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Climates: slide 1\ESO


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Slide social sciences, course 1 ESO.

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Climates: slide 1\ESO

  1. 1. The atmosphere: components and layers. Atmosphere is a layer of gases that surrounds the Earth. It’s 1000 km. thick. Oxygen and nitrogen are the main components, but it has other gases as CO2 or Ozone, vital for life. Low temperatures High temperatures (ozone layer)
  2. 2. Atmospherical global risks Global warming by greenhouse effect: More amount of CO2 increases Earth temperatures Ozone hole: It lets the ultraviolet Radiation reach Earth
  3. 3. FEATURES AND FACTORS OF CLIMATE MAIN CLIMATE FEATURES ARE TEMPERATURE How warm the air is. WIND Movement of air masses, depending On atmospheric pressure. PRECIPITATION Amount of water falling in a place GRENHOUSE EFFECT More CO2 in the atmosphere means more heat retention on the Earth and higher temperatures
  4. 4. FEATURES AND FACTORS OF CLIMATE CLIMATE IS INFLUENCED BY… PRESSURE: weight of air on Earth surface. 1013 mb = av. AIR MASSES. They differ in temperature and humidity LATITUDE Equator = hot; poles = cold ALTITUDE The higher, the colder. OCEANS The closer to the oceans, the milder the climate is.
  5. 5. 1. Different temperatures (in atmosphere) create different pressure. 2. Different pressure in the atmosphere depressions and anticyclones. 3. Anticyclones and depressions create different movements of air masses. Counterclockwise: H Clockwise: L Anticyclone keeps Air masses away; low pressures attract air masses.
  6. 6. High pressure (anticyclone) WEATHER CHART Cold front Warm front Low pressure (depression) Isobars milibars
  7. 7. Where are the anticyclones and depressions?
  8. 8. Depression weather Thick low and wet clouds (nymbus) Rainfall It tends to be Windy
  9. 9. Tornadoes and Heavy storms Appear when Two masses of Air colide... Kansas, USA Cold and humid air Hot and dry air
  10. 10. Katrina hurricane 2005 Eye (calm weather) Heavy rainfall Clockwise movement
  11. 11. Anticyclone weather (stable and dry, can be cold or hot) Sunny weather High clou (cyrrus) fog
  13. 13. Example of climograph (Cáceres) Red curve shows Temperature. Light blue boxes Shows rainfall. Every capital letter means a month of The year.
  14. 14. EQUATORIAL CLIMATE Temperatures are very high and without variation. Rainfall: 1500 mm all the year Round.
  15. 15. Tropical climate Between the Equator and the tropics. Temperatures are high all the year round. There is a dry season and a wet season. depending on rainfall, it will be a dry tropical climate or wet tropical. Monzonic climate
  17. 17. Temperatures are high (average 25ºC), But may fall below 18º some months Precipitation is scarce, less than 300 mm HOT DESERT CLIMATE Arizona, USA
  19. 19. Anatolia plateau, Turkey STEPPES CLIMATE Precipitation is similar to hot deserts. Temperatures are less than 5ºC in winter. Steppes depend not only on latitude But in mountains ranges as well.
  21. 21. Mediterranean Climate Cape Town, South Africa Located on 60º latitude Summers are hot and dry, And winters are mild. Most precipitations fall In spring and autumn (300-800 mm)
  23. 23. Continental climate Inlands, Northern Hemisphere Sharp contrast between cold Winter and warm summer. Rainfall: 300-1000 mm
  24. 24. heOceanic climate Close to west coasts of oceans Summers and winters are mild. Preciptations are Abundant (+1000 mm)
  26. 26. Subtropical / Chinese climate
  27. 27. Polar climate Temperatures are very low During the whole year. There is no summer and Rainfall is scarce. Sun rays are weak and angled In sharp contrast with Equator. Groenland
  28. 28. Polar climograph
  29. 29. High mountain climate Temperatures are very low and tends to snow most of the year. Depending on latitude, altitude needs to be higher or lower to find this climate. Navacerrada
  30. 30. High mountain climate (Alpes)