sociology of tourism


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sociology of tourism

  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Appreciate the inordinate social impact that travel experiences make on the individual, the family or group, and society as a whole —especially the host society • Recognize that a country’s indigenous population may resent the presence of visitors, especially in large numbers • Discover that travel patterns change with changing life characteristics and social class • Become familiar with the concept of social tourism and its importance in various countries • Perceive that there are four extremes relating to the travel preferences of international tourists
  3. 3. The sociology of tourism is an emergent specialty concerned with the study of touristic motivations, roles, relationships, and istitutions and of their impact on tourists and on the societies who receive them.
  4. 4. SOCIOLOGY  Is the science of society, social institutions, and social relationships.  Is the scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions.
  5. 5. 1. EFFECTS ON THE INDIVIDUAL Someone who travels, particularly to a strange location, finds an environment that is unfamiliar, not only geographically but also personally, socially, and culturally. Thus the traveler faces problems for which a solution must be found if the trip is to be fully enjoyable and rewarding. Travelers must manage their resources of money and time in situations much different from those at home. They also manage their social interactions and social relations to obtain sustence, shelter, and other needs and possibly to find companionship. Determining the extent of the cultural distance, they may wish to maintain results in decisions as to just how unfamiliar the traveler wants his or her environment away from home base to be. Regardless of the degree of local participation, the individula traveler must at least superficially study the country to be visited and reach some level of decision on how these problems in environmental differences. Travel experiences have a profound effect on the traveler as well as on society, because travel experiences often are among the most outstanding memories in the traveler's life.
  6. 6. 2. EFFECTS ON THE FAMILY As a FAMILY is growing and the children are maturing, the trips taken as a family are highlights of any year. The excitement of preparation and anticipation and the actual travel experience are memorable occasion of family life. Travels with a measure of adventure are likely to be the most memorable. Family travel may also be educational. The more purposeful and educational a trip becomes, the more beneficial it is.
  7. 7. 3. EFFECTS ON SOCIETY Travel has a significant influence on national understanding and appreciation of other people. The presence of visitors in a country affects the living patterns of indigenous peoples. The way visitors conduct themselves and their relationships with citizens of the host country often has a profound effect on the mode of life and attitudes of local people.
  8. 8. A. TOURISM: SECURITY AND CRIME Unfortunately, tourist can be easy prey for criminals. Tourist do not know about dangerous areas or local situations in which they might be very vulnerable to violent crimes. They become easy marks for robbers and other offenders because they are readily identified and are usually not very well equipped to ward off an attack. Crimes against tourist result in bad publicity and create a negative image in the minds of prospective visitors. Thus, tour companies tend to avoid destinations that have the reputation for crimes against tourists.
  9. 9. B. RESENTMENT Resentment by the local people toward the tourist can be generated by the apparent gap in economic circumstances, behavioral patterns, appearance and economic effects. Resentment of visitors is not uncommon in areas where there is conflict of interests because of tourists.
  10. 10. Negative Social Effects of Tourism on a Host Society 1. Introduction of undesirable activities such as gambling 2. Demonstration effect • Local people wanting the same luxuries and imported goods as those had by tourists 3. Racial tension 4. Development of a servile attitude on the part of tourist business employees 5. Trinketization of arts and crafts 6. Standardization of employees roles 7. Loss of cultural pride 8. Too rapid change in local ways 9. Disproportionate numbers of worker in low-paid, menial jobs characteristics of much hotel and restaurant employment These effects can be moderated or eliminated by intelligent planning and progressive management methods
  11. 11. 3. CHANGING POPULATION AND TRAVEL INTERESTS  People change, group attitudes change, and populations changes. Travel interests also do change. Some countries grow in travel popularity; others events tend to focus public attention on particular countries or regions of the world. There's an old saying among travel promoters that “mass follows class”. This has been proven beyond a doubt. Travel-page publicity concerning prominent persons visiting a particular area inevitably produces a growth of interest in the area and subsequent increases in demand for travel to such well-publicized areas. The growth of communication systems, particulaarly network and cable television, has broadenend the scope of people's interests in other lands and other places. As communication resources grow, awareness and interest also grow.
