Imperative sentences do not normally have an
expressed subject. This is because the subject ‘you’ is
usually understood. As a result of this, imperative
sentences begin with a verb in the simple present
An imperative sentence expresses ideas such
as advice, order, request, suggestion, instruction,
permission, allowance etc.
• In order to change an imperative sentence into the
indirect speech, we use a to-infinitive (to+base form
of the verb)
• Note that instead of ‘said’ we use one of the
following reporting verbs:
Advise, command, request, suggest, threaten, order,
forbid, decree, propose, entreat, prompt, counsel,
pardon, beg, persuade, instruct etc.
We often have to give information about what
people say or think. In order to do this you can
use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or
• Saying exactly what someone has said is called
direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)
• Here what a person says appears within quotation
marks ("...") and should be word for word.
She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."
"Today's lesson is on presentations", she said.
“don´t drink coffee”
• Indirect speech doesn't use quotation marks to
enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to
be word for word.
“come early and bring your insurance card”, said the
The doctor told her to come early and
bring her insurance card.
To drink milk
Not to drink
Change the sentences from direct speech to indirect speech
Direct: The old woman said to the boy, ‘Please help me.’
Indirect: The old woman told the boy to help her.
Direct: I said to him, ‘Love and obey your parents.’
Direct: The teacher said to the students, ‘Work hard.’
Direct: The doctor said to the patient, ‘Quit smoking.
Direct: I said to her, ‘Don’t mention his name.’