PSYA3 <br />Introduction to Issues and Debates in Psychology<br />The A2 course requires that you have a knowledge of ‘issues and debates’ in psychology that allows you to go beyond the analysis and commentary that you were introduced to at AS level. Not every issue or debate is relevant to all psychological topics, so in the exam, you will need to selectively apply your understanding of these to those topics you’ve studied during the year. It’s also important that you contextualise and elaborate your point – you won’t get marks for saying a certain theory is reductionist or deterministic without explaining why.<br />What is an Issue?<br />An ‘issue’ in psychology refers to a source of conflict that if ignored could undermine the value of our theories and research. Key issues that are a concern for psychologists are:<br /><ul><li>Gender bias
Ethical challenges in both human and non-human participant research</li></ul>What is a Debate?<br />You can think of a ‘debate’ in psychology as being an academic argument that lasts over many years and often appears to have no resolution. However, the important thing about a ‘debate’ on a particular topic is that it enables us to gain a better understanding of any other potential factors involved. Today, many psychologists prefer to take an ‘interactionist’ approach to explain an aspect of behaviour rather than remaining on one side of a debate. Three debates that have a long history within philosophy and psychology are:<br /><ul><li>Free will versus determinism
Nature versus nurture</li></ul>These exercises are to be completed using the introductory section of your textbook. Read the pages VIII-XIII referring to issues and debates in psychology then answer the following questions:<br />Teacher note – textbook reference: Holt, N. & Lewis, R. (2009). A2 Level Psychology: The Student’s Textbook. Bancyfelin, Wales: Crown House Publishing, pp. VIII-XIII.<br />Exercise 1: Ethical Issues in Psychology<br /><ul><li>Explain why there has been a need to produce ethical guidelines for our research:
You want me to find the cheesie reward again? But it’s ruining my figure!What do researchers have to do in order to conduct psychological research using non-human participants?
Why is the welfare of animals used in research so important?
What ethical considerations do ethics committees scrutinise when professional researchers submit proposals of their work?
Explain what is meant by ‘the ends justifying the means’:
In addition to the examples given of how the results of our research could be said to justify the method of obtaining them, provide one of your own from knowledge of psychological research covered in AS: </li></ul>Exercise 2: The Nature/Nurture Debate<br /><ul><li>Outline what is meant by the ‘nature’ part of the debate:
Giving an example, what do ‘nativists’ strongly support?
How do biological approaches explain behaviour?
Outline what is meant by the ‘nurture’ side of the debate:
Using an example, explain the empiricist view of the nurture argument:
Nativist and empiricist approaches represent extreme sides of the argument, and today, psychologists tend to take the interactionist view that behaviour is influenced by both nature and nurture. Explain why it is limiting to describe behaviour solely in terms of nature or nurture and provide an example of your own to illustrate this problem: </li></ul>Exercise 3: Gender Bias<br /><ul><li>Describe an alpha-bias:
Outline some of the gender biases that can occur in studies due to the way the research has been carried out and comment upon how results could be used to promote inequalities:
Explain why research supporting differences between men and women is more likely to be published:
Why is it wrong to assume that all research has a gender bias?
Subtle differences found in research between men and women might be exaggerated to support gender differences. Explain how this could lead to the maintenance of the gender supremacy of men in our society:</li></ul>Exercise 4: Cultural Bias<br /><ul><li>Referring to both individualistic and collectivist cultures, explain why findings from one culture may not apply to another:
How do ethnocentric biases occur and what do these lead to?
Using an example, explain what is meant by the term ‘etic’ and say why this can lead to cultural bias:
Explain what is meant by an emic approach and say why this method has greater ecological validity:
Give an example of research using an etic approach that has led to bias and explain how an emic approach has been used to solve this problem:
What are the consequences of cultural bias?</li></ul>Exercise 5: Determinism and Freewill<br /><ul><li>Outline a deterministic viewpoint:
What do psychologists who take the free will approach suggest?
Outline how a deterministic explanation for behaviour, e.g., aggression, reduces individual responsibility:
Why does a determinist approach have important implications for psychology as a science?
Why is human behaviour such a problem for psychologists taking a determinist view?
Explain what is meant by ‘soft determinism’:</li></ul>Exercise 6: Reductionism<br /><ul><li>According to a reductionist approach, what is the best way to explain our behaviour and why do supporters argue that it is scientific?
Describe how reductionism operates at different levels:
Outline the argument against the validity of a reductionist view:
Why can reductionism sometimes lead to incomplete explanations for behaviour?
Describe how interactionism differs from reductionism and say how this way of looking at our behaviour might help us better explain mental disorders such as depression:
With a learning partner, draw on your knowledge of AS topics to discuss how other human behaviours could be explained using different levels of analysis, e.g., attachment or stress: