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E lements of short story, drama and poetry


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E lements of short story, drama and poetry

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E lements of short story, drama and poetry

  1. 1. Reporter: Gina C. Pecasales Title: The Elements of Short Story References: Soriano-Baldonado, R. Readings from World Literatures: Understanding People’s Cultures, Traditions and Beliefs ( A Task-based Approach).Quezon City: Great Books Publishing. 2013 Dinneen, K. Elements of the Short Story. Retrieved Jun. 19, 2003, from Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: curriculum/units/19 3/3/83.03.09.x.html. Lesson Proper: A Short Story is similar to your dish. It needs the best ingredients for you to enjoy its delectable taste. Stories are made up of four important elements: Setting. Tells the reader where and when the story takes place. Characters. The people, and in some stories, the animals that take part in the story.The description of the personalities of the characters in the story and the way in which an author reveals their personalities. Two Identifications of Characters: Protagonist – the hero of the story and Antagonist – the villain in the story who is always opposing the protagonist Methods of Characterization for creating Believable Characters Indirect: physical appearance speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of the character, speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of other characters. Direct: the narrator’s direct comments about a character. Plot. The chain of related events that take place in a story. Built around conflict, which is a struggle between opposing forces. The plot is the sequence or order of events in a story. The plot includes: Exposition Statement.The part of the plot that tells how the story begins. Rising Action.The action in the story leading up to the climax. Conflict.The struggles or problems between opposing forces.
  2. 2. Climax.The point of crisis in the plot. It may be the reader’s point of highest interest. Falling action.The action in the story after the climax is revealed. Resolution.The part of the plot that reveals the final outcome. Types of Conflict Man vs. Man -Man vs. Nature -Man vs. Obstacle or Society - Man vs. Supernatural Being -Man vs. Himself Theme. The main idea of a story. It is not a moral, lesson, or a rule for living. Reporter: Bernard C. Tandayag
  3. 3. Title: The Elements of Drama References: Soriano-Baldonado, R. Readings from World Literatures: Understanding People’s Cultures, Traditions and Beliefs ( A Task-based Approach).Quezon City: Great Books Publishing. 2013 Cabrera, E. (2015). Elements of Drama. Retrieved at: http://www.slideshar on December 9, 2015. Lesson Proper: DRAMA Drama is a composition in prose form that presents a story entirely told in dialogue and action and written with the intention of its eventual performance before an audience. ELEMENTS OF DRAMA SETTING Setting identifies the time and place in which the events occur. It consists of the historical period, the moment, day and season in which the incidents take place. It also includes the sceneries in the performance which are usually found in the preliminary descriptions. CHARACTERS Characters are the people in the play and thus considered as the principal material in a drama. Character Aspects Physical Physical identifies peripheral facts such as age, sexual category, size, race and color. It deals with external attributes which may be envisaged from the description of the playwright or deduced from what the characters say or what other characters verbalize about his appearance. Social Social embraces all aspects that can be gleaned from the character’s world or environment as exemplified by the economic status, occupation or trade, creed, familial affiliation of the characters.
  4. 4. Psychological Psychological discloses the inner mechanism of the mind of the character as exemplified by his habitual responses, attitudes, longings, purposes, likes and dislikes. It is considered as the most indispensable level of character categorization because routines and emotions, thoughts, attitude and behavior enable the readers to know the character intrinsically. Moral Moral discloses the decisions of the characters, either socially acceptable or not, exposing their intentions, thus projecting what is upright or not PLOT Plot lays out the series of events that form the entirety of the play. It serves as a structural framework which brings the events to a cohesive form and sense. Types of Plot Natural Plot is a chronological sequence of events arrangement where actions continuously take place as an end result of the previous action Episodic Plot – each episode independently comprises a setting, climax, and resolution; therefore, a full story in itself is formed. Framework of a Plot Beginning Middle Ending Beginning identifies information about the place, such as geographical location, social, cultural, political background or period when the event took place. Exposition Exposition is the point where the playwright commences his story. It reveals the identity of story’s initial crisis. Middle is composed of a series of difficulties: Complications bring changes and alterations in the movement of the action which take place when discovery of novel information, unexpected alteration of plan, choosing between two courses of action or preface of new ideas are revealed.
