The Urgent Need for Genuine
                   School Reform in Rhode Island,
                       and How to Achieve It...
Key Messages
• Education is economic and civil rights issue
• RI: No state spends more to get less, and
  achievement gaps...
Public Education in
  America: 2009


                      3
By the Numbers
• 49.8 million students
• 3.6 million teachers
• 98,800 schools
• 13,800 districts
• Total spending: approx...
...in Rhode Island
              • ~150k students
              • ~11k teachers
              • ~325 schools
             ...
US Education System
Defining Characteristics
•   High degree of state & local autonomy

    •   No scale / R&D

    •   No ...
Why Does Education
   Reform Matter?
Answer 1: The Economy

                        7
In 1980, college graduates earned 50%
               more than those with only a high school
               diploma. Today...
Nearly All of 13 million new jobs created
             from 1992–2002 required at least some
            college experienc...
Implications:
  Today’s economy
 requires education.
Jobs for dropouts are
        gone.
                        10
So what has
Rhode Island done to
 meet this challenge?

                        11
“Inputs” Are Up
 Dramatically...


                   12
Teachers with a Masters
            Degree Up 107 Percent
                                          Percent of Teachers wi...
Teacher Experience
                      Level Up 75 Percent
                                                   Average Ye...
Student-Teacher Ratio
               Reduced by 33 Percent
                                        National Average       ...
Per-Pupil Spending in RI
               Is Up by 165 Percent
                                        National Average     ...
But, Despite a Huge
 Increase in Inputs,
Outcomes Are Flat...

                       17
National Assessment
                     Scores Are Flat
                           Age 9 Reading                 Age 13 R...
National Assessment
                     Scores Are Flat
                           Age 9 Reading                  Age 13 ...
SAT Scores Are Flat;
                      Reading Went Down
                                              Reading        ...
74%
              Rhode Island’s High
            School Graduation Rate
Source: RIDE, 2009                   20
60%
               Woonsocket High
            School Graduation Rate
Source: RIDE, 2009                   21
57%
             Pawtucket Shea High
            School Graduation Rate
Source: RIDE, 2009                   22
52%
              Providence Central
            High School Graduation
                     Rate
Source: RIDE, 2009      ...
52%
               Central Falls High
            School Graduation Rate
Source: RIDE, 2009                   24
49%
                          Hope High School
                          Graduation Rate
Source: RIDE, 2009. Figure is for...
35%
              Rhode Island High
           School Graduates Ready
                 for College
Source: Jay Greene and ...
Top 5 College Choices for
            Barrington High School Graduates


                      1 URI
                     ...
6-Year College Graduation Rates

                           All US 4-Year Colleges                                        ...
Situation Is Worse at
             Associates Degree Colleges

               • At CCRI, 58% of students require remedial
...
4 th
              Rhode Island’s National
                Rank in Per-Pupil
                    Spending
Source: National...
40 th
             Rhode Island’s National
                Rank in Student
                 Achievement
Source: National A...
No State
Spends More to Get
       Less


                     32
The World Is Flat:
Global Competition


                      33
Even Our Best Students (Top 5%) Rank
                   23rd out of 29 OECD Countries




Source: OECD PISA 2003; slide co...
... even our Wealthiest Students (Top 5%)
                Rank 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries




Source: OECD PISA 2003; s...
Our Performance Declines Dramatically
                the Longer Our Students Are in School




Source: NCES Highlights fr...
Trends Are Even Worse for Science




Source: NCES Highlights from TIMSS; slide courtesy of Education Trust   37
Our Graduation Rate Trails Most
                           Industrialized Countries




Source: OECD “Education at a Glanc...
Tops in College Participation,
            but Bottom Half in Completion
                                    College Parti...
Implications:
  Even our wealthiest
  students face a stark
achievement gap in the
global market for talent

             ...
But what about the
achievement gap for
 children of color?


                      41
Why Does Education
  Reform Matter?
Answer 2: Civil Rights

                         42
The Majority of Black & Latino 4th
           Graders, Nationwide, Are Illiterate
                              Below Basi...
The Majority of Black & Latino 4th
           Graders, Nationwide, Are Illiterate
                              Below Basi...
African American and Latino
              12th Graders Read at Same Level
                   As White 8th Graders




Sour...
... the Same Is True in Math




Source: NAEP; Slide Courtesy Education Trust            45
OK, the national stats are
 bad. But what about
     Rhode Island?


                             46
0
                              10
                                            20
                                        ...
0
                                    10
                                               20
                               ...
Why Focus on the
Hispanic-White Gap?


                      49
RI Urban Districts
                    Are Mostly Hispanic
             Other                                             ...
So, what are the
                                 solutions?


Source: National Assessment for Educational Progress   51
Solution #1:
More Effective Teachers
Boston: One Third of Teachers Had No
             Measurable Impact on Skills of Students




Notes: 10th grade students a...
Simple Question to RI Urban
       Superintendent:

“If you had to rehire all of your
   high school teachers, what
percen...
Answer:

“20 Percent.”



