• Appreciate the inordinate social impact that travel
experiences make on the individual, the family or group,
and society as a whole —especially the host society
• Recognize that a country’s indigenous population may
resent the presence of visitors, especially in large numbers
• Discover that travel patterns change
with changing life characteristics and
• Become familiar with the concept of
social tourism and its importance in
• Perceive that there are four extremes relating to the travel
preferences of international tourists
The sociology of tourism is an emergent specialty
concerned with the study of touristic motivations,
roles, relationships, and istitutions and of their impact
on tourists and on the societies who receive them.
Is the science of society, social institutions, and
Is the scientific study of human society and its
origins, development, organizations, and
institutions. It is a social science which uses
various methods of empirical investigation and
critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge
about human social activity, structures, and
1. EFFECTS ON THE INDIVIDUAL
Someone who travels, particularly to a strange location, finds an
environment that is unfamiliar, not only geographically but also
personally, socially, and culturally. Thus the traveler faces problems for
which a solution must be found if the trip is to be fully enjoyable and
rewarding. Travelers must manage their resources of money and time in
situations much different from those at home. They also manage their
social interactions and social relations to obtain sustence, shelter, and
other needs and possibly to find companionship.
Determining the extent of the cultural distance, they may wish to maintain
results in decisions as to just how unfamiliar the traveler wants his or her
environment away from home base to be.
Regardless of the degree of local participation, the individula traveler must at
least superficially study the country to be visited and reach some level of
decision on how these problems in environmental differences.
Travel experiences have a profound effect on the traveler as well as on
society, because travel experiences often are among the most outstanding
memories in the traveler's life.
2. EFFECTS ON THE FAMILY
As a FAMILY is growing and the children are
maturing, the trips taken as a family are
highlights of any year. The excitement of
preparation and anticipation and the actual travel
experience are memorable occasion of family
life. Travels with a measure of adventure are
likely to be the most memorable. Family travel
may also be educational. The more purposeful
and educational a trip becomes, the more
beneficial it is.
3. EFFECTS ON SOCIETY
Travel has a significant influence on national
understanding and appreciation of other people.
The presence of visitors in a country affects the
living patterns of indigenous peoples. The way
visitors conduct themselves and their
relationships with citizens of the host country
often has a profound effect on the mode of life
and attitudes of local people.
A. TOURISM: SECURITY AND
Unfortunately, tourist can be easy prey for criminals.
Tourist do not know about dangerous areas or local
situations in which they might be very vulnerable to
violent crimes. They become easy marks for robbers
and other offenders because they are readily
identified and are usually not very well equipped to
ward off an attack.
Crimes against tourist result in bad publicity and create
a negative image in the minds of prospective visitors.
Thus, tour companies tend to avoid destinations that
have the reputation for crimes against tourists.
Resentment by the local people toward the tourist can
be generated by the apparent gap in economic
circumstances, behavioral patterns, appearance and
economic effects. Resentment of visitors is not
uncommon in areas where there is conflict of
interests because of tourists.
Negative Social Effects of
Tourism on a Host Society
1. Introduction of undesirable activities such as gambling
2. Demonstration effect
• Local people wanting the same luxuries and imported
goods as those had by tourists
3. Racial tension
4. Development of a servile attitude on the part of tourist
5. Trinketization of arts and crafts
6. Standardization of employees roles
7. Loss of cultural pride
8. Too rapid change in local ways
9. Disproportionate numbers of worker in low-paid, menial
jobs characteristics of much hotel and restaurant
These effects can be moderated or eliminated by intelligent
planning and progressive management methods
3. CHANGING POPULATION
AND TRAVEL INTERESTS
People change, group attitudes change, and populations changes.
Travel interests also do change. Some countries grow in travel
popularity; others wane.world events tend to focus public attention
on particular countries or regions of the world.
There's an old saying among travel promoters that “mass follows
class”. This has been proven beyond a doubt. Travel-page publicity
concerning prominent persons visiting a particular area inevitably
produces a growth of interest in the area and subsequent increases
in demand for travel to such well-publicized areas.