  5. 5. Crisis reveals the peak of anticipation in the series of incidents. Middle is composed of a series of difficulties: Obligatory Scene identifies the open collision between two opposing characters or forces. Discovery discloses points which are previously unknown, characterized as something mysterious, strange, unfamiliar and thus revealed through objects, persons, facts, values, or self-discovered. Ending is the final major component of the story which brings the condition back to its stability. This part brings satisfaction to the audience which extends to the final curtain as peace is completely restored. THEME Theme is considered as the unifying element that defines the dramatized idea of the play. It is the over-all sense or implication of the action. It defines the problem, emphasizes the ethical judgment and suggest attitude or course of action that eliminates the crisis is an acceptable way. STYLE Style refers to the mode of expression or presentation of the play which points out the playwright’s position or viewpoint in life. Major Dramatic Attitude Realism Realism is an accurate detailed, and life-like description in a play where things are presented as real as can be set in actual life, with dialogues sounding like day-to-day conversation. Non-realism Non-realism is method of presentation identified as something stylized or theatricalized whereby artist uses his feral imagination in projecting his ideas. TRAGEDY Tragedy is a type of drama that shows the downfall and destruction of a noble or outstanding person, traditionally one who possesses a character weakness called a tragic flaw. The tragic hero, through choice or circumstance, is caught up in a sequence of events that inevitably results in disaster.
  6. 6. COMEDY Comedy is a type of drama intended to interest and amuse the audience rather than make them deeply concerned about events that happen. The characters overcome some difficulties, but they always overcome their ill fortune and find happiness in the end. TRAGICOMEDY Tragicomedy is a play that does not adhere strictly to the structure of tragedy. This is usually serious play that also has some of the qualities of comedy. It arouses thought even with laughter. FARCE Farce is a play that brings laughter for the sake of laughter, usually making use grossly embellished events and characters. It has very swift movements, has ridiculous situations, and does not stimulate thought. MELODRAMA Melodrama shows events that follow each other rapidly, but seems to be governed always by chance. The characters are victims in the hands of merciless fate.
  7. 7. Reporter: Angelito T. Pera Title: The Elements of the Poetry References: Soriano-Baldonado, R. Readings from World Literatures: Understanding People’s Cultures, Traditions and Beliefs ( A Task-based Approach).Quezon City: Great Books Publishing. 2013 Laga, J.(2015).Elements of Poetry.Retrieved at: /JackylineLagaa/types-and-elements-of-poetry.Retrieved on December 7, 2015. Lesson Proper: What is Poetry? Poetry is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. Poetry is the chiseled marble of language; it's a paint-spattered canvas - but the poet uses words instead of paint, and the canvas is you. Elements of poetry can be defined as a set of instruments used to create a poem. Many of these were created thousands of years ago and have been linked to ancient story tellings. They help bring imagery and emotion to poetry, stories, and dramas. Poetry A unit of lines grouped together.Similar to a paragraph in prose. A Stanza consists of two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of a poem. The stanzas of a poem are usually of the same length and follow the same pattern of meter and rhyme and are used like paragraphs in a story. Some different types of stanzas are as follows: Couplets - are stanzas of only two lines which usually rhyme Tercets - are stanzas of three lines. The three lines may or may not have the same end rhyme. If all three lines rhyme, this type of tercet is called a triplet. Quatrains - are stanzas of four lines which can be written in any rhyme scheme.
  8. 8. Couplet •A stanza consisting of two lines that rhyme. Whether or not we find what we are seeking is idle, biologically speaking. — Edna St. Vincent Millay (at the end of a sonnet) Quatrain •A stanza consisting of four lines, Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring Your Winter garment of Repentance fling: The Bird of Time has but a little way To flutter--and the Bird is on the Wing. Alternating Quatrain- a four line stanza rhyming "abab." From W.H. Auden's "Leap Before You Look" The sense of danger must not disappear: a The way is certainly both short and steep, b However gradual it looks from here; a Look if you like, but you will have to leap. b Envelope Stanza- a quatrain with the rhyme scheme "abba", such that lines 2 and 3 are enclosed between the rhymes of lines 1 and 4. Two of these stanzas make up the Italian Octave used in the Italian sonnet. This is from Auden's "Look Before You Leap" The worried efforts of the busy heap, a The dirt, the imprecision, and the beer b Produce a few smart wisecracks every year; b Laugh if you can, but you will have to leap. a Tone. The attitude a poet takes toward his/her subject, it refers to the writer's attitude towards the subject of a literary work as indicated in the work itself. One way to think about tone in poetry is to consider the speaker's literal "tone of voice": just as with tone of voice, a poem's tone may indicate an attitude of joy, sadness, solemnity, silliness, frustration, anger, puzzlement, etc.