                55
There Is Enormous
            Variation Among Teachers




Source: Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the...
Dallas Study Compares Two Groups
            of Students, Both Start 3rd Grade at
              Same Level of Math Achieve...
Three Years Later, One Group VASTLY
             Outperforms Other; the Only Difference:
               Group 1 Had 3 Effe...
Same Study Examined Reading
                            Achievement...
                                                   ...
... and the Results Were Similar

                                 Beginning of 3rd Grade                           End of...
This Is What Closing the
            Achivement Gap Looks Like




Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasi...
So how are we
distributing our most
 effective teachers?

                        62
High-Poverty Schools More Likely
             to Have Low-Aptitude Teachers
                           Top-Quartile SAT Sc...
High-Poverty Schools More Likely to Have
             Teachers from Non-Competitive Colleges

                            ...
College Seniors Who Plan to Enter
              Education Have Very Low Scores




Source: General Test Percentage Distrib...
Of 23 possible college majors, only
           three had lower SAT scores than
             prospective education majors'
...
Why don’t more of our
 best and brightest go
    into teaching?

                         67
Most Teachers Are
                              Women
                                                                    ...
In the Past, Women Had
 Fewer Career Choices




                         69
The Huge Impact of
             Equal Rights Movement
                                        Women 25-34 with 4-year Coll...
52%
                  Working women with
                  college degrees who
                  were teachers: 1964
Sourc...
15%
                  Working women with
                  college degrees who
                  were teachers: 1996
Sourc...
Why Has Teacher
                   Effectiveness Declined?
              •     More career opportunities for women and
   ...
How We Reward
    Teachers Today:

              1. Seniority
              2. Certifications


Neither of these is correla...
Teacher Seniority After First 3 Years
             not Correlated to Achievement




Source: Identifying Effective Teacher...
Type of Certification not
            Correlated to Achievement




Source: Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performanc...
Implications:

•   Effective teachers are critical to raising student
    achievement, especially for low-performing child...
Organizations Focused on
     Raising Educator Effectiveness
     Teachers                   Policy                 Leader...
Solution #2:
New, High-Performing
      Schools

                       79
What They Want You to Believe:
           “Blame the Kid” / “Blame the Parent”




Source: “The Shape of the Starting Line...
What Can Be Done?
 There are two general approaches:
 Improve the current system                                         C...
Creating Alternatives:
  Charter Schools


                         82
Charter Schools Are:
• Public schools, Tuition-free, Non-selective
• Greater autonomy & accountability
• Authorized in RI ...
Charters Cream... the
                  Disadvantaged Kids!
              •     Charter schools serve greater percentages ...
Among Rhode Island’s 11 Charters, Some
            Outperform Districts; None Close Gap
                                  ...
Bottom Line:
Some RI charters are closing gap, some
 are no better than district, but none
      have fully closed gap - y...
Nationally, Many Charters
Have CLOSED THE GAP

• Knowledge Is Power Program “KIPP”
• Achievement First
• Uncommon Schools
...
Roxbury Prep Reversed the Gap:
            Black Students Outperform Whites




Slide Courtesy Whitney Tilson / Democrats ...
KIPP




Source: NY State Dept. of Education; Slide Courtesy Seth Andrew / Democracy Prep   89
Amistad / Achievement
                       First




Source: CT State Dept. of Education; Slide Courtesy Seth Andrew / D...
North Star /
                    Uncommon Schools




Source: NJ State Dept. of Education; Slide Courtesy Seth Andrew / De...
Required Reading
   What do high-
performing schools
  do differently to
   achieve these
 results? Read this
     book fo...
Why Aren’t Schools Like
These in Rhode Island?
•   Until last year, RI had one of the country’s worst charter
    school l...
Update:
We’re Tackling These!


                        94
2008:
Charter School Ban
     Expires


                     95
2008: New Charter Law
 Creates Third Pathway
•   Version 1: District-affiliated (3 operating)
    •   Must be part of tradi...
This Is How We Passed Mayoral
      Academy Charter Law in 2008

Nat’l



Local

            Mayors: Cumberland Mayor Dan ...
Implications
•   Public charter schools provide a powerful alternative to
    parents who have no options

•   Rhode Islan...
Overall Implications:
Stop Tinkering in the
     Periphery!


                        99
Get Upset; Stop
Accepting Mediocrity!


                        100
How Would You React:

• ... if Cox Cable TV only delivered 40% of the
  channels you paid for?
• ... if Verizon dropped 85...
So Then Why Do You Accept This?

                                                                        You receive a
   ...
Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/richard_wasserman/3544239679/   103
Programs vs. Policy
      Instead of this...                          ... do this:
                                       ...
Symptoms vs. Cause
       “fix symptoms”                          “fix cause”
    After-school reading tutor         Recruit...
Focus on solving the
problem, not feeling good.

   Attack causes, not
      symptoms.

                             106
So why Should National
 Education Reformers
Focus on Rhode Island?

                         107
Rhode Island Kids
Face Real Challenges


                       108
Highest Rates of
                       Childhood Poverty
              • Rhode Island childhood poverty rate is the
     ...
Highest Rate of Special
               Education Enrollment
                                    Up 56% since              ...
But, Rhode Island Has
    Some Unique
     Advantages...