The growth of communication systems, particulaarly network and
cable television, has broadenend the scope of people's interests in
other lands and other places. As communication resources grow,
awareness and interest also grow.
4. LIFE CHARACTERISTICS
Rising standards of living, changes in the
population age composition, the increasing levels
of educational attainment, better communication,
increased social consciousness of people relating
to the welfare and activities of other people
throughout the world, and the psychological
shrinking of the world by the jet plane have
combined to produce an interest among nations
in all other nations.
A. TRAVEL PATTERNS
RELATED TO AGE
With age, the traveler may become more passive.
Family recreation patterns are associated with
life stages of the family. The presence of young
children tends to reduce the number of trips
taken, whereas married couples with no children
are among the best travel prospects.
Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity
within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary
Buying power is another factor for the tourism manager to consider.
People must have buying power to create a market. There is no question
that a large and increasing percentage of the population today has
sufficient discretionary income to finance business and pleasure travel,
although families may be limited to inexpensive trips. The frequency of
travel and the magnitude of travel expenditures increase rapidly as
Travel expenditures historically have been income elastic; consequently, as
per capita real incomes continue to rise. Consumers should spend an
increasing proportion of their incomes on travel. Besides making trips
in the future, increasing numbers of consumers can be expected to
choose air travel over other modes of travel. Income and education are
Another factor deserving attention from tourism
managers is education, because it tends to broaden
people's interests and thus stimulate travel. People
with college educations take more pleasure trips
than those with high school educations, and those
with high school educations take more trips than do
those with grade school eductions. Educators are
forecasting continued increases in the average
educational level, which would result in a continued
positive impact on pleasure travel.
D.TRAVELAND THE HANDICAPPED
In the United States alone, there are about 50 million physically handicapped
people- more than twice the total population of Australia. This group
constitutes an excellent potential market for travel if the facilities and
arrangements are suitable for their use and enjoyment. Many households
reported little difficulty in using accommodations, because of careful
planning before making the trip. The majority of difficulties encountered
seemed to be at recreational facilities.
Historically, individuals with disabilities have been categorized by either their
medical conditions or their level of self-sufficiency. Severe, moderates, or
minor are the common disability clasifications. Of the three subgroups, the
more severe mobility disability, the more special attention is needed. The
severely disabled are seeking a quiet and peaceful destination that allows
them to be independent and that provides easy access. Travel suppliers
should know that the moderately and severely disabled use only two modes
of transportation: car or van and air. Mobility-disabled consumers are very
loyal to destination hotels, motels and resorts that are sensitive to their
needs while not being patronizing.
5. EMERGENCE OF GROUP
A. TRAVEL CLUBS
-are groups of people, sometimes with a common interest,
who have formed travel organizations for their mutual
B. LOW-PRICED GROUP TRAVEL
-Many tour companies cater to common-interest groups,
such as the members of a religious group or professional
or work group. A tour is aranged often at reasonable
cost, and is promoted to the members of the group.
C. PUBLIC CARRIER GROUP
RATES AND ARRANGEMENTS
Airlinesand other public carriersmakespecial rates
availablefor groups; acommon number is10 or 15
at discounted rates. A freeticket isissued to the
groupsescort or leader. Chartering all or part of a
public transportation vehicle, aircraft, or ship isalso
special effort on thepart of thecarrier to
6.SOCIAL (SUBSIDIZED) TOURISM
Although there is as yet no agreed of social tourism, there has been
considerable study of the question. W.Hunziker at the second congress of
social tourism held at Vienna and Salzburg in1959 proposed the following
definition:'' social tourism is a type of tourism practiced by low income
groups, and which is rendered posible and facilitated by entirly seperate
and therefore easily recognizable service.'' Another definition, that of
M.Andre Poplimont, is as follows:'' social tourism is a type of tourism
practiced by those who would not be able to meet the cost without social
intervention, that is, without the assistance of an association to which the
From these definitions and form the reports of the three International
Congresses on Social Tourism, it is clear that certain elements mat be
described. First is the idea of ''limited means.'' Second, social tourism is
subsidized by the states, local authorities, employers, trade unions, clubs,
or other associations to which the workers belongs. Third, it involves
travel outside thae normal place of residence, preferably to a different
environment that is usually within the tourist's own country or sometimes
to a country nearby.