  9. 9. Mood. The attitude a reader takes toward his/her subject. It is one element in the narrative structure of a piece of literature. It can also be referred to as atmosphere because it creates an emotional setting enveloping the reader. Mood is established in order to affect the reader emotionally and psychologically and to provide a feeling for the narrative. It is a complex reading strategy. Imagery: Representation of the five senses: sight, taste, touch, sound, and smell and it creates mental images about a poem’s subject Visual imagery: visual descriptions so vivid they seem to come to life in the reader's mind's when they are read, as in the description of a very old fish in Elizabeth Bishop's poem titled "The Fish": Here and there his brown skin hung in strips like ancient wall-paper, and its pattern of darker brown was like wall-paper: shapes like full-blown roses strained and lost through age Auditory imagery: descriptions of sound so vivid the reader seems almost to hear them while reading the poem. For example, Alexander Pope contrasts the gentle sounds of a whispering wind and a soft-running stream with the harsher sound of waves crashing on the shore in "Sound and Sense": The sound must seem an echo to the sense: Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently bows, And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flow; But when the loud surges lash the sounding shore, The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar. (365-69)
  10. 10. Images of smell (olfactory imagery): descriptions of smells so vivid they seem almost to stimulate the reader's own sense of smell while reading, as in the poem, "Root Cellar," by Theodore Roethke: And what a congress of stinks!— Roots ripe as old bait, Pulpy stems, rank, silo-rich, Leaf-mold, manure, lime, piled against slippery planks. Nothing would give up life: Even the dirt kept breathing a small breath. (5-11) Tactile or "physical" imagery: descriptions conveying a strong, vivid sense of touch or physical sensation that the reader can almost feel himself or herself while reading, as in Robert Frost's description of standing on a ladder in "After Apple Picking": "My instep arch not only keeps the ache, / It keeps the pressure of a ladder-round. / I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend" (21-23). Or in the sensation of touch (and possibly taste) in the fourth stanza of Helen Chasin's poem, "The Word Plum": The word plum is delicious pout and push, luxury of self-love, and savoring murmur full in the mouth and falling like fruit taut skin pierced, bitten, provoked into juice, and tart flesh. (1-8). Diction. The Choice of words. Connotative:figurative/metaphorical meaning. Denotative: literal /dictionary-based Persona/Voice. The speaker of the poem.It is the way you present yourself to the world, the character traits that you let show and the way
  11. 11. that people will see you. If you are true to yourself, then your persona should reflect who you actually are. Refrain.The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at certain intervals, usually at the end of each stanza and similar to the chorus in a song. The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door; And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming, And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor; And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor Shall be lifted nevermore. Repetition.A word or phrase repeated within a line or stanza, A word or phrase repeated within a line or stanza, Sometimes, repetition reinforces or even substitutes for meter (the beat), the other chief controlling factor of poetry. Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the King's horses and all the King's men Couldn't put Humpty together again The repetition of a phrase in poetry may have an incantatory effect as in the opening lines of T. S. Eliot's "Ash-Wednesday": Because I do not hope to turn again Because I do not hope Because I do not hope to turn.... Sometimes the effect of a repeated phrase in a poem will be to emphasize a development or change by means of the contrast in the words following the identical phrases. For example, the shift from the distant to the near, from the less personal to the more personal is emphasized in Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" by such a repetition of phrases:
  12. 12. I looked upon the rotting sea, And drew my eyes away; I looked upon the rotting deck, And there the dead men lay. Rhyme Scheme The pattern in which end rhyme occurs, The pattern in which end rhyme occurs, Rhymes are types of poems which have the the repetition of the same or similar sounds at the end of two or more words most often at the ends of lines. This technique makes the poem easy to remember and is therefore often used in Nursery Rhymes. There are several derivatives of the term rhyme which include Double rhyme, Triple rhyme, Rising rhyme, Falling rhyme, Perfect and Imperfect rhymes. Theme The theme of the poem talks about the central idea, the thought behind what the poet wants to convey. A theme can be anything from a description about a person or thing, a thought or even a story. In short a theme stands for whatever the poem is about. Symbolism A poem often conveys feelings, thoughts and ideas using symbols, this technique is known as symbolism. A symbol in poetry can stand for anything and makes the reader take a systematic approach which helps him/her look at things in a different light. A symbol is a poetry style that is usually thought of in the beginning. Literary Devices Figurative Language. When the Author of a poem writes something, but doesn’t really mean it literally. Metaphor. A comparison NOT using like or as. Simile. When you compare something using like or as.The river is peaceful, like a new baby sleeping. Personification. When human like qualities are given to an animal or object. Example: An overly gregarious puppy.A decrepit old car.
  13. 13. Irony. When something that wasn’t expected happens. Or when the opposite of what is expected happens. Musical Devices Alliteration.When the same consonant sound is used throughout a piece of writing. candy covered coconuts. Assonance. When the same vowel sound is used in words throughout a piece of writing That is the way we will pray today, okay? Onomatopoeia word that expresses sound