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Menu planning

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Menu planning

  1. 1. The centerpiece of any eating establishment. It is not just a list of food items for sale, but the reason why that establishment exists.
  2. 2. MENU PLANNING Considered to be one of the most critical activities of food service operations. It defines the decor, service style, costume, and required cooking skills. The process of planning a menu must be thoroughly understood.
  3. 3. Catering policy is a guideline for food operations. The menu planning process starts with the mission of the establishment and the consequent policies of the establishment. While a MISSION- is a strategic goal to be achieved over a period time, POLICIES- are guidelines for action set by the owner or top manangement.
  4. 4. Catering policy considerations address: • The market segments that have to be reached. • The price levels acceptable to this market segment. • Menu policy: a la carte, table d' hote or a combination menu. • The quality standards that have to be main tained. • Range of dishes to be offered. • Nutritional factors. • The mix of fresh foods and processed foods. • The desired food cost. • Equipment and skills the investor is willing to spend on. • The general theme of the restaurant. • Feedback from existing and potential guests. • Performance eveluation system.
  5. 5. Menu decision flow chart Corporate Mission Intuition Operational Procedures EvaluationInformation Experience Policies & Objectives Menu Planning Decisions
  6. 6. Principal contributors to menu planning: • MARKET RESEARCH AGENCY- does the initial research to feed the investor with authentic information on demographics, competition, trends, etc. They recommend the exact segment market that the restaurant should cater to. They identify the age groups, income levels, eating habits, sex, occupation, etc., that would be best for the restaurant to succeed. • CHEF- the most critical person, as he preparres the food. He decides what must be listed, based on many factors. Many establishments, especially standalone ones, revolve their menu around the skills of the chef.
  7. 7. • FOOD & BEVERAGE MANAGER- looks at the revenue contribution of a restaurant to the entire F&B operation of a hotel. • ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY- creates the cover in keeping with the theme of the restaurant. They plan media campaigns to popularise the establishment. • PRINTER- prints the menu cover based on quality, cost effectiveness, and concept. • SALES & MARKETING MANAGER- decides whether the menu and the menu cover sells. He determines what uniqueness can be able to promote it in the market.
  9. 9. MARKET RESEARCH • A professional market survey reduces the possibility of mistakes. The survey can be done either by the individual menu planner or a professional market research agency. • It is important to define the MARKET SEGMENT they wish to cater to. It is necessary to define the demographics in terms of age, sex, occupation, income level, etc. this decision is based on the location of the restaurant. • COMPETITION – one can decide to either complement similar restaurants because the demand is bigger than supply, or meet competition head-on with superior skills and marketing stability.the other way is to build a niche for oneself by either offering a peciaalty restaurant or focusing on a special need. A historical analysis of an existing establishment is a wonderful source of data because items have been tried over time.
  10. 10. Knowing your guest The restaurant starts and close with the guest in mind. The GUEST- is central to its operation. • WHO IS MY GUEST?: this is helped by market research either individually or through an agency as mentioned above. • Customers can vary by occupation, sex, age group, marital status, etc. The research profile takes various twists and turns to reach the exact guest profile. Once this is known, then their food preferences are ascertained. *The menu must serve the guest profile of the targeted market segment.
  11. 11. Knowing your operation The next step is to design the operation around the guest profile. The menu planner must be clear about the theme of the restaurant. The menu planner must know the equipment available as these are capital items and costly. The skills available to cook items and the use of existing equipment,is the next consideration. A major factor and limitation is the budget expectations. Menu items must fall into prescribed food costs and revenue projections. The ability to maintain consistent standards is another issue that the menu planner must take into account.
  12. 12. Developing a pool of menu ideas • The first step is to p[repare a pool of menu possibilities. • From: – Professional cuisine books – Old menus of the establishment – Trade magazines – Journals – Home cookbooks – Menu covers of competitors – A famous poissionier – And many menus are built around existing knowledge and skills.
  13. 13. Selection criteria from the pool of menus Having donethemarket research, amenu planner would start short- listing theitemsthat need to beon themenu. Theselection isbased on many factors: -Foodcost -Incompatibilty with the theme -Inability to meet consistent standards -Insufficient equipment capacity -Non-availability of equipment -Non-availability of cooking skills - Not familiar with the cuisine - Non-availability of raw materials -Sanitation issues -Shelf-life of raw materials -Seasonality of raw materials -Non-popular items -Knowledge of the cuisine
  14. 14. Complete knowledge of the cuisine It is important for the menu planner to have a thorough knowledge of the cuisine and the menu offer from it. • Selection of staff • Preparation and storage condition • Describing the item to the guest • Preparation times • Presentation • Accompaniments and garnishes
  15. 15. Food trials • This is a successful method of testing food before finalising it. • Food trials are food tests by people who matter. • First are the cooking professionals who evaluate the food on technical grounds. • Then the gourmet experts who have special palates to discern the nuances of taste. • Opinion-makers are also a good segment to include in the food trials as they will be encouraged to give recommendations by word of mouth.
