Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Part 1

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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Part 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb
  2. 2. Performance Objectives <ul><li>Define Anatomy and Physiology. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between structure and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Define basic directional terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the anatomical position. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major cavities of the body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Performance Objectives continued <ul><li>Describe the levels of organization of the body and give major characteristics of each level. </li></ul><ul><li>List the organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Define homeostasis and explain why it is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the negative-feedback system and the positive-feedback system and their relationship to homeostasis. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Performance Objectives continued <ul><li>Name and describe the three major planes of the body or organ. </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: Begin to study material now! Good students often review a chapter over 20 times before taking exams! If uncertain how to study, ask me for directions of SQR3! </li></ul><ul><li>Get help soon – if you need it! We want you to be succesful! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Slide 1.1 <ul><li>The Human Body – An Orientation </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Anatomy – study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology – study of how the body and its parts work or function </li></ul>
  6. 6. Slide 1.2a <ul><li>Anatomy – Levels of Study </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Gross Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily observable </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.1
  7. 7. Slide 1.2b <ul><li>Anatomy – Levels of Study </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Microscopic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very small structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only be viewed with a microscope </li></ul></ul>Figure 14.4
  8. 8. Slide 1.3 <ul><li>Levels of Structural Organization </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.1
  9. 9. Slide 1.4 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the external body covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects deeper tissue from injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizes vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of cutaneous nerve receptors </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2a
  10. 10. Slide 1.5 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects and supports body organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides muscle attachment for movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of blood cell formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores minerals </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2b
  11. 11. Slide 1.6 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces heat </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2c
  12. 12. Slide 1.7 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-acting control system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to internal and external change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activates muscles and glands </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2d
  13. 13. Slide 1.8 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes regulatory hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 1.2e
  14. 14. Organ System Overview Slide 1.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 1.2f
  15. 15. Slide 1.10 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns fluids to blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposes of debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in immunity </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2g
  16. 16. Slide 1.11 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps blood supplied with oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2h
  17. 17. Slide 1.12 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for nutrient absorption into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates indigestible material </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2i
  18. 18. Slide 1.13 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Urinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates nitrogenous wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains acid – base balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 1.2j
  19. 19. Slide 1.14 <ul><li>Organ System Overview </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of offspring </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2k
  20. 20. Slide 1.15 <ul><li>Necessary Life Functions </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Maintain Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to sense changes and react </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break-down and delivery of nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Slide 1.16a <ul><li>Necessary Life Functions </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Metabolism – chemical reactions within the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making body structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of waste from metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Slide 1.16b <ul><li>Necessary Life Functions </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of future generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing of cell size and number </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Slide 1.17a <ul><li>Survival Needs </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals for energy and cell building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for chemical reactions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Slide 1.17b <ul><li>Survival Needs </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60–80% of body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for metabolic reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stable body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate </li></ul>
  25. 25. Slide 1.18 <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Maintenance of a stable internal environment = a dynamic state of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease </li></ul>
  26. 26. Slide 1.19a <ul><li>Maintaining Homeostasis </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends information to control center </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Slide 1.19b <ul><li>Maintaining Homeostasis </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><ul><li>Control center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines set point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines appropriate response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a means for response to the stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Slide 1.20a <ul><li>Feedback Mechanisms </li></ul>Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works like a household thermostat </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Feedback Mechanisms <ul><li>Positive Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the body this occurs only in blood clotting and child birth </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. The Language of Anatomy Slide 1.21 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Exact terms are used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Orientation and Directional Terms Slide 1.22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 1.1
  32. 33. Orientation and Directional Terms Slide 1.23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 1.1 (cont)
  33. 34. Body Landmarks Slide 1.24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Anterior </li></ul>Figure 1.5a
  34. 35. Body Landmarks Slide 1.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Posterior </li></ul>Figure 1.5b
  35. 36. Body Planes Slide 1.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.6
  36. 37. Body Cavities Slide 1.27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.7

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