                        111
Small State Comparable
               in Size to a District
                                         Student Enrollment, O...
Our largest district is
            just 5 times the size of
           one Chicago high school

Comparison based on 25,19...
There’s No Shortage
                          of Money
            $16,000
                                               ...
Ideal Location on
Northeast Corridor
          Boston
          RI



 NYC


                     115
Significant Intellectual
       Capital




       (Among Others)
                          116
Significant Intellectual
Our Mission
        Capital
The mission of Lifespan is to improve the health status of the people ...
Two Such National
Leaders Join Me Today:
        Effective Teachers:



   High-Performing New Schools:




              ...
Placeholder: Presentations
from Teach for America and
      Democracy Prep
         Go Here


                            ...
Together WE CAN give every Rhode
 Island child access to the world’s best
educational opportunities. Together WE
     WILL...
Thank you!
      About Me:
http://angusdavis.com/
@angusdav on Twitter
 blog.bestforkids.org

                         120
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Reforming Education in Rhode Island

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Presentation by Angus Davis to current and former members of the Board of Directors of the Rhode Island Foundation. May 21, 2009. Adapted from a presentation of national significance by Whitney Tilson with additional Rhode Island-specific research by Angus Davis, member, Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education, State of Rhode Island.

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  • Reforming Education in Rhode Island