A. HOLIDAYS WITH PAY
Paid holidays are now established all over the world, and in most
countries a minimum duration is specified either by law or by
collective agreement. Some, however, consider this institution
only a first stage, and they believe that attention should now be
turned to the way in which these holidays are used. Great
subjects of discussion by twentieth-century sociologies are:
(1) the use of the increased leisure time now available to workers,
and (2) the cultural and educational development that such leisure
time makes possible.
There will be some, however, who for reasons of age, health, family
responsibility or disinclination are unwilling to join in such
holidays even when all arrangements are made for them.
B. DETERMINATION OF NEEDS
In Belgium, almost 60 percent of the respondents to an inquiry preferred a
continious stay to moving from place to place, but this preference was
more marked among older people than among younger ones. In the
Netherlands, another inquiry revealed that about a million
holidaymakers preffered not rely on the hospitality of relatives if other
facilities within their means were provided. It was evident facilities of
this kind were inadequate.
It was also found that the tendency to take holidays away from home was
increasing and that more attention should be given to the educational
andd cultural aspects of tourism. Studies in France and Italy have
found orders of preference among the countryside, the seaside, the
mountains, health resorts and other places; and in Sweden and Italy,
inquiries have been carried out into the types of accomodations favored.
C. EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL
D. PROVISION OF INFORMATION
In the development of social tourism, other problems
arise, but these are largely common to tourism in
general. The provision of information, however,
deserves brief mention here, because many of the
beneficiaries of social tourism will have little
knowledge of the special attractions of different
8. THE INTERNATIONAL
International travel largely emanates from countries
with a comparatively high standard of living, with
high social systems characterized by declining
inequality of incomes and a sizable urban
population.in addition, these international travelers
come from countries where large-scale industry and
commerce comprise the foundations of the economy
and where the communications and information
environment is dominated by the mass media. The
international market is largely made up of middle-
Four Extremes Relating to the Behavior
Preferences of the International Tourist
1. Relaxation versus activity
2. Familiarity versus novelty
3. Dependence versus autonomy
4. Order versus disorder
BARRIERS TO TRAVEL
While travel has become a popular social
phenomenon, there are a number of reasons why
people do not travel extensively or do not travel at
all. The reasons, products of psychological
analysis, ae not meant to be ultimate answers as to
why people travel where they do. We can, however,
look at the more concrete reasons why those
studied did not go on a trip during a certain
period of time.
For most of these studies, barriers to
travel fall into six broad categories:
2. Lack of time
3. Health limitations
4. Family stage
5. Lack of interest
6. Fear and safety
Consumers operate within monetary constraints, and
travel must compete with other allocations of funds.
Saving that travel is too expensive is an indirect way
of saying that travel is not important, but, even
allowing this interprretation costs are a principal
reason for staying home.
2. Lack of time.
Many people cannot leave their businesses, jobs, or
professions for vacation purposes.
3. Health limitations.
Poor health and physical limitations keep many
persons at home. Also the fear of contracting AIDS,
severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ),
Norwalk flu, bird flu, Legionnaire's disease, food
poisoning, and so on keep people from traveling. For
many, health has become a major tourism safety
4. Family stage.
Parents of young children oftrn do not travel because
of family obligations and inconviniences in traveling
with children. Widows and singles sometimes do not
travel because of the lack of traveling companion.
5. Lack of interest.
Unawareness of travel destination that would bring
pleasurable satisfaction is a major barrier.
6. Fear and safety.
Things unknown are often feared, and in travel, much
is often not familiar to the would-be traveler. Wars,
unrest, and negative publicity about an area will
create doubt and fear in the mind of the prospective
traveler. Terrorism has reared its ugly head in the last
decade and is a deterrent to travel.