  16. 16. THE MENU Menu objectives Desinging a menu starts with setting appropriate objectives that answer the following: 1. Guest expectations: the guest is the central reason why we are in business. His or her need and wants have to be fulfilled. It is the inner urge that realise them to come into the restaurant. NEEDS- are basic to survival. WANTS- is the realisation of the need influenced by culture and socioeconomic factors. The menu provides the kind of food that the guest wants. There can be other needs once the basic need for food is met. Guests maybe looking for safety, a place to hang out with friends, prestige in terms of quality and exclusive pricing, or the opportunity to express oneself.
  17. 17. 2. Perceived Value: Guests are willing to pay provided they perceived the value of patronising the restaurant. 3. Item price: Guests like a variety of prices to adapt to their budgets. A menu must have a range of menu items that fits into every budget. Pricing can only be fixed in relation to competetive prices. 4. Reason for property visit: The purpose of visiting an outlet can vary. A restaurer must know the reason to cater it. 5. Socioeconomic factors: Culture plays an important part.
  18. 18. 6. Demographic concerns: Profiling the regular guests are important. The profile can be done on the basis of income, age, sex, occupation, family size, etc. to fine-tune the menu offer. 7. Ethnic factors: The concentration of an ethnic group in the immediate region can determine the type of cuisine or menu items to offer. 8. Religious factors: This is an important factor in the globalisation process.
  19. 19. MENU GROUPINGS APPETISERS: hot and cold. The appetiser is meant to stimulate appetite. It is light, small in portion and served in mouth-sized nibbles. SOUPS: hot, cold, creme, clear. These may substitute or be in addition to appetisers. ENTREES: fish,poultry,lamb, pork, beef. These are the main dishes accompanied by everything else. Customers may want to go straight for the main dish. STARCH ITEMS: rice, breads, pastas. These are essential accompaniments to meals. They provide the filler of the meal.
  20. 20. VEGETABLE: dry, curried, spiced, diet. These are vegetable choices in addition to vegetables that are served as accompaniment to main dishes or choices to accompany a main dish. DESSERTS: ice creams, cakes. This is the sweet dish to round up the meal. Establishments can go to great lenghts to stimulate dessert sales. BEVERAGES: hot or cold; coffee, tea or liqueur.
  21. 21. MENU BALANCE A menu must be balanced to appeal to customers. To be able to maximise profits it is necessary to give a well thought out menu spread.
  22. 22. Aesthetic Balance: All dishes must have a gastronomic balance in terms of form, colours, textures, and flavours. 1. COLOUR: a dish could be ruined with colour monotony. A menu planner looks into this detail. Garnishes are a great contributor to colour. 2. TEXTURE: assembling components of a dish of similar consistency and texture can only tend to create boredom for the plate. 3. FLAVOUR: the contrasting flavours of some items seem naturally to go together. 4.FORM: shapes bring variety to a dish. Chefs can create shapes with vegetables and meats to create appeal. Contrasting shapes enhances the appeal to dishes.
  23. 23. NUTRITIONAL BALANCE: THE BASIC PURPOSE OF EATING IS TO GIVE NUTRITION TO THE BODY. The average intake of an average male is 2500 calories. These calories may increase for people with physical occupation by about 300 calories. The basic blocks of food are CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, FATS, MINERALS, AND VITAMIN.
  24. 24. CARBOHYDRATES and FATS provide energy and warmth to the body. PROTEINS and some minerals build the body. VEGETABLES AND FRUITS provide the minerals for the body. VITAMINS are body protectors and are available in small quantities in vegetable and fruit. Normally each meal should provide a third of the nutritional balance, assumming a person has three to five meals a day. Calorie requirements and nutrition can be distributed over all meals in a day. Menu planners keep nutritional charts for all ages, sex, occupation, etc.
  25. 25. Control cycle 1. Menu Plan 2. Purchasing 3. Receiving 4. Storing 5. Issuing 6. Pre-preparation 7.Preparation 8. Holding 9. Serving 10. Clearance 11. Billing 12. Guest Satisfaction
  26. 26. Wine lists Wine lists are essential part of the dinning experience. Not only do alcoholic beverages give large profit margins, they also stimulate appetite. Here are some tips on the wine list: • List it if you have it. • Wines and spirits must be presented in a sequence they are drunk in a meal. • Wine lists are always presented first. • Just like food specials, the house may have some creative cocktails. These must be highlighted, as they not only give the restaurant a unique edge, but also a higher profit margin. • If the wine list is limited, it is in order to recommend wines. • After dinner, drinks like liqueurs and brandies are listed at the end or with the dessert menu.