    1. 1. The Urgent Need for Genuine School Reform in Rhode Island, and How to Achieve It Angus Davis - May 21, 2009 - Rhode Island Foundation http://blog.bestforkids.org/ Twitter: @angusdav - About me: http://angusdavis.com - Email: angus.davis@gmail.com Adapted from Whitney Tilson’s Original Work, Plus New RI-Specific Research
    2. 2. Key Messages • Education is economic and civil rights issue • RI: No state spends more to get less, and achievement gaps among largest in nation • Solutions: teacher effectiveness, new schools • Stop “tinkering in the periphery”: focus on policy, and programs for cause, not symptom • Tough love: focus on outcomes, always • “By any means necessary” 2
    3. 3. Public Education in America: 2009 3
    4. 4. By the Numbers • 49.8 million students • 3.6 million teachers • 98,800 schools • 13,800 districts • Total spending: approx. half a trillion annually (more than defense budget) 4
    5. 5. ...in Rhode Island • ~150k students • ~11k teachers • ~325 schools • ~36 districts • Education spending $1.9 billion • 2000-2006: State education aid up 45% on per-pupil basis; overall spending up 39% Source: RIPEC Education in Rhode Island, 2008 5
    6. 6. US Education System Defining Characteristics • High degree of state & local autonomy • No scale / R&D • No common metric of success • Fiscal inequity • Entrenched bureaucratic system • Top-down governance • Little or no innovation • Delivery system has changed little for generations 6
    7. 7. Why Does Education Reform Matter? Answer 1: The Economy 7
    8. 8. In 1980, college graduates earned 50% more than those with only a high school diploma. Today, they earn almost double. 2006 Median Earnings Less than High School 20,506 High School Diploma 27,384 70 % Some College 31,789 m or e Associate Degree 35,274 Bachelors Degree 46,435 12,500 25,000 37,500 50,000 Source: 2007 Annual Social & Economic Supplement, Current Population Survey, US Census Bureau 8
    9. 9. Nearly All of 13 million new jobs created from 1992–2002 required at least some college experience; jobs for those without college experience declined by 300,000! Less than High School High School 2-Year Academic Millions of 2-Year Technical New Jobs Some College 4-Year Degree -1.75 0 1.75 3.50 5.25 7.00 Source: Employment Policy Foundation tabulations of Bureau of Labor Statistics / Census 9 Current Population Survey data; MTC Institute
    10. 10. Implications: Today’s economy requires education. Jobs for dropouts are gone. 10
    11. 11. So what has Rhode Island done to meet this challenge? 11
    12. 12. “Inputs” Are Up Dramatically... 12
    13. 13. Teachers with a Masters Degree Up 107 Percent Percent of Teachers with Masters Degree 60% 56% 53% 45% 49% 30% 27% 15% 0% 1970 1980 1990 2003 Source: National Center for Education Statistics 13
    14. 14. Teacher Experience Level Up 75 Percent Average Years of Experience 15 years 10 years 5 years 0 years 1970 1980 1990 2003 Source: National Center for Education Statistics 14
    15. 15. Student-Teacher Ratio Reduced by 33 Percent National Average Rhode Island 21.7 22.0 20.0 18.7 17.2 16.2 15.9 16.5 14.6 13.4 11.0 5.5 0 1970 1980 1990 2003 Source: National Center for Education Statistics 15
    16. 16. Per-Pupil Spending in RI Is Up by 165 Percent National Average Rhode Island $13,000 $11,976 All Figures Adjusted for Inflation to Constant 2004-2005 dollars $10,500 $9,079 $9,053 $8,000 $6,477 $7,526 $5,500$4,522 $5,536 $4,141 $3,000 1970 1980 1990 2003 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2006 Digest of Education Statistics 16
    17. 17. But, Despite a Huge Increase in Inputs, Outcomes Are Flat... 17
    18. 18. National Assessment Scores Are Flat Age 9 Reading Age 13 Reading Age 17 Reading Age 9 Math Age 13 Math Age 17 Math 350 + 0% 300 - 1% + 5% + 1% 250 + 9% + 4% 200 150 1972 1980 1990 2004 Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and NCES 2006 Digest of Education Statistics 18
    19. 19. National Assessment Scores Are Flat Age 9 Reading Age 13 Reading Age 17 Reading Age 9 Math Age 13 Math Age 17 Math 350 $11,976 (+ 165%) + 0% 300 $9,079 - 1% + 5% + 1% 250 + 9% $6,477 + 4% 200$4,522 150 1972 1980 1990 2004 Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and NCES 2006 Digest of Education Statistics 18
    20. 20. SAT Scores Are Flat; Reading Went Down Reading Mathematics 800 650 500 508 501 501 495 350 200 1987 1995 2000 2005 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Table 134 19
    21. 21. 74% Rhode Island’s High School Graduation Rate Source: RIDE, 2009 20
    22. 22. 60% Woonsocket High School Graduation Rate Source: RIDE, 2009 21
    23. 23. 57% Pawtucket Shea High School Graduation Rate Source: RIDE, 2009 22
    24. 24. 52% Providence Central High School Graduation Rate Source: RIDE, 2009 23
    25. 25. 52% Central Falls High School Graduation Rate Source: RIDE, 2009 24
    26. 26. 49% Hope High School Graduation Rate Source: RIDE, 2009. Figure is for Hope Info Tech School, 2007-2008 4-year grad rate is 48.6% 25
    27. 27. 35% Rhode Island High School Graduates Ready for College Source: Jay Greene and Greg Forster, Manhattan Institute, 2003. Public High School Graduation and College Readiness 26 Rates in the United States. See http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_03.htm
    28. 28. Top 5 College Choices for Barrington High School Graduates 1 URI 2 RIC 3 Northeastern 4 Johnson & Wales 5 Boston University Source: Barrington Times, July 21, 2005. “220 of 244 BHS graduates will attend college” by Josh Bickford. 27
    29. 29. 6-Year College Graduation Rates All US 4-Year Colleges 55% 1 URI 57% 2 RIC 43% 3 Northeastern 60% 4 Johnson & Wales 53% 5 Boston University 75% Source: US Dept. of Ed, Integrated Post-secondary Education Data System (“IPEDS”) Graduation Rate Survey (“GRS”). 28
