Successfully reported this slideshow.

Word formation


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Word formation

  1. 1. English Word-Formation
  2. 2. Verbs
  3. 3. •Sometimes it is difficult to identify a verb by its form. •Some word-endings (suffixes) can help you identify a word as a verb. suffix examples -ate appreciate, celebrate, congratulate -en frighten, soften, widen -ify identify, specify, qualify -ise/-ize* realise, recognise, modernize
  4. 4. •Verbs often preceded by the following prefixes. prefix examples ad- adapt, admit, advance de- deceive, deform, describe im-/in- impose, increase, inform per- perform, persuade, perceive re- recall, receive, reproduce
  5. 5. Verbs related to nouns Could you hand me the dictionary? We should position the noticeboard where everyone can see it. I’ll email Sally to see if she is free on Thursday. Verbs related to adjectives I needed to calm my nerves before the interview. The government hopes to slow the growth in road traffic over the next five years. As they get older, most people’s hair starts to thin.
  6. 6. Compound verbs are two words which combine to make one meaning.  The first word is usually a noun, an adjective or a preposition, and the second word is a verb.  The words are sometimes written as one word and sometimes joined by hyphens. These verbs are much less common than compound nouns or compound adjectives. Verb In a sentence hand-wash (noun + verb) highlight (adjective + verb) overcome (preposition + verb) Sorry, I was daydreaming. What did you say? Do you have to hand-wash this sweater or can it go in the washing machine? The airline upgraded me to business class.
  7. 7. Noun Formation
  8. 8. I. Nouns having the same form as verbs II. Nouns formed with prefixes III. Nouns formed with suffixes IV. Abbreviations and acronyms
  9. 9. Charge Comment Contract Copy Debate Design Hope Look Plan Reply Study In some cases, the nouns differ from the verbs in a) Stress: With nouns, the stress is on the first syllable, with verbs, on the second. Contrast,decrease, export, import,increase, present, progress, record,research, transfer . b) Pronunciation: noun use [ju:s] verb use [ju:z] c) spelling: noun practice verb practise (BE) but: practice practice (AE) d) both spelling and pronunciation noun advice [s] verb advise [z] device [s] devise [z]
  10. 10. Most of the prefixes used for forming adjectives and verbs are also used for forming nouns.
  11. 11. 1. Nouns describing people doing some activity (often an occupation) and people experiencing some activity (suffix –ee)
  12. 12. 2. Nouns describing devices finish in –er or –or. 3. Nouns describing (small) size are added –let at the end 4. Nouns formed with other suffixes
  13. 13. 5. Nouns describing abstracts are given the following suffixes
  14. 14. Adjective Noun Verb Broad Breadth Broaden Long Length Lengthen Strong Strength Strengthen Wide Width Widen Noun Verb Choice Choose Proof Prove Speech Speak Thought Think
  15. 15. Formation%20in%20English.pdf