  27. 27. DESIGNING THE MENU COVER MENU COVER The menu cover is the defining merchandise that is the soul of a restuarant. It is a tangible item that stimulates through feel, script, and colour.  It reflects the PERSONALITY of the restuarant.  The menu cover ENTERTAINS.  The menu EDUCATES, as it explains the ingredientsb and the method of preparation to guests.  The menu card also reflects the MOOD of the restaurant.  The menu cover creates IDENTITY with the theme of the restaurant.  The menu has another important role and that is to ADVERTISE the cuisine and restaurant.
  28. 28. MENU FOCUS: It is easy to get carried away with menu design. Before, producing works of art, a menu planner needs to get to the business end first. It must faithfully list the menu items on offer. The potential of the kitchen crew must satisfy the customers. The menu must promote, advertise and inform. The wording must satisfy the above purpose.
  29. 29. MENU COVER INNOVATIONS Menu cover designers take great care to come out with something unique. Most restaurateurs would like their menu cover to be original and a talking point. The advertising agency leads these efforts. One of the methods used is the material. Some materials used are paper, cloth, plastic,wood, leather, palm leaf, and glass. Paper, however, is the most common material used. What matters in any material is the durability of the material over a period of time.
  30. 30. COVER ARTWORK: Artwork is the design of the menu cover. Obviously the design reflects the theme, mood and quality of the restaurant.
  31. 31. TYPEFACE: Typeface refers to the lettering used in menu covers. Some useful tips are: • Wherever lettering is used, it is more effective when the background coulour is lighter than the letters. • Typefaces come in many sizes, from 6-points to 72- points. The smaller the type, the harder it is to read. As a general rule, it is recommended to use a minimum 12- point typeface. • Most of the text should be in lowercase type. • Headings and sub-headings should be in uppercase or capitals. • The space between sentences must be kept in mind to avoid crowding. A minimum 3 points leading between lines is recommended. • It is suggested to use exotic typefaces sparingly as they are hard to read. • Typefaces selected must match the theme of the restaurant.
  32. 32. DESCRIPTIVE COPY: Descriptive copy is essential to explain menu items. This becomes more critical in specialty cuisines. There are some considerations when describing the menu items: • Main ingredient • Secondary ingredients • Method of preparation • Short sentences- the sentences must be crisp and to the point. • Easy to read • Claims should be credible- claims are many, including nutritional,dietary and freshness claims. • Grading- this helps the customer know exactly what he or she is eating. • Geographical origin- copy sometimes bring excitement and authenticity by mentioning the origin of the item. • Appeal- adjectives are used which appeal to the senses of sight, smell, taste, hearing, and touch. • Persuasive- use of lyrical statements which promise quality and fantasy.
  33. 33. • National terms • Associations • Geographical clues • Shapes or cuts • Cooking style • Ingredients • Famous names • Historic events MENU LANGUAGE:
  34. 34. FORMAT: Format is the way the copy is presented based on the amount of printed material to be included. Format addresses the menu cover's size, shape and general make-up. An insert is a laminated pocket. The insert has the advantage of changing the menu while retaining the outer cover. Specials are advertised on tent cards.
  35. 35. Should the menu copy exceeded the space, the menu planner has the following options: 1. delete some menu items. 2. shoorten the descriptive copy. 3. drop some of the supplemental copy used for theme and merchandising. 4. choose a format that provides more space. A good menu is planned inside out. This means the first priority is given to the menu and its presentation and the follows other information. It is important to communicate first the produce a work of art. A menu is supposed to inform and educate first. It should be presented in a way that stimulates appetite and results in a sale.
  36. 36. USE OF SPACE: A menu cover space is mainly meant to list and desribe the menu on offer. It is possible that there is additional space to be filled. This space can be utilised meaningfully by the following alternatives: • Educate on theme • Story about the management • Take-out service • Home-delivery services • Banquet and meeting facilities • Shopping arcade • Tourist attractions • Credit cards honoured • Map of the city • Advertising other hotel facilities
  37. 37. SPECIALS: Specials are those menu offerings that are the signature items of the establishment. The recipe are closely guarded and not easily duplicated. They become a unique selling proportion(USP) of an establishment that separates them from others. They often attract a higher price and promoting them leads to good business. These items are slow moving and need a push with special recognition. Such items need a special attention in menu covers. • List specials in bolder type. • Describe specials with exciting copy • Place specials in boxes/panels/graphics devise • Use more colour and illustrations
  39. 39. EVALUATING THE MENU Some benchmarks to evaluate against: • Turnover of each item in a given period, normally a year, to take into account fluctuations in seasons, weekends and holidays. • Average check income • Averagecost per check • Average contribution per item • Actual income against budget In addition to these standards, management may want to conduct guest surveys to determine following information: • Populatr items • Guest comments • Competitive analysis • Variety of items • Pricing • Right mix between low and high contribution items • Repeat orders
  40. 40. End >.<