    30. 30. Situation Is Worse at Associates Degree Colleges • At CCRI, 58% of students require remedial courses to make up for failure of K-12 system • Only 10% of CCRI students graduate with a 2-year degree within 3 years Source for CCRI graduation data: US Department of Education, IPEDS, http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cool/; remedial course enrollment data based on freshman entering Fall 2002; source: Rhode Island Board of Governors for Higher 29 Education, April 2005 http://www.ribghe.org/2005rireport.pdf
    31. 31. 4 th Rhode Island’s National Rank in Per-Pupil Spending Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Table 167 30
    32. 32. 40 th Rhode Island’s National Rank in Student Achievement Source: National Assessment for Educational Progress 31
    33. 33. No State Spends More to Get Less 32
    34. 34. The World Is Flat: Global Competition 33
    35. 35. Even Our Best Students (Top 5%) Rank 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries Source: OECD PISA 2003; slide courtesy of Education Trust 34
    36. 36. ... even our Wealthiest Students (Top 5%) Rank 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries Source: OECD PISA 2003; slide courtesy of Education Trust 35
    37. 37. Our Performance Declines Dramatically the Longer Our Students Are in School Source: NCES Highlights from TIMSS; slide courtesy of Education Trust 36
    38. 38. Trends Are Even Worse for Science Source: NCES Highlights from TIMSS; slide courtesy of Education Trust 37
    39. 39. Our Graduation Rate Trails Most Industrialized Countries Source: OECD “Education at a Glance” 2003; slide courtesy of Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform 38
    40. 40. Tops in College Participation, but Bottom Half in Completion College Participation College Completion Korea Japan Greece Portugal Finland United Kingdom Belgium Australia United States Switzerland Ireland Denmark Ireland Poland New Zealand Australia France France Iceland Hungary Korea Spain Belgium New Zealand Sweden Netherlands Slovak Republic Norway Poland Portugal United States Sweden Spain Czech Republic Netherlands Germany Hungary Czech Republic Austria Mexico Denmark Norway Slovak Republic Finland Iceland Turkey Switzerland Austria Mexico Germany Turkey Italy 0 12.5 25 37.5 50 0 7.5 15 22.5 30 Source: OECD, National Report Card on Higher Education (measuringup,highereducation.org); Slide 39 Courtesy Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform
    41. 41. Implications: Even our wealthiest students face a stark achievement gap in the global market for talent 40
    42. 42. But what about the achievement gap for children of color? 41
    43. 43. Why Does Education Reform Matter? Answer 2: Civil Rights 42
    44. 44. The Majority of Black & Latino 4th Graders, Nationwide, Are Illiterate Below Basic Basic Advanced/Proficient 100 13% 16% 41% 42% 75 29% 30% 50 35% 32% 58% 58% 25 24% 27% 0 Black Latino White Asian Source: 2005 data, National Center for Education Statistics NAEP Data Explorer; Slide Courtesy 43 Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform
    45. 45. The Majority of Black & Latino 4th Graders, Nationwide, Are Illiterate Below Basic Basic Advanced/Proficient 100 13% 16% “Below Basic” 75 41% 42% 29% 30% readers in 4th grade can’t 50 read a simple 35% 32% children’s 25 58% 58% book 24% 27% 0 Black Latino White Asian Source: 2005 data, National Center for Education Statistics NAEP Data Explorer; Slide Courtesy 43 Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform
    46. 46. African American and Latino 12th Graders Read at Same Level As White 8th Graders Source: NAEP; Slide Courtesy Education Trust 44
    47. 47. ... the Same Is True in Math Source: NAEP; Slide Courtesy Education Trust 45
    48. 48. OK, the national stats are bad. But what about Rhode Island? 46
    49. 49. 0 10 20 30 40 Alab 12 am Source: NAEP 2007 Alas a 13 k Ariz a 28 ona Arka n 18 Calif sas 26 orni Colo a 25 Con rado nec 33 Dela ticut 17 Dist ware rict of C olum 5 bia Flor id Geo a 21 rgia Haw 12 13 ai Idah i 25 o Illino 21 is India 13 na Grade 8 Reading Gap 19 Iowa Kans 24 Kent as u Loui cky siana Main Mar e Mass achu yland 18 s Mich etts Minn igan e 272628 Miss sota issip Miss pi o 22 Mon uri tana Neb 16 ras Nev ka 24 New ada Ham 18 New pshire 22 New Jersey M 20 Newexico 29 Nor York th C 24 Nor aroli th D na akot Oh a 14 Okla io 25 ho Ore ma 26 Penn gon 28 sylva Largest Hispanic-White Rho d nia Grade 8 Reading 34 Sout e Island h 24 Sout Carolina achievement gap in the nation hD Tennakota 15 esse Texae s 2424 Utah Verm o RI Hispanic-White Gap: Virg nt 14 Was inia h Wes ington tV Wis irginia co 23 22 Wyo nsin 21 ming 47
    50. 50. 0 10 20 30 40 Alab 29 am Source: NAEP 2007 Alas a 20 k Ariz a 27 ona Arka n 25 Calif sas orni Colo a 3132 Con rado nec 39 Dela ticut 27 Dist ware rict 0 of C olum bia 10 Flor 18 id Geo a 22 rgia Haw 15 ai Idah i o Illino 26 is Grade 8 Math Gap India 24 23 na Iowa Kans 2826 Kent as u Loui cky siana 000 Main Mar e 28 Mass yland 35 achu s Mich etts 26 Minn igan e 28 0 Miss sota issip Miss pi o 17 0 Mon uri tana Neb 29 ras Nev ka New ada Ham New pshire 27 New Jersey M Newexico 2524 2526 Nor York th C 22 Nor aroli 0 th D na akot Oh a 15 Okla io 21 ho Grade 8 Math Ore ma Penn gon 2829 sylva Rho d nia 33 Sout e Island h 3rd Largest Hispanic-White 21 Sout Carolina achievement gap in the nation hD Tennakota 18 esse Texae 23 23 s 31 Utah 0 Verm o RI Hispanic-White Gap: Virg nt 21 Was inia h 27 Wes ington 0 tV Wis irginia co 24 Wyo nsin 16 ming 48
    51. 51. Why Focus on the Hispanic-White Gap? 49
