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Reformation & renaissance


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Reformation & renaissance

  1. 1. The humanism PRINTING PRESS (Guttenberg, 1440) CONSEQUENCES?
  2. 2. The humanism PRINTING PRESS (Guttenberg, 1440) CONSEQUENCES? More quantity Cheaper books More diversity Faster and wider…
  3. 3. The humanism PRINTING PRESS (Guttenberg, 1440) CONSEQUENCES More quantity Cheaper books More diversity Faster and wider… importance
  4. 4. The humanism PRINTING PRESS (Guttenberg, 1440) CONSEQUENCES More quantity Cheaper books More diversity Faster and wider… Importance More books are available Not only rich people will read Not only religious books Ideas will spread faster
  5. 5. With the humanism, there is an increasing number of critics against the Catholic Church Erasmo de Rotterdam Is highly critical with the “false religion”: he inspired a more personal and spiritual faith. Tomás Moro, chancellor of England THE REFORMATION (16th Century)
  6. 6. In the 16th century, indulgences were Sold, in order to build A new cathedral in Rome. If you pay money to the Church, your dead relatives will go directly to Heaven. This was outrageous for the Most of the humanists like Erasmo of Rotterdam. “When the coin enters in the box, a soul Is leaving the purgatory and rises to God’s kingdom” THE REFORMATION (16th Century)
  7. 7. In 1516, a monk and University teacher of Wittgenberg, Martin Luther decided to break with the church because of the indulgences abuses. Luther is compelled to express his Ideas in the Imperial diet, with the Emperor Charles the Fifth. He won’t Deny his new ideas and his critics Against the Catholic Church. THE REFORMATION (16th Century)
  8. 8. The Catholicism of the Emperor Charles V, moves Luther to be more radical in his ideas. He is condemned as heretic, and sentenced to Death. However, he escapes and burns the pope’s Letter of excomunication. Luther , translating the Bible into German. THE REFORMATION (16th Century)
  9. 9. THE LUTHERAN PRECEPTS - People can make a free interpretation of the Bible. - The Pope is not a true representative of God in Earth. - Only two sacraments are legitimate. - Faith, and not good works, will save. If you don’t have faith, good works don’t count. THE REFORMATION (16th Century)
  10. 10. Calvin Henry VIII Trento council
  11. 11. The Renaissance • It began in Italy in the 15th century and spread through Europe. • It was based on the revival of the classical heritage: ideal beauty, proportion and harmony • It was both religious and civil, with popes, kings and rich families as the main patrons.
  12. 12. The Renaissance: architecture • Buildings were designed on a human scale. • Proportion and harmony. • Churches, squares, palaces, townhalls were built in this stye. • Features from Greece and Rome: - Dome (cúpula) - Roman arch, square windows. - Pilasters (pilastras) - pediment (frontón) - Frieze, columns and capitals. - Roundels (medallones) - Scrollwork (volutas) DORIC, IONIC AND CORINTHIAN ORDER
  13. 13. Italian Renaissance: Quattrocento. DOME ROUND ARCHS NOT SO VERTICAL, UNLIKE THE GOTHIC: GEOMETRICAL DECORATION USE OF MARBLE “OCULOS” (Rose window) Cupole LINTERNA BRUNELLESCHI Florence cathedral Santa María de las Flores
  14. 14. Italian Renaissance: Cinquecento. DOME ROUND ARCHS PEDIMENTS FRIEZE CORINTHIAN CAPITALS & COLUMS Vegetal decoration Cupole LINTERNA MICHELANGELO Saint Peter’s cathedral PILASTERS volutas Square windows DORIC ORDER Detached Human sculptures
  15. 15. Italian Renaissance: Cinquecento Stairs “ Tambor” Balustrade BRAMANTE: San Pietro in Montorio (early 16th century, Very austere, DORIC order) Built in marble. Religious purposes. Pilasters
  16. 16. Italian Renaissance: Cinquecento PALLADIO: Villa rotonda (Civil architecture) Horizontality Austerity IONIC ORDER
  17. 17. Italian Renaissance sculpture DONATELLO David (Quattrocento) Bronze Importance Of human body Proportion Ideal beauty Serenity Technical skills MICHELANGELO David (Cinquecento) Marble
  18. 18. Italian Renaissance: painting. Perugino (1482): Christ giving the keys To Saint Peter
  19. 19. Italian Renaissance: painting. Perugino (1482): Study of perspective and simmetry.
  20. 20. Italian Renaissance: painting. Ideal beauty Serenity Depth, perspective and scorzo Classical architecture Religious topic
  21. 21. Italian Renaissance: painting. RAPHAEL: The Athens School. Ancient Greece opic
  22. 22. Italian Renaissance: painting. RAPHAEL: The Athens School. Ancient Greece opic Plato Aristotle
  23. 23. Rafael plasmaba serenidad en su autoretrato Y Leonardo usa la técnica del esfumato… Italian Renaissance: painting Leonardo da Vinci: Gioconda
  24. 24. Italian Renaissance: painting Miguel Ángel (16th century). Sixtine. Vatican.
  25. 25. Spanish Renaissance: Plateresco style Decorative style. Gothic structure, Renaissance decoration. ½ 16th century. University of Salamanca.
  26. 26. Spanish Renaissance: Purismo. Classical stage: 16th century. Carlos V palace Granada. Harmony, equilibrium Classical influence.
  27. 27. Renaissance style: herreriano Second half of 16th century. Very austere and big proportions: El Escorial
  28. 28. Renaissance painting: El Bosco El Bosco: El jardín de las delicias. Surrealism . 16th century, Low Countries
  29. 29. The Earthy delights The paradise. Creation of Adan and Eve The decadence. The animal parade
  30. 30. El jardín de las Delicias earthy delights Details: the fall from Paradise.
  31. 31. The earthy delights: Hell. Pleasure gives pain.
  32. 32. Brueghel, el triunfo de la muerte 2/2 16th century, Low countries
  33. 33. Death´s Triumph detalls
  34. 34. DURERO (16th century, Germany) Self-portrait
  35. 35. El GRECO Spain 16th century El entierro del conde Orgaz.