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Direct and indirect speech


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Direct and indirect speech

  1. 1. Imperative sentences do not normally have an expressed subject. This is because the subject ‘you’ is usually understood. As a result of this, imperative sentences begin with a verb in the simple present tense. An imperative sentence expresses ideas such as advice, order, request, suggestion, instruction, permission, allowance etc.
  2. 2. • In order to change an imperative sentence into the indirect speech, we use a to-infinitive (to+base form of the verb) • Note that instead of ‘said’ we use one of the following reporting verbs: Advise, command, request, suggest, threaten, order, forbid, decree, propose, entreat, prompt, counsel, pardon, beg, persuade, instruct etc.
  3. 3. We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech
  4. 4. • Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) • Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations", she said.
  5. 5. Subject Reporting verb Direct speech He Said, “drink milk” “don´t drink coffee”
  6. 6. • Indirect speech doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. For example: Direct speech: “come early and bring your insurance card”, said the doctor. Indirect speech: The doctor told her to come early and bring her insurance card.
  7. 7. Subject Reporting verb Noun/ pronoun Indirect speecj He Told Her To drink milk Not to drink coffee Said
  8. 8. Change the sentences from direct speech to indirect speech 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Direct: The old woman said to the boy, ‘Please help me.’ Indirect: The old woman told the boy to help her. Direct: I said to him, ‘Love and obey your parents.’ Indirect: ___________________________________ Direct: The teacher said to the students, ‘Work hard.’ Indirect: ___________________________________ Direct: The doctor said to the patient, ‘Quit smoking. Indirect:____________________________________ Direct: I said to her, ‘Don’t mention his name.’ Indirect:_______________________________________