    52. 52. RI Urban Districts Are Mostly Hispanic Other Other White White 7% 3% 16% Hispanic 12% 29% African American White 14% African American Hispanic 45% 22% 59% Hispanic 70% African American 23% Providence Central Falls Pawtucket 25,644 students 3,644 students 9,165 students Across all these districts, 52% of all students are Hispanic Consider the implications of having the nation’s largest Hispanic-White achievement gap Source: RIDE Information Works! 2008 for 2006-2007 school year 50
    53. 53. So, what are the solutions? Source: National Assessment for Educational Progress 51
    54. 54. Solution #1: More Effective Teachers
    55. 55. Boston: One Third of Teachers Had No Measurable Impact on Skills of Students Notes: 10th grade students at non-selective Boston public schools; average student scores prior to10th grade were comparable 53 (670-687 range); excluded bilingual and special education students. Source: Boston Public Schools, Bain & Company, 3/31/98
    56. 56. Simple Question to RI Urban Superintendent: “If you had to rehire all of your high school teachers, what percentage would you rehire?” 54
    57. 57. Answer: “20 Percent.” 55
    58. 58. There Is Enormous Variation Among Teachers Source: Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job, Hamilton Project, April 2006; 56 Slide Courtesy Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform
    59. 59. Dallas Study Compares Two Groups of Students, Both Start 3rd Grade at Same Level of Math Achievement Beginning of 3rd Grade 100 75 55% 57% 50 25 0 Group 1 Group 2 Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student 57 Achievement, 1997. Slide courtesy of Ed Trust
    60. 60. Three Years Later, One Group VASTLY Outperforms Other; the Only Difference: Group 1 Had 3 Effective Teachers; Group 2 Had 3 Ineffective Teachers Beginning of 3rd Grade End of 5th Grade 100 76% 75 55% 57% 50 27% 25 0 Group 1: Assigned to 3 Effective Teachers Group 2: Assigned to 3 Ineffective Teachers Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student 58 Achievement, 1997. Slide courtesy of Ed Trust
    61. 61. Same Study Examined Reading Achievement... Beginning of 3rd Grade 100 75 59% 60% 50 25 0 Group 1 Group 2 Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student 59 Achievement, 1997. Slide courtesy of Ed Trust
    62. 62. ... and the Results Were Similar Beginning of 3rd Grade End of 5th Grade 100 76% 75 55% 57% 50 42% 25 0 Group 1: Assigned to 3 Effective Teachers Group 2: Assigned to 3 Ineffective Teachers Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student 60 Achievement, 1997. Slide courtesy of Ed Trust
    63. 63. This Is What Closing the Achivement Gap Looks Like Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student 61 Achievement, 1997. Slide courtesy of Ed Trust
    64. 64. So how are we distributing our most effective teachers? 62
    65. 65. High-Poverty Schools More Likely to Have Low-Aptitude Teachers Top-Quartile SAT Scores Bottom-Quartile SAT Scores 40 30 20 10 0 High-Poverty Schools Low-Poverty Schools Source: The Real Value of Teachers, Education Trust, Winter 2004 63
    66. 66. High-Poverty Schools More Likely to Have Teachers from Non-Competitive Colleges % of Teachers Who Attended Non-Competitive Colleges 40 30 20 10 0 High-Poverty Schools Low-Poverty Schools Source: The Real Value of Teachers, Education Trust, Winter 2004 64
    67. 67. College Seniors Who Plan to Enter Education Have Very Low Scores Source: General Test Percentage Distribution of Scores Within Intended Broad Graduate Major Field Based on Seniors and 65 NonenrolledCollege Graduates, Educational Testing Service, www.ets.org/Media/Tests/GRE/pdf/5_01738_table_4.pdf
    68. 68. Of 23 possible college majors, only three had lower SAT scores than prospective education majors' combined average score of 961 out of 1600. Sources: Teaching at Risk-Progress and Potholes, The Teaching Commission, March 2006; Teacher Pay Reforms, Center for 66 American Progress, December 2006.
    69. 69. Why don’t more of our best and brightest go into teaching? 67
    70. 70. Most Teachers Are Women These figures are virtually unchanged since the 1960s, when the number was 69%. Recent changes include More men in elementary, Men more women in secondary. 21% Women 79% Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Table 68. Figures from 2001. 68
    71. 71. In the Past, Women Had Fewer Career Choices 69
    72. 72. The Huge Impact of Equal Rights Movement Women 25-34 with 4-year College Degree Women 25-34 in the Workforce 100% By comparison, the fraction of college Doubled educated young men increased by only 50 73% 74% 75% percent over the same period. 65% 46% 50% 37% 26% Tripled 21% 23% 25% 12% 9% 0% 1964 1970 1980 1990 1996 Source: National Bureau of Economic Research, Corcoran, Evans & Schwab: quot;Changing Labor Market 70 Opportunities for Women and the Quality of Teachers 1957-1992.quot;
    73. 73. 52% Working women with college degrees who were teachers: 1964 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Table 167 71
    74. 74. 15% Working women with college degrees who were teachers: 1996 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Table 167 72
    75. 75. Why Has Teacher Effectiveness Declined? • More career opportunities for women and minorities • Ineffective recruiting and training practices • Ineffective schools of education (80% of RI certified teachers graduate from RIC) • Lack of accountability in the system • Increasing difficulty of removing ineffective teachers • Outstanding performance is not rewarded; no differential pay (Providence laid off teacher of the year -- TWICE) Slide Courtesy Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform 73
    76. 76. How We Reward Teachers Today: 1. Seniority 2. Certifications Neither of these is correlated strongly with student achievement 74
    77. 77. Teacher Seniority After First 3 Years not Correlated to Achievement Source: Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job, Hamilton Project, April 2006 75
