Heizer (2011) stated that advances in technology thatenhance production and productivity have a widerange of applications in both manufacturing andservices. He enumerated the 9 technologies that canimprove employee safety, product quality andproductivity. But among the 9 technologies, the use ofmachine technology and robots will be givenemphasis to its advantages.
According to Muther (1995), machinery and equipment is the second in importance to the process of product or material. Features of the machinery includes production machines; process or treating equipments; special attachments; tools such as jigs, fixtures, dies, forms or patterns; The term “robot” is being identified as a machine that is flexible and has the ability to hold, move and grab items. Heizer (2011) highly stated that the robots may be used effectively to perform tasks that are especially monotonous or dangerous or those that can be improved by the substitution of mechanical for human effort.
The application of conveyors can help in handling and moving the materials from one location to another. ISO defines industrial robot an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The applications of industrial robots accomplish all with endurance, speed and precision.
Machine has always been viewed as unavoidable overhead cost (O’Neill, 2007). When it comes to making changes with the design of the workplace, only the designers of the machine have enough knowledge O’Neill’s (2007) viewpoint emphasizes that the workspace is not designed with the intention of supporting change. Neither the machines nor the management processes are designed for change over time or to accommodate new demands in the business environment.
The proponents made some observations in the process of the legoblocks assembly, as being recorded in a VCR. Only one person isbeing considered as the performer of the activity. The data gatheredwere being analyzed and the weaknesses were being determined.Books were used as the secondary source for constructing a micromotion analysis, particularly the use of simo chart. The chart wasconstructed as to the details of every operation. Other sources suchas electronic references were used as basis for formulating aproposed method. In which, the weaknesses gathered were thebases for generating proposals for improvement.
The purpose of this activity is to assess the present method in the Lego blocks assembly considering the 3 factors in improving the worker’s productivity where it also answers the following questions: ◦ What are the unnecessary operations to be eliminated? ◦ What are the sequences of activities that need to be changed or simplified? ◦ What are the advantages of preferring the use of a machine over housing employees? Based on the findings of the study, what proposals could be recommended improving the existing method of Lego blocks assembly.
PRESENT METHOD Strengths Principle 16 : the height of the workplace and the chair should preferably be arranged so that alternate sitting and standing at work are easily possible. There was a provision of table and the chair for the operator to work. It was seen that the design of the workplace was made easy for the operator to perform the work. Principle 15 : provisions should be made for adequate conditions for seeing. Good illumination is the first requirement for satisfactory visual perception. The workstation was provided with enough light so that the operator could perform the operation. The lights are not only provided on the upper part as well as the lower part, to have a good reflection.
Principle 7 : ballistic movements are faster, easier and more accurate than restricted movement. The worker was able to perform the work without demanding too much from the operation. She was able to finish the assemblies and the motions of the body were free to move whenever desired. Principle 8 : the work should be arranged to permit easy and natural rhythm whenever possible. The arrangement of the lego blocks were made easy to reach for the operator
Principle 1: two hands should begin as well as complete their motions at the same time Principle 2; the two hands should not be idle except during rest periods Principle 3; the motions of the arms should be made in opposite and symmetrical directions, and should be made simultaneously Principle 18; the hands should be relieved for all works that can be done more advantageously by a jig, a fixture or a foot-operated devices
Overhead Quantity Price total benefitBelt conveyor 1 1,894,578 1,894,578Robotic arm 3 556,548 1,669,644 3,564,222
VI. CONCLUSION In production, many companies have encountered problems in meeting up the deadline in which the products will be needed because the products to be produced depend on the worker itself. There are also problems in terms of quality assurance,for the performance of the workers are not the same at all times. Different workers have different performance levels due to certain reasons and also due to unnecessary movements there are lots of errors and this will cause delays. Because of these, majority of the production firms take it to action and thought of a move that will address the problems and one of the moves is the use of robotics.
The use of robotics in the industry became very useful especially in terms of production. According to Jordan Gaither, “Since the invention of the moving assembly line by Henry Ford in 1913 and robotics, the manufacturing process has never been the same, producing massive quantities of low-cost goods at a speed never before imagined possible.” This proves the increase in production. In terms of quality, robots can improve the quality of the product and the operations are performed with precision and high repeatability. In production, the robots can work at constant speed thus improving the productivity. In terms of safety, robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles, so they no longer have to perform dangerous applications in hazardous settings. In terms of savings, though the robots may be costly, it must be cheaper compared to hiring employees to do the work which require a lot of benefits. The cost of robots will be paid off in shorter period of time by saving the benefits for the employees. In business, there are factors to be considered. It is not just about the profit but also in the cost savings the company could get. The respondents should venture to what is good for the company, the workers and the people whom utilize their products.
The researchers recommend the application of the proposed method in order improve the quality of the product and the productivity of the company. The proposed method includes the use of robotics in assembling the lego blocks and the conveyor. The workers who used to be the assembler would now be the operator of the robot in which the worker will just turn on the robot of turn it off also the researcher recommends to train the operator on how to manipulate the robot(off and on only). Afterwards, the worker will go to the packaging station to pack the products. The implementation of this method will remove the unnecessary movements that may occur and certainly improve the revenue of the company. A good management and a regular maintenance of the robots is highly recommended.