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The hydrosphere


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The hydrosphere

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The hydrosphere

  1. 1. The hydrosphere The hydrosphere is all the water on the planet. It is made up of oceans, rivers, seas, lakes, glaciers, groundwater and water vapour (clouds) Water cycle 1. Evaporation: water evaporates. 2. Condensation: clouds formation. 3. Precipitation. Rain from clouds.
  2. 2. Hydrosphere Saltwater (97% of Earth), in oceans and seas. - Salinity (amount of salt). Higher in hot and closed seas. - Temperature: higher in the surface, colder in the deep. - Denser than fresh water. Fresh water (3%), on continents and islands. - Most of it is at polar regions and glaciers. - Some groundwater. - Only al ittle in water vapour and lakes or rivers.
  3. 3. Oceans and seas. Seas are oceanic waters close to continents. They are not as deep as oceans. Some are part of the ocean, other are connected through narrow straits. Some are interior. Oceans are vast masses of saltwater separating the continents. They cover a large proportion of the Earth’s surface.
  4. 4. Some seas are extremely salty, because of evaporation or human explotation. Life is difficult to find there.
  5. 5. The Aral Sea is an Example of a natural disaster Provoked by human hand. Overexplotation of rivers led To the drying out of the sea.
  6. 6. Main oceans and seas
  7. 7. Where are the oceans and seas located?
  8. 8. Water movement • Waves: caused by… • Tides: Caused by… • Oceanic currents
  9. 9. Why tides happen…
  10. 10. Main ocean currents. Ocean currents are large masses of water moving across the ocean. They are warm and cold currents, and they move because of their differences In density, salinity and temperature.
  11. 11. Currents and climate. Newfoundland (Terranova, Canada) Brittany (Bretaña, France) Temperature of ocean currents has a strong influence on climate. Brittany and Terranova are at the very same latitude; however, temperature differences are Higher than 10 degrees during winter.
  12. 12. Rivers: flowing currents of water that Stages of a river: -Upper course: flows rapidly, with river valleys. -Middle course: meandres. -Lower course: river flows slowly, river mouth. Flow will be determined by rainfall and soil.
  13. 13. The rapid flow erodes easily the bedrock And creates sharp valleys(Los Pilones, Jerte) UPPER COURSE OF A RIVER
  14. 14. Sand sediments on the lower Course of river Tietar, tributary of river Tajo (Casatejada, Cáceres) LOWER COURSE
  15. 15. MIDDLE COURSE Meanders of river Amazonas.
  16. 16. LOWER COURSE Aluvial plane of river Guadalquir (Córdoba)
  17. 17. River mouths
  18. 18. Continental waters: ice caps and glaciers. The mass of ice increases in winter and Is reduced when ice melts in summer.
  19. 19. Banquise (Newfoundland – Terranova Canadá)