    78. 78. Type of Certification not Correlated to Achievement Source: Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job, Hamilton Project, April 2006 76
    79. 79. Implications: • Effective teachers are critical to raising student achievement, especially for low-performing children • We should reward our best teachers and remove ineffective ones • We should measure behaviors correlated to raising achievement (past effectiveness), rather focusing on inputs like seniority that have little or no impact 77
    80. 80. Organizations Focused on Raising Educator Effectiveness Teachers Policy Leaders • Teach for America • National Council • New Leaders for on Teacher Quality New Schools • The New Teacher Project • Education Trust • Building Excellent Schools • Teacher U • Many others • Education Pioneers If you are serious about raising educator effectiveness, engage these organizations in Rhode Island! 78
    81. 81. Solution #2: New, High-Performing Schools 79
    82. 82. What They Want You to Believe: “Blame the Kid” / “Blame the Parent” Source: “The Shape of the Starting Line” - RIFTHP/NEARI, May 2006 80
    83. 83. What Can Be Done? There are two general approaches: Improve the current system Create Alternatives to It • More choice among public schools • Create choices outside of the traditional public • Hire/train better principals and empower them school system via public charter schools, tuition • Better measure student achievement and vouchers and/or tax credits teacher effectiveness • This will create better options and spur the • Hold principals and teachers accountable for regular public schools to improve, benefiting improving student achievement even the students “left behind” • Merit and “hardship” pay for teachers • Renegotiate onerous provisions of teacher contracts (make it harder to get tenure and easier to remove ineffective teachers; eliminate bumping, etc.) • Eliminate social promotion • Longer school day and year • Close or break-up chronically underperforming schools Slide courtesy of Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform 81
    84. 84. Creating Alternatives: Charter Schools 82
    85. 85. Charter Schools Are: • Public schools, Tuition-free, Non-selective • Greater autonomy & accountability • Authorized in RI by Board of Regents • Reviewed & renewed every 5 years • In many communities are the only option available to parents seeking alternatives • 4000 nationally, 11 in Rhode Island 83
    86. 86. Charters Cream... the Disadvantaged Kids! • Charter schools serve greater percentages of low- income children and children of color than traditional district schools State Charters 68.5% 70 57.4% 52.5 43.8% 39.2% 35 30.8% 18.6% 21.2% 17.5 9% 3.2% 2.1% 0.7% 1.3% 0 Hi Af W As O Lo sp rica hit ian th w- an n e er Inc ic Am om eric e an Source: RIDE, based on 2008-09 Enrollments 84
    87. 87. Among Rhode Island’s 11 Charters, Some Outperform Districts; None Close Gap 93% Barrington 86% 79% 88% East Greenwich 79% 75% Goal 63% Paul Cuffee Charter 56% 52% compare to: 46% Closing gap, Providence District 30% but still not 32% 59% closed Learning Community 56% 26% compare to: 46% Central Falls District 30% Only closing 25% 71% gap in Blackstone Charter 9% reading, 25% compare to: 54% actually Pawtucket District 14% increasing 33% 74% gap in Beacon Charter 17% Reading 30% math, compare to: 49% Math writing Woonsocket District 16% Writing 40% 0 25 50 75 100 85 Source: RIDE, 2008 NECAP - Proficient (Level 3/4) - district-wide except high schools are 11th grade comparisons only
    88. 88. Bottom Line: Some RI charters are closing gap, some are no better than district, but none have fully closed gap - yet. Not all charter schools are good, but some are PHENOMENAL. 86
    89. 89. Nationally, Many Charters Have CLOSED THE GAP • Knowledge Is Power Program “KIPP” • Achievement First • Uncommon Schools • Democracy Prep • Roxbury Prep • ... and more “No Excuses” styled schools 87
    90. 90. Roxbury Prep Reversed the Gap: Black Students Outperform Whites Slide Courtesy Whitney Tilson / Democrats for Education Reform 88
    91. 91. KIPP Source: NY State Dept. of Education; Slide Courtesy Seth Andrew / Democracy Prep 89
    92. 92. Amistad / Achievement First Source: CT State Dept. of Education; Slide Courtesy Seth Andrew / Democracy Prep 90
    93. 93. North Star / Uncommon Schools Source: NJ State Dept. of Education; Slide Courtesy Seth Andrew / Democracy Prep 91
    94. 94. Required Reading What do high- performing schools do differently to achieve these results? Read this book for surprisingly simple answers. 92
    95. 95. Why Aren’t Schools Like These in Rhode Island? • Until last year, RI had one of the country’s worst charter school laws, which scared away top-tier operators • RI had a ban (“moratorium”) on new charters • RI lacks the “support network” (e.g. strong ed reform community, TFA, TNTP, etc.) many charter operators seek • Very weak / ineffective state charter association • RI wasn’t active on the national education reform “scene” 93
    96. 96. Update: We’re Tackling These! 94
    97. 97. 2008: Charter School Ban Expires 95
    98. 98. 2008: New Charter Law Creates Third Pathway • Version 1: District-affiliated (3 operating) • Must be part of traditional district; bound by district’s collective bargaining agreement • All 3 have petitioned Regents to become “independent” • Version 2: Independent (8 operating) • Operated by independent non-profit • Still bound by teacher tenure, traditional pay scales and forced participation in state retirement system • Version 3: Mayoral Academy (2 proposed) • Operated by non-profit, proposed by mayors • Can offer “merit pay,” 401(k) plans; no tenure required 96
