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4   Governments will encourage private sector interaction between complementary       companies in the green technology in...
Section 6: Energy, Buildings, and TransportRealizing that access to modern, affordable energy is intimately linked with su...
Premier	  Melia	  Ungson                                            Prime	  Minister	  Joshua	  Curry	  Mr.	  Nick	  Allen...
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Evst346 joint mou


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This "Memorandum of Understanding" was drafted as a class exercise for a course I am co-teaching, "EVST 346: Urbanization and Environment in China and India," at Yale College. You can check out the class website at:

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Evst346 joint mou

  1. 1. Memorandum of Understanding BETWEEN THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND INDIA TO MUTUALLY PROMOTE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIESThe Peoples Republic of China and India hereinafter referred to as the "Participants," convenedat a Special Session by the United Nations Environment Programme at Yale University in NewHaven, CT, and formally signed in April 2013, hereinafter referred to as the "MOU," havereached the following understandings. Section 1In order to implement the policy dialogue and cooperation on sustainable urban development inthe MOU, the Participants intend to conduct cooperative activities set forth in Section 2 below, inaccordance with previous frameworks for cooperation and in support of the objectives of theMOU. Section 2: ScopeThe areas of common understanding pursuant to this MOU, involve the following areas:1. Public-Private Partnership2. Behavioral Incentives and Education3. Governance and Enforcement4. Energy, Buildings, and Transport Section 3: Public Private PartnershipsThe Indian and Chinese governments have the responsibility to support private sectorcompanies engaged in the production of clean energy technology and efficient-buildingconstruction for the creation of sustainable cities. Governments must provide financialincentives that enable companies to bring environmentally-efficient products and services intothe mainstream market. At the same time, private sector companies are expected to activelyengage in R&D and share skills and knowledge that enable efficient implementation of projectsfurthering the goals of environmental sustainability. More broadly, the Indian and Chinesegovernments look forward to strengthening synergies across these two countries with regard toissues of environmental sustainability.India and China agree on the following goals with regard to Public-Private Partnerships: 1 Governments will strengthen partnerships with companies whose products and services benefit the environment. 2 Governments will invest in the Research and Development efforts of companies involved in the production of green technology or construction of efficient buildings. 3 Governments will engage in two-way knowledge exchange with private-sector experts on sustainability. 1
  2. 2. 4 Governments will encourage private sector interaction between complementary companies in the green technology industry within and across the two countries. Section 4: Behavioral Incentives and EducationIn the realm of education, China and India will establish a joint committee to do the following:1. Share data on best practices for environmental awareness2. Create forums for top academics to convene and discuss urban-rural sustainability questionsand new university programs to explore environmental sustainability3. Explore the feasibility of private entities publishing environmental impact statements beforepursuing projects, giving the civil sector and government agencies adequate time to assessprojects.In the realm of behavioral incentives, China and India will establish a joint committee to do thefollowing:1. Discuss successful fee structures, pricing models, and tax systems that use economicprinciples in the development of more environmentally sustainable lifestyles and communities.2. Examine the feasibility of subsidy programs that encourage the development of sustainableproducts and industries.3. Discuss opportunities for increased trade between China and India that will connect firms withenvironmentally-sustainable products and policies to larger markets. Section 5: Governance and EnforcementThe governments of China and India will consider1. Encouraging the growth of environmental public interest law.Support a straightforward process through which citizens can bring grievances if environmentallaws are not being adhered to, and fund nationwide education campaigns for citizens, judgesand lawyers about the enforcement of environmental laws.[2. Giving the central government greater oversight over local environmental bureaus.The central government of both our countries often has a greater interest in the long-termenvironmental picture than regional or provincial governments do in China. Therefore, thecentral government of each country must have the legal right to enforce environmentalregulations when local officials are failing to do so.] TERI opposes3. Strengthening inter-jurisdictional environmental cooperation in both countries.Functional units of government in China and India (i.e. water departments and energydepartments) and territorial subdivisions must better cooperate among each other to protect theenvironment. In the next year, the central governments of China and India will convenemeetings between regional governors to build consensus around environmental protectiontargets for all territories, and between departmental secretaries to develop actionable targets forenvironmental cooperation. 2
  3. 3. Section 6: Energy, Buildings, and TransportRealizing that access to modern, affordable energy is intimately linked with sustainabledevelopment and efforts to alleviate poverty;Recognizing the intricate interrelated nature of the issues at hand, including ties betweenenergy consumption, pollution and health consequences, environmental degradation, and thelongevity of cities;Calling for open exchanges, discussions, and collaborations between India and China onenergy access issues so as to draw on each other’s knowledge and skills;We call for the consideration of the following: ● Discussion within each country in regards to implementing government subsidies promoting cleaner and more efficient fuels at the household level in order to ameliorate the added costs of adopting green energy in urban development ● In-country support of scientific research, development, and transfer of low-carbon technology ● Continued dialogue on using clean/green/low-carbon technology to develop energy infrastructure to serve the urban poor and boost local economic growth ● Establishment of a working group focused on the development of and access to low- carbon transportation options as well as a reevaluation of new urban design that emphasizes the proximity of amenities to residences ● Promote the sharing of resources, tools, and knowledge between Indian and Chinese municipalities that would enhance the creation of strategies to decrease the environmental impact and GHG emissions from buildings. ● Petition for UN funding for a grant program, specifically for China and India (with the possibility of extending it to all regions exhibiting a certain high rate of urban growth), to subsidize the adoption of energy efficient building technologiesThe Parties will convene a second UNEP China-India summit in 2015 for sharing of bestpractices and development of near-term environmental targets.This MOU is signed respectively in New Haven, CT in the United States on April 3, 2013 induplicate in the English and Chinese languages, both texts being equally authentic. For the People’s Republic of China For India 3
  4. 4. Premier  Melia  Ungson Prime  Minister  Joshua  Curry  Mr.  Nick  Allen,  Mayor  of  Guangzhou   Ms.  Rachel  Ett,  General  Secretary  of  the  Municipality,  Guangdong  Province   Bharatiya  Janata  Party  Ms.  Sophie  Janaskie,  CEO  of  Sinopec   Mr.  Martin  Shapiro,  General  Secretary  of  the   Communist  Party  of  India  Ms.  Megha  Okhai,  Director  of  Sustainability,   Ms.  Mary  Nguyen,  Governor  of  GujaratChina  Vanke  Ltd.  Mr.  Joseph  Yagoda,  Communications   Mr.  Ryan  Healey,  CEO  of  Tata  Group  Director,  Friends  of  Nature  Ms.  Viveca  Morris,  Director,  Center  for  Legal   Ms.  Abigail  Bok,  CEO  of  DLF  Assistance  to  Pollution  Victims  Mr.  Gregory  Santoro,  CEO  of  Suntech,  China   Mr.  Joseph  Moynihan,  Chief  Representative   of  the  Adivasi  indigenous  group   Ms.  Elle  Brunsdale,  Expert  on  Agriculture  at   TERI,  advocate  of  farmer’s  rights  in  India   4