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UNIT 1: THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

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Unit 1, 1 ESO

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UNIT 1: THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

  1. 1. UniverseUniverse Stars: they release light and heat Planets: they don´t release light and heat They orbit the stars Satellites: they don´t release light and heat They orbit the planets Asteroids: solid rocks. they orbit the stars Comets: balls of cosmic dust and ice Meteors: small objects (rock and ice) Nebulae: clouds of dust and gases Space: dust and gases Black holes: regions where gravity prevents anything from scaping
  2. 2. Nebulae
  3. 3. The solar system
  4. 4. It´s …
  5. 5. What can you see?
  6. 6. Conditions for life: a) temperature b) water c) atmosphere The Earth
  7. 7. Parallels Meridians Imaginary lines that run East to West. Imaginary lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole. 2.- Latitude and longitude
  8. 8. Latitude Longitude The distance between a point on the Earth´s surface and the Equator. The distance between a point on the Earth´s surface and the Prime Meridian. 2.- Latitude and longitude: the geographic coordinates
  9. 9. An imaginary grid
  10. 10. Longitude
  11. 11. What Cities can we Find following The next coordinates? 0
  12. 12. Earth´s rotation The Earth rotates once on its axis every 24 hours Consequences Day and night The Sun´s apparent movement The Earth is moving…
  13. 13. Axial tilt
  14. 14. Axial tilt
  15. 15. Day and night
  16. 16. Time zones – 24 hours:rotation 360º – 24 time zones – 360 º planet Earth : each time zone 15º = 24 hours – 1 hour each time zone 24 hours: 24 zones
  17. 17. Revolutio n• How long? 365 5 h. 48´ 45´´ •Consequenc es Seasons Length of the day and night
  18. 18. Summer in the Northern hemisphere Winter in the Southern hemisphere • Summer solstice (june) • The part illuminated in the North is bigger: longer days. • The North Pole is always illuminated. •Shorter days in the Southern hemisphere
  19. 19. Summer in the southern hemisphere winter in the Northern hemisphere •The part illuminated in the South is bigger: longer days. •The South Pole is always illuminated. •The Norht Pole is in darkness: Northern hemisphere winter.
  20. 20. Midnight sun in Norway (60 degrees North)
  21. 21. Night in the winter: Norway
  22. 22. Spring in the Northern hemisphere (Equinox in march) • Neither of the Poles are bending towards the sun. • Both hemispheres are equally illuminated.
  23. 23. Autumn in the Northern hemisphere (equinox in september) •Neither of the Poles are bending towards the sun. •Both hemispheres are equally illuminated.
  24. 24. Summer solstice in the Northern hemisphere • The sunrays are vertical in the tropic of Cancer
  25. 25. Winter solstice in the Northern hemisphere • The sunrays are vertical in the tropic of Capricorn
  26. 26. Equinoxes • The sunrays are vertical at the Equator
  27. 27. CLIMATE ZONES Tropics Temperate zones Polar regions High temperatures throughout the year Different number of daylight hours Low temperatures throughout the year Little differences between seasons Four seasons Summer and winter Low temperatures
  28. 28. CLIMATE ZONES
  29. 29. •What is cartography? The study of maps •Three characteristics of maps They are simple, reduced and use colours and symbols •Are map projections accurate? No, they are distorted representations of the Earth.
  30. 30. A.- Cylindrical projection: MERCATOR MAP PROJECTIONS
  31. 31. B.- Projection onto a plane
  32. 32. C.- A conical projection
  33. 33. Scale • Graphic scale: line divided into equal parts. • Numerical scale: relationship between a unit of distance on a map (1cm) and the real distance (100.000 cm.= 1000 m.) – Large: 1: 5000-1:50000 (1cm.-50m.---1cm.-500 m.) – Intermediate:1: 50 000- 1: 100.000 (500 m - 1km.) – Small: 1: 100 000… (1km…)
  34. 34. Topographic Map: Relief, towns and Roads also. KINDS OF MAPS
  35. 35. Thematic: Populatio n, Climate, Whatever …
  36. 36. Virtual map
  37. 37. Aerial photography

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