  12. 12. 4. LIFE CHARACTERISTICS AND TRAVEL Rising standards of living, changes in the population age composition, the increasing levels of educational attainment, better communication, increased social consciousness of people relating to the welfare and activities of other people throughout the world, and the psychological shrinking of the world by the jet plane have combined to produce an interest among nations in all other nations.
  13. 13. A. TRAVEL PATTERNS RELATED TO AGE With age, the traveler may become more passive. Family recreation patterns are associated with life stages of the family. The presence of young children tends to reduce the number of trips taken, whereas married couples with no children are among the best travel prospects.
  14. 14. B. INCOME Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. Buying power is another factor for the tourism manager to consider. People must have buying power to create a market. There is no question that a large and increasing percentage of the population today has sufficient discretionary income to finance business and pleasure travel, although families may be limited to inexpensive trips. The frequency of travel and the magnitude of travel expenditures increase rapidly as income increases. Travel expenditures historically have been income elastic; consequently, as per capita real incomes continue to rise. Consumers should spend an increasing proportion of their incomes on travel. Besides making trips in the future, increasing numbers of consumers can be expected to choose air travel over other modes of travel. Income and education are closely correlated.
  15. 15. C. EDUCATION Another factor deserving attention from tourism managers is education, because it tends to broaden people's interests and thus stimulate travel. People with college educations take more pleasure trips than those with high school educations, and those with high school educations take more trips than do those with grade school eductions. Educators are forecasting continued increases in the average educational level, which would result in a continued positive impact on pleasure travel.
  16. 16. D.TRAVELAND THE HANDICAPPED In the United States alone, there are about 50 million physically handicapped people- more than twice the total population of Australia. This group constitutes an excellent potential market for travel if the facilities and arrangements are suitable for their use and enjoyment. Many households reported little difficulty in using accommodations, because of careful planning before making the trip. The majority of difficulties encountered seemed to be at recreational facilities. Historically, individuals with disabilities have been categorized by either their medical conditions or their level of self-sufficiency. Severe, moderates, or minor are the common disability clasifications. Of the three subgroups, the more severe mobility disability, the more special attention is needed. The severely disabled are seeking a quiet and peaceful destination that allows them to be independent and that provides easy access. Travel suppliers should know that the moderately and severely disabled use only two modes of transportation: car or van and air. Mobility-disabled consumers are very loyal to destination hotels, motels and resorts that are sensitive to their needs while not being patronizing.
  17. 17. 5. EMERGENCE OF GROUP TRAVEL PATTERNS A. TRAVEL CLUBS -are groups of people, sometimes with a common interest, who have formed travel organizations for their mutual benefit. B. LOW-PRICED GROUP TRAVEL -Many tour companies cater to common-interest groups, such as the members of a religious group or professional or work group. A tour is aranged often at reasonable cost, and is promoted to the members of the group.
  18. 18. C. PUBLIC CARRIER GROUP RATES AND ARRANGEMENTS Airlinesand other public carriersmakespecial rates availablefor groups; acommon number is10 or 15 at discounted rates. A freeticket isissued to the groupsescort or leader. Chartering all or part of a public transportation vehicle, aircraft, or ship isalso special effort on thepart of thecarrier to accomodateother groups.
  19. 19. 6.SOCIAL (SUBSIDIZED) TOURISM Although there is as yet no agreed of social tourism, there has been considerable study of the question. W.Hunziker at the second congress of social tourism held at Vienna and Salzburg in1959 proposed the following definition:'' social tourism is a type of tourism practiced by low income groups, and which is rendered posible and facilitated by entirly seperate and therefore easily recognizable service.'' Another definition, that of M.Andre Poplimont, is as follows:'' social tourism is a type of tourism practiced by those who would not be able to meet the cost without social intervention, that is, without the assistance of an association to which the individual belongs.'' From these definitions and form the reports of the three International Congresses on Social Tourism, it is clear that certain elements mat be described. First is the idea of ''limited means.'' Second, social tourism is subsidized by the states, local authorities, employers, trade unions, clubs, or other associations to which the workers belongs. Third, it involves travel outside thae normal place of residence, preferably to a different environment that is usually within the tourist's own country or sometimes to a country nearby.
