What does history do for Theatre and what does Theatre do for history? The Globe Theatre Michaella Smith, Kathryn Gray, Ha...
The Globe; A Brief History <ul><li>James Burbage built the very first theatre, ‘The Theatre’ in 1576; this marked a turnin...
The Globe; A Brief History <ul><li>The word ‘Theatre’ relates to the performance space of, “temporary stages” previously c...
The Globe; A Brief History   <ul><li>There was serious rivalry between theatres; because copyright did not exist,  which m...
Shakespeare and the Globe &quot;Totus mundus agit histrionem&quot;  (&quot;All the world’s a stage&quot;) .  The playhouse...
Shakespeare and the Globe &quot;Totus mundus agit histrionem&quot;  (&quot;All the world’s a stage&quot;) .  The playhouse...
The Globe and the Plague <ul><li>Theatre became increasingly popular in the Elizabethan era, so much so that in 1591 it wa...
The Globe and the Plague <ul><li>During this period of history people believed that bad smells caused illness. In a city w...
The English Civil War and the Puritans <ul><li>In 1642 the English Civil War breaks out between the Parliamentarians (Puri...
The English Civil War and the Puritans <ul><li>The vast crowds and popularity of the London theatres needed additional con...
The Literature <ul><li>Genres   Tragedy was a generally popular genre during the Elizabethan period, especially those writ...
The Actors <ul><li>Around 1580, when both The Theatre and the Curtain were both full on summer days, the total theatre cap...
In Conclusion… <ul><li>The Globe Theatre is very important to British Theatre History, and therefore History as a whole, f...
References <ul><li>1979,  The London Theatre Guide 1576-1642,  The Bear Gardens Museum and Arts Centre  </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Mapping History; The Globe

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Mapping History; The Globe

  1. 1. What does history do for Theatre and what does Theatre do for history? The Globe Theatre Michaella Smith, Kathryn Gray, Hannah Gray, Charlotte Durnell, Michelle English
  2. 2. The Globe; A Brief History <ul><li>James Burbage built the very first theatre, ‘The Theatre’ in 1576; this marked a turning point in English Theatre History, as it meant a step towards a permanent home for actors and theatre groups of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>James Burbage was a leading member of Earl of Leicester’s Men, a major acting company of the Elizabethan era, that was responsible for the pattern of other companies that followed. </li></ul><ul><li>An act in 1572, “Punishment of Vagabonds” meant the occupations of travelling performers, such as the Earl of Leicester’s Men were affected, suffering penalties, and loss of sponsorship from noblemen. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earl of Leicester’s Men were later provided with the privilege of a royal patent, resulting in security and guaranteed protection, and therefore leeway into further setting up of permanent playhouses. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Theatre’ was built on land leased by a Puritan, Giles Allen, who opposed all theatrical activity. However he could not prevent the building of ‘The Theatre’. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lord Chamberlain’s men were a theatre group, in which, Shakespeare worked for as a writer and actor. They are still an active company today, and still are use the traditional theatre techniques of the time, including an entirely male cast </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Globe; A Brief History <ul><li>The word ‘Theatre’ relates to the performance space of, “temporary stages” previously constructed in the yards of inns and bear pits. </li></ul><ul><li>The death of Burbage in 1597 meant the lease on the land ended. Puritan Allen obviously refused to renew the contract, resulting in The Theatre being dismantled, but a clause meant that materials were salvaged, which were used in the construction of The Globe; the timber was used to create the Globe’s foundations </li></ul><ul><li>The Globe Playhouse was built in 1599, but was burnt down in 1613, after canon fire during a performance. It was seen at the time one of the most splendid theatres in London. </li></ul><ul><li>Burbage’s two sons shared their half of The Globe’s shares with William Shakespeare and 4 other members of the ‘Lord Chamberlain’s Men’. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1603 they changed to ‘The Kings Men’ after royal recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Little is known historically about the structure of ‘The Globe’, apart from fine sketches of this period. In 1600 the Globe was marked on the ‘Second Norden map’, which clearly showed a polygon open top shaped structure. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Globe; A Brief History <ul><li>There was serious rivalry between theatres; because copyright did not exist, which meant nothing could be done about the continual “copying” of Shakespeare’s texts, these unauthorised copies were often referred to as “Quarto Texts”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Globe was built in 1614 at the cost of £1,400 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1642 all stage performances were banned and theatres were closed, due to an act by the puritan parliament, ‘…Whereas . . . the distracted estate of England, threatened with a cloud of blood by a civil war, calls for all pallible means go appease and avert the wrath of God,. . . it is therefore thought fit and ordained by the Lords and Commons in this Parliament assembled, that . . . public stage plays shall cease and be forborne… </li></ul><ul><li>The second Globe was eventually demolished in 1644 after the outbreak of the civil war, between the Puritans and the Royalists </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Wanamaker, with the help of many architects and scholars, recreated the ‘Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre’ (The New Globe), 360 years after the second Globe. </li></ul><ul><li>International theatre groups now come and share that Shakespeare passion in a building, that is said to be a replica/ or very, very similar to those of the Elizabethan Globes. The Globe, today, is now internationally well known as the place with a strong connection to Shakespeare. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Shakespeare and the Globe &quot;Totus mundus agit histrionem&quot; (&quot;All the world’s a stage&quot;) . The playhouse's motto and crest, inscribed above the main entrance. <ul><li>The famous Globe Theatre, co-owned by William Shakespeare and often known as Shakespeare’s Globe, was one of most renowned theatres of all time. Shakespeare performed many of his best plays at the Globe. </li></ul><ul><li>It was decided that the Globe would be built as a solution to ‘The Lord Chamberlain’s Men’s’ problems. Shakespeare, J&R Burbage, G Bryan, John Hemminges, Augustine Phillips, Thomas Pope and Will Sly, (The Lord Chamberlain’s Men), had nowhere to perform their plays after the lease on the theatre they were using, Blackfriars Theatre, ended in 1597 and with their rivals, ‘The Admiral’s Men,’ performing at the Rose Playhouse, they needed somewhere quick. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lord Chamberlains Men flew a flag with Hercules carrying a globe on his shoulders to advertise the arrival of the new playhouse. The first play to be performed at the Globe was Shakespeare’s ‘Julius Caesar.’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Shakespeare and the Globe &quot;Totus mundus agit histrionem&quot; (&quot;All the world’s a stage&quot;) . The playhouse's motto and crest, inscribed above the main entrance. <ul><li>‘ Other plays known to have been performed by Shakespeare and rest of his acting troupe were Hamlet (1600-1601), Twelfth Night Or What You Will (1601), Richard II (February 7th 1601) Troilus and Cressida (1601-1602), All’s Well That Ends Well (circa 1602), Timon of Athens (c1604), King Lear (1605), Macbeth (1606), Pericles, Prince of Tyre (1607) possibly The Tempest in 1610, The Two Noble Kinsmen in 1611, Shakespeare’s &quot;lost&quot; play Cardenio in 1612 and Henry VIII in 1613.’ </li></ul><ul><li>In 1601, Sir Gilly Meyrick asked The Lord Chamberlain’s Men to perform Richard II at the Globe for two pounds, which they did for the money. The reason Meyrick wanted the play performed was because of its anti-monarchic message; he hoped that a well-attended performance the day before the Essex rebellion, would cause the public to empathise with those attempting to kill Queen Elizabeth. However the Essex rebellion failed and the Earl of Essex along with his supporters were killed. The Chamberlain’s Men were questioned for their part in the conspiracy and there is still some doubt as to whether they were involved. Certainly ‘ Shakespeare and his famous playhouse, distinguished themselves in controversy.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dissimilar to today’s shows, a visitor to one of Shakespeare’s plays would have to use their imagination in terms of set designs. No backdrops, lighting or acoustics were used, and few if any props. Therefore actors would exaggerate their movements and shout their lines. The only things that were used were bright and elaborate costumes, banners and the occasional use of cannons and steps or balconies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Globe and the Plague <ul><li>Theatre became increasingly popular in the Elizabethan era, so much so that in 1591 it was made law for it to be shut on Thursdays so that the bear baiting rings could have an opportunity to make some profit. However, there was a far more severe problem that caused the Globe to close on numerous occasions, and that was the Bubonic Plague, also known as the Black Death. </li></ul><ul><li>The Globe, along with all the other theatres in London was closed in 1593 , 1603, and 1608. This was to try and prevent the disease from spreading. Bubonic Plague is extremely contagious, with one in three people in London dieing from the infection. </li></ul><ul><li>It was carried originally carried by the fleas on rats and transferred to domestic animals, quickly spreading throughout Asia and Europe. The infection eventually became airborne, meaning that if one person in a theatre had the infection, there was the potential for every single person there to contract it. This was literally thousands of people. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Globe and the Plague <ul><li>During this period of history people believed that bad smells caused illness. In a city where human waste was literally strewn across the streets, this would have been an obvious problem. During the Black Death epidemics people would wear small bunches or ‘posies’ of flowers on their clothing to ward off these foul odours. The children’s rhyme, ‘Ring a Ring of Roses’ is in fact about the Black Death. </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms associated with the disease were painful swellings (bubos) of the lymph nodes (small glands in the body). These swellings would appear in the armpits, legs, neck, or groin. Victims also suffered a very high fever, delirium, and were prone to vomiting, muscular pains, bleeding in the lungs and mental disorientation. The illness also produced in the victim an intense desire to sleep, which, if yielded to, would swiftly prove fatal. Death occurred from around three days to a week in almost all cases. </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakepeare’s only son, Hamnet, was killed by the plague at age 11, in 1596. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The English Civil War and the Puritans <ul><li>In 1642 the English Civil War breaks out between the Parliamentarians (Puritans) and the Royalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous to this and during the early events of the war, plays were gathering huge audiences, as a single performance may attract up to 3000 spectators when the whole population of London was only 200,000. At this point, initially there were no regulations regarding the genre or content of a plays script which meant that the crowds were being exposed to a biased opinion of the world, thus making the plays an excellent form of propaganda, encouraging criticism of the state and freedom of thought in religious and political matters. </li></ul><ul><li>The theatres at this point were not only showing plays, but they also served as bear pits, brothels and gambling houses, making London authorities see the Elizabethan theatres as centres of potential social unrests and as dens of iniquity which made people restive. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The English Civil War and the Puritans <ul><li>The vast crowds and popularity of the London theatres needed additional control so on September 2nd 1642 the Puritan parliament issued an ordinance suppressing all stage plays, plays then needed a licence from the Lord Chamberlain, which provided a form of censorship by the state. </li></ul><ul><li>The Puritans demolished The Globe in 1644 and in 1648 ordered that all playhouses and theatres to be pulled down due to the rise in crime levels and rebellions. I 1644 the Civil War lead to the execution of King Charles I and Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector of England. In 1658 Cromwell died and the power of the Puritans started to decline. In 1660 the theatres are finally re-opened after King Charles II is restored to the throne. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Literature <ul><li>Genres   Tragedy was a generally popular genre during the Elizabethan period, especially those written by Christopher Marlowe, such as 'Dr Faustus' and 'The Jew of Malta'. The audience particularly like Thomas Kyd's 'The Spanish Tragedy', and William Shakespeares 'Macbeth'. Anotherwell recieved genre was the developement of the history play, which depicted English or European history. Shakespeare's plays about the lives of Kings, such as 'Richard II' and 'Henry V‘, and also Christopher Marlowe’s 'Edward II'. Comedies also became popular, romantic comedies as well as a sub-genre that developed in this area that was the city comedy, which deals satirically with the everyday activities of city life in London. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabethan Writers    London around this time started to produce literature of remarkable variety, quality and extent, due to its growing population, the increasing wealth of its people, and their fondness for spectacle. The men who made these plays were primarily self-made men from modest backgrounds, some having studied at wither Oxford or Cambridge, but many had not. Playwrights were normally paid in increments during the writing process, and if their play was accepted, they would recieve the proceeds from one days performance. However, once a play was sold to a company, the company owned it, and the playwright had no control over casting, performance, revision or publication. Not all of the playwrights fit into the modern image of poets or intellectuals-Christopher Marlowe was killed in an apparent tavern brawl, while Ben Jonson killed an actor in a duel. As mentioned before, the University Wits also helped to create a sheer volume of new literature and helped to develope new devices and genre within Elizabethan drama, developing prose comedies, tragedies and 'blank verse'.   </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Actors <ul><li>Around 1580, when both The Theatre and the Curtain were both full on summer days, the total theatre capacity of London was about 5000 spectators. With the building of new theatre facilities and the formation of new companies, the capitals total theatre capacity exceeded 10000 after 1610. In 1580, the poorest citizens could purchase admittance to the Curtain or the Theatre for a penny. The acting companies functioned on a repertory system, unlike modern productions that can can run for months or years on end, the troupes of this era rarely actedthe same play two days.Thomas Middleton's 'A Game of Chess' ran for 9 straight performances in August 1624 befor eit was closed by the authorities-but this was due to the political nature of the play, and was a unique, unprecedented phenomenon. Usually the same play wasn't played 2 days in a row, and even rarely twice in a week. The workload on the actors, especially the leading performers such Edward Alleyn, must have been tremendous. </li></ul><ul><li>There were many acting troupes performing before the 1570's, but little is known about them. It is thought that noblemen probably paid a fixed yearly sum for them to perform for them, and that they did additional public performances for extra money. By 1570, government decrees made acting more secure, and daily performances stimulated building of permanent theatres and the assemblance of larger companies. The first important troupe was The Earl of Leicester’s Men, licensed in 1574, headed by James Burbage, builder of the first theatre in London.  Most troupes worked on a sharing plan-risk and profits shared, and were usually democratic and self-governing. Troupes were mostly all male-men or young boys playing women, and had large repertoires, with a different bill each day.     </li></ul>
  13. 13. In Conclusion… <ul><li>The Globe Theatre is very important to British Theatre History, and therefore History as a whole, for many reasons. The Globe was what focused and accentuated, Shakespeare, a well know figure in world history. The Design of the Globes 1 and 2 and therefore The New Globe, is/ were based upon an amphitheatre, which originated, from the semi circle, circled shaped entertainment rings found during the Classical Period, in Greece and Rome which is where the routes of theatre history and therefore where Britain’s history connects. Events in our History in particular those like the civil war that evolved around the Puritans, is what gave Theatre History a part in Britain despite many attempts to be rid of the world of theatre. So in this case the events that unfolded in our general history did nothing to prevent theatre, but perhaps hinder its depth at which theatre became and will remain an essential part of Britain’s theatre and general history. </li></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>1979, The London Theatre Guide 1576-1642, The Bear Gardens Museum and Arts Centre </li></ul><ul><li>1963, The Students Guide to British Theatre, E J Burton </li></ul><ul><li>http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/history/closing.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.globe-theatre.org.uk/globe-theatre-closed.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://gallery.e2bn.org/image56686-.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.william-shakespeare.info/bubonic-black-plague-elizabethan-era.htm </li></ul>

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