    99. 99. This Is How We Passed Mayoral Academy Charter Law in 2008 Nat’l Local Mayors: Cumberland Mayor Dan McKee; Doyle (Pawtucket); Almond (Lincoln); Moreau (CF); Cicilline (Prov.); Lombardi (N. Prov.); Napolitano (Cranston); Polisena Political (Johnson) House Leadership: Gordon Fox; Steve Costantino; Bill Murphy Governor: Gov. Carcieri 97
    100. 100. Implications • Public charter schools provide a powerful alternative to parents who have no options • Rhode Island’s current crop of charters has a few strong performers, but none have closed the achievement gap, yet • With new mayoral academy law, it will be possible to attract top-tier charter operators to Rhode Island to CLOSE THE GAP. • Focus on outcomes; fund schools that raise achievement • Attracting national leaders to RI is possible, but only as result of political process. We must stay engaged. Help! 98
    101. 101. Overall Implications: Stop Tinkering in the Periphery! 99
    102. 102. Get Upset; Stop Accepting Mediocrity! 100
    103. 103. How Would You React: • ... if Cox Cable TV only delivered 40% of the channels you paid for? • ... if Verizon dropped 85% of your calls? • ... if National Grid only delivered electricity 40% of the time? 101
    104. 104. So Then Why Do You Accept This? You receive a $10,202 tax bill... ...$5,509 goes to school dept... ... where only 40% of 8th graders read at grade level, and only 15% of 11th graders perform 10th grade math Source: City of Providence June 2008 Budget; 54% spent on Education 102
    105. 105. Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/richard_wasserman/3544239679/ 103
    106. 106. Programs vs. Policy Instead of this... ... do this: Meet your legislator to complain Read a book to a low-income child about low reading scores Contribute money to a private Advocate expansion of the RI voucher program like RISE Scholarship Tax Credit Visit the Paul Cuffee Charter School Challenge legislators who oppose bake sale charter schools Donate to the Charter School Donate to the political campaign of ‘Annual Fund’ charter school supporters Donate computers to local high Oppose local school bumping science school teacher of the year “feel good” “attack problem” 104
    107. 107. Symptoms vs. Cause “fix symptoms” “fix cause” After-school reading tutor Recruitment program to put program for kids who can’t read effective teachers in classrooms 1-day professional development Reform math program at RIC, for ineffective math teachers source of 80% of math teachers “A day at the theater” program Implement performing arts in for inner-city youth core curriculum; open arts school 30-minute common planning time 60% more time in school via added to weekly schedule longer school days, years Replace the team who oversaw Rebuild crumbling school buildings the crumbling of the buildings 105
    108. 108. Focus on solving the problem, not feeling good. Attack causes, not symptoms. 106
    109. 109. So why Should National Education Reformers Focus on Rhode Island? 107
    110. 110. Rhode Island Kids Face Real Challenges 108
    111. 111. Highest Rates of Childhood Poverty • Rhode Island childhood poverty rate is the highest of any state in New England • Rhode Island has the 12th highest rate of childhood poverty in the country • Providence has the third highest rate of any city in America, behind Browning, TX, Hartford, CT, and tied with New Orleans, LA Source: 2000 US Census Data, RI Kids Count 109
    112. 112. Highest Rate of Special Education Enrollment Up 56% since Rhode Island, 20.2% 1990-91 school 21% year. This is the 9th highest rate of growth in country 17% 13% Nat’l Avg: 13.8% 9% 5% CA AZ UT NV GA AL TN MD MS MI OH OR LA NC WI OK NH IA FL NE DE SC MA IN WV RI Source: National Center for Education Statistics; data based on 2003-2004 enrollment 110
    113. 113. But, Rhode Island Has Some Unique Advantages... 111
    114. 114. Small State Comparable in Size to a District Student Enrollment, October 2003 Palm Beach, FL 170,260 Fairfax County,VA 164,235 Dallas, TX 160,584 Rhode Island 159,375 Detroit, MI 153,034 Montgomery County, MD 139,201 San Diego, CA 137,960 45,000 90,000 135,000 180,000 Source: RIDE & National Center for Education Statistics 112
    115. 115. Our largest district is just 5 times the size of one Chicago high school Comparison based on 25,190 students enrolled in Providence Public School district, vs. 113 Lane Technical High School in Chicago with 4,527 students enrolled.
    116. 116. There’s No Shortage of Money $16,000 Rhode Island spending among highest in nation $12,500 $9,000 $5,500 $2,000 WA UT ID OK TN FL NC SD LA TX SC MO GA MT OR IN NH OH WI MD WY DE VT CT NJ DC Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Table 167. 114 Figures are for 2002-03 school year in 2004-05 dollars.
    117. 117. Ideal Location on Northeast Corridor Boston RI NYC 115
    118. 118. Significant Intellectual Capital (Among Others) 116
    119. 119. Significant Intellectual Our Mission Capital The mission of Lifespan is to improve the health status of the people whom we serve in Rhode Island and southeastern New England through the provision of customer friendly, geographically accessible and high value services. We believe that this can best be accomplished within the environment of a comprehensive, integrated, academic health system. Helping our Hospitals Take the Best Care of You (Among Others) Rhode Island Hospital/ 116 Hasbro Children’s Hospital
    120. 120. Two Such National Leaders Join Me Today: Effective Teachers: High-Performing New Schools: 117
    121. 121. Placeholder: Presentations from Teach for America and Democracy Prep Go Here 118
    122. 122. Together WE CAN give every Rhode Island child access to the world’s best educational opportunities. Together WE WILL end the achievement gap. Join us! Help! 119
    123. 123. Thank you! About Me: http://angusdavis.com/ @angusdav on Twitter blog.bestforkids.org 120

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