  20. 20. A. HOLIDAYS WITH PAY Paid holidays are now established all over the world, and in most countries a minimum duration is specified either by law or by collective agreement. Some, however, consider this institution only a first stage, and they believe that attention should now be turned to the way in which these holidays are used. Great subjects of discussion by twentieth-century sociologies are: (1) the use of the increased leisure time now available to workers, and (2) the cultural and educational development that such leisure time makes possible. There will be some, however, who for reasons of age, health, family responsibility or disinclination are unwilling to join in such holidays even when all arrangements are made for them.
  22. 22. B. DETERMINATION OF NEEDS In Belgium, almost 60 percent of the respondents to an inquiry preferred a continious stay to moving from place to place, but this preference was more marked among older people than among younger ones. In the Netherlands, another inquiry revealed that about a million holidaymakers preffered not rely on the hospitality of relatives if other facilities within their means were provided. It was evident facilities of this kind were inadequate. It was also found that the tendency to take holidays away from home was increasing and that more attention should be given to the educational andd cultural aspects of tourism. Studies in France and Italy have found orders of preference among the countryside, the seaside, the mountains, health resorts and other places; and in Sweden and Italy, inquiries have been carried out into the types of accomodations favored.
  25. 25. D. PROVISION OF INFORMATION In the development of social tourism, other problems arise, but these are largely common to tourism in general. The provision of information, however, deserves brief mention here, because many of the beneficiaries of social tourism will have little knowledge of the special attractions of different resorts.
  26. 26. 8. THE INTERNATIONAL TOURIST International travel largely emanates from countries with a comparatively high standard of living, with high social systems characterized by declining inequality of incomes and a sizable urban addition, these international travelers come from countries where large-scale industry and commerce comprise the foundations of the economy and where the communications and information environment is dominated by the mass media. The international market is largely made up of middle- income people.
  27. 27. Four Extremes Relating to the Behavior Preferences of the International Tourist 1. Relaxation versus activity 2. Familiarity versus novelty 3. Dependence versus autonomy 4. Order versus disorder
  28. 28. BARRIERS TO TRAVEL While travel has become a popular social phenomenon, there are a number of reasons why people do not travel extensively or do not travel at all. The reasons, products of psychological analysis, ae not meant to be ultimate answers as to why people travel where they do. We can, however, look at the more concrete reasons why those studied did not go on a trip during a certain period of time.
  29. 29. For most of these studies, barriers to travel fall into six broad categories: 1. Cost 2. Lack of time 3. Health limitations 4. Family stage 5. Lack of interest 6. Fear and safety
  30. 30. 1. Cost. Consumers operate within monetary constraints, and travel must compete with other allocations of funds. Saving that travel is too expensive is an indirect way of saying that travel is not important, but, even allowing this interprretation costs are a principal reason for staying home. 2. Lack of time. Many people cannot leave their businesses, jobs, or professions for vacation purposes.
  31. 31. 3. Health limitations. Poor health and physical limitations keep many persons at home. Also the fear of contracting AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ), Norwalk flu, bird flu, Legionnaire's disease, food poisoning, and so on keep people from traveling. For many, health has become a major tourism safety issue. 4. Family stage. Parents of young children oftrn do not travel because of family obligations and inconviniences in traveling with children. Widows and singles sometimes do not travel because of the lack of traveling companion.
  32. 32. 5. Lack of interest. Unawareness of travel destination that would bring pleasurable satisfaction is a major barrier. 6. Fear and safety. Things unknown are often feared, and in travel, much is often not familiar to the would-be traveler. Wars, unrest, and negative publicity about an area will create doubt and fear in the mind of the prospective traveler. Terrorism has reared its ugly head in the last decade and is a deterrent to travel.
  33. 33. DARK TOURISM