The Spanish Influenza Pandemic 1918

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The Spanish Influenza Pandemic 1918

  1. 1. The Spanish Influenza Pandemic 1918 By: Angelina Torre
  2. 2. World War 1
  3. 3. WW1 <ul><li>The flu spread quickly when soldiers carried the flu with them wherever they traveled. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is that the stresses of combat increased the soldiers vulnerability to the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern transportation made it easier to spread the flu. </li></ul><ul><li>the flu had killed 57,000 American soldiers which is 4000 more than those killed in the war itself. </li></ul><ul><li>In total 25% of Americans got the virus. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where did it come from? <ul><li>Tibet? </li></ul><ul><li>China? </li></ul><ul><li>Spain? </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of Origin <ul><li>The virus originated in China in a rare genetic shift of the influenza virus. </li></ul><ul><li>It came from the far East </li></ul><ul><li>The virus came from Fort Riley, Kansas by two genetic mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>It mutated in swine </li></ul><ul><li>The virus jumped from birds to humans </li></ul><ul><li>The virus started in Tibet, spread to Europe and was spread to troops coming back to the U.S </li></ul><ul><li>The flu was thought to have come from Spain because the most reliable news coverage came from that area, thus the image Spain was most affected. </li></ul>
  6. 6. People Affected <ul><li>The flu targeted the young and healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of all deaths in 1918 were of people between twenty and forty. </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths occurred from what is referred to as a “cytokine storm” or a overreaction of </li></ul><ul><li>the immune system. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms <ul><li>Blue tint to the face </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing up blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhaging </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths occurred in hours, or the next day. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1918 was the deadliest month in U.S. history with 195,000 fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>The flu spread so intensely, health care workers became too sick to take care of their patients. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment <ul><li>Communities….. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed businesses and churches </li></ul><ul><li>Stayed indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Stores stopped sales to avoid crowds and shoppers phoned in orders. </li></ul><ul><li>Wore masks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. . <ul><li>“ Obey the laws, and wear the gauze, protect your jaws, from septic paws.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ I had a little bird.  Its name was Enza. I opened the window, And in-flu-enza” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Waves of the flu <ul><li>The first was mild compared to the last two deadly waves. </li></ul><ul><li>It spread through the U.S, Europe, and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The second had high fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>These outbreaks occurred in France, Brest, Freetown, Boston, Massachusetts. and Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>The third wave was in March 1919 and spread in England and Wales. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>It is estimated 50-100 million people died from the Spanish Influenza: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mortality by country <ul><li>India- 17 million </li></ul><ul><li>Japan- 390,000 </li></ul><ul><li>United States- 500,000- 675,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain- 250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>France – 400,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Canada- 50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)- 1.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Australia-12,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Fiji Islands- 14% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Western Samoa- 22% </li></ul><ul><li>Entire villages perished in Alaska and Southern Africa </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Impact <ul><li>The pandemic caused large business failures and stunted economic growth years after. </li></ul><ul><li>People began to listen to authorities of public health. </li></ul><ul><li>The pandemic has inspired American Literature such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Pale Horse, Pale Ride- Katherine Ann Porter </li></ul><ul><li>The Doctor’s Son- John O’Hara </li></ul><ul><li>If I die before I wake- David Morrell </li></ul><ul><li>Research and testing is still being done today by recreating the virus for research and studying historic tissue samples. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bibliography <ul><li>Billings, Molly. “The 1918 Influenza Pandemic” </li></ul><ul><li>http://virus.stanford.edu/uda/ (April 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Cummings, Sarah.” Spanish Influenza Outbreak.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.haverford.edu/biology/edwards/disease/viral_essays/cummingsvirus.htm (April 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Crane, Leonard. “The 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic and the emerging swine flu pandemic.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ninthday.com/spanish_flu.htm (May 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Kreiser, Christine. “The 1918 Spanish flu outbreak, the enemy within” </li></ul><ul><li>Historynet.com. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.historynet.com/1918-spanish-influenza-outbreak-the-enemy-within.htm (May 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Parsons, David. “The Spanish lady and the Newfoundland regiment.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.vlib.us/medical/parsons.htm (May 2010) </li></ul>

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