 26. Van Hool AG300 <ul><li>57 sixty-foot articulated AG300 </li></ul><ul><li>4 doors configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Ramp @ 2 nd door </li></ul><ul><li>Combi-facing design </li></ul>
    27. 27. Van Hool
    28. 28. <ul><li>Large windows with 360-degree visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Spacious Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Stop Request Buttons </li></ul>
    29. 29. Bibliography <ul><li>Kaye, HS, Kang, T, LaPlante, MP. “Disability Statistics Report – Mobility Device Use in the United States”, June 2000. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Education, National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research. </li></ul><ul><li>Greg Shaw & Timothy Gillispie. &quot;Appropriate protection for wheelchair riders on public transit buses&quot; 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>TCRP Synthesis 50: “Use of Rear-Facing Position for Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses”. </li></ul><ul><li>RERC on Wheelchair Transportation Safety ( http://www.rercwts.pitt.edu ). </li></ul><ul><li>C.G.B. Mitchell. “Access to Transport System and Services An International Review”, January 1997. Canada Transportation Development Centre. </li></ul>