Group 2 - cell cycle and chemotherapy

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This is group2 's output in group discussion 1 in n204- advanced pathophysiology

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Group 2 - cell cycle and chemotherapy

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  2. 2. CELL CYCLE AND CHEMOTHERAPY<br />How are they related? <br />
  3. 3. To keep the body in good health is a duty... otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.  -Buddha<br />
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  9. 9. THE CELL CYCLE<br />
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  12. 12. CANCER<br />
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  16. 16. WHAT CAUSES CANCER?<br />
  17. 17. Genes - the DNA type<br />Cells can experience uncontrolled growth if there are damages or mutations to DNA, and therefore, damage to the genes involved in cell division. <br /> Four key types of gene are responsible for the cell division process: oncogenestell cells when to divide, tumor suppressor genes tell cells when not to divide, suicide genes control apoptosis and tell the cell to kill itself if something goes wrong, and DNA-repair genes instruct a cell to repair damaged DNA.<br /> Cancer occurs when a cell's gene mutations make the cell unable to correct DNA damage and unable to commit suicide. <br />
  18. 18. Carcinogens<br />Carcinogens are a class of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or aiding cancer. <br /> Tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, radiation such as gamma and x-rays, the sun, and compounds in car exhaust fumes are all examples of carcinogens. <br />Hormones<br />Some hormones factor in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation.<br />
  19. 19. Chemotherapy<br />
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  23. 23. Why is it that the concept of cell cycle is important in understanding the mechanism of chemotherapy?(PARADIGM and TEXTUAL EXPLANATION)<br />
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  27. 27. Chemotherapeutic agents can be classified according to the phase of the cell cycle in which they are active. Agents that are cell-cycle nonspecific have a linear dose-response curve; that is, the greater the dose of the drug, the greater is the fraction of cell kill. However, cell-cycle-phase-specific drugs have a plateau with respect to cell killing ability, and cell kill will not increase with further increases in drug dosage (Page, R.). <br />
  28. 28. The following are some of the commonly used cell-cycle-dependent chemotherapy drugs and the specific stages of the cell cycle during which they exert their effects.<br />
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  38. 38. ACTION SITESOF CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS<br />
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  40. 40. Concepts tackled from modules 1-3<br />* In Module 1:<br /> We learned about homeostasis and the steadiness of the internal environment as well as the values in certain measurements of the internal environment or the negative feedback loop. We were enlightened also in adaptive mechanism of the body and its response to stress. Also discussed here how a certain disease can start and how our body fight and adopt to it. In relation to the topic bout cancer studies have indicated an indirect relationship between stress and certain types of virus-related tumors. Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that chronic stress weakens a person’s immune system, which in turn may affect the incidence of virus-associated cancers, such as Kaposi sarcoma and some lymphomas.<br /> <br />
  41. 41. More recent research with animal models (animals with a disease that is similar to or the same as a disease in humans) suggests that the body’s neuroendocrine response (release of hormones into the blood in response to stimulation of the nervous system) can directly alter important processes in cells that help protect against the formation of cancer, such as DNA repair and the regulation of cell growth. (www.cancer.gov)<br /> Stress reduction can improve the immune response and possibly slow cancer progression. <br />
  42. 42. * In Module 2 : <br /> In this module its more about the basic unit of life: cell. In this module it explained how the cells are organized, the different cell parts and it’s remarkable functions, the stages of cell cycle and the cellular vicissitudes that affects body aging.<br /> In relation of this module to Chemotherapy that Chemotherapy works by bringing it to a halt or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide rapidly. But it can also damage healthy cells that divide quickly, such as those that line your mouth and intestines or cause your hair not to grow. Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects. Often, side effects get better or go away after chemotherapy is over. Chemotherapy acts mainly on replicating cells during the cell cycle by interfering at different levels from DNA synthesis to protein function. They can work at any point of the cell cycle (cell-cycle specific- phase non-specific) but some works only in specific phase of the cycle (phase specific). Other chemotherapeutics act on cells whether they are in the cell cycle or resting and are named cell-cycle nonspecific drugs.<br />
  43. 43. There are many different types of chemotherapy agents each acting on a different part of the cell cycle. Some are cell cycle specific meaning that they only work on specific parts of the cell cycle while others work at any part of the cell cycle. This is the name given to the sequence of events that a cell goes through when it grows and divides into two. The cell consists of 4 stages: G1 a resting stage prior to DNA replication; S the stage in which DNA is copied; G2 a gap stage and M where cell division takes place. (http://www.chomotherapy.com)<br />
  44. 44.  <br />* In Module 3 : <br /> We were educated about the response of cells when there’s an injury and inflammations, how our body response to infectious agents and alterations in wound healing. In relation to this module on Current treatment strategies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of them, are mostly effective but may induce serious side effects to normal tissues. In addition, tumors are developing resistance against most of these conventional therapies. Tumors "hybrid" cell lines can induce immune responses against tumors cells in the lab, as opposed to directly attacking them. As a result, the patients' tumors cells, as well as related cell lines, were killed, his findings reveal. The response of the immune system to cancerous cells is often inadequate because tumor cells use a variety of mechanisms to avoid detection.<br />
  45. 45. SCENARIO<br /> To further explain the relationship of the cell cycle and chemotherapy, we incorporated the idea in a fantasy story.<br /> Individuals, Communities and Students can easily understand Cancer, the cell cycle and chemotherapy with the use of this story.<br /> We hope you would enjoy reading.<br />
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  63. 63. END <br />
  64. 64. MEMBERS: group 2 N204<br />BABARAN, MA. MAGDALENA DECIAL<br />BANZUELA, CHRISTOPHER DUNGONG<br />BARASI, DANICA MAE MERIN<br />BATACAN, JOCELYN ZAMORA<br />BAYONA, ANNA LIZA GONZALES<br />BELTRAN, ANGELA BETSAIDA AGAS<br />BERONIA, MAYNADINE PADILLA<br />BETACHE, RAYDENE GRACE LLAVAN<br />BRILLANTES, JEFFREY MACADAAN<br />BROWN, LADY ANNE MARGOTTE EROT<br />BULAONG, ANJELA DOMINGUEZ<br />CAABAY, JHON IVAN FABRIGAS<br />CABALAGNAN, KIM BERNARD VILLANUEVA<br />CABANES, RIA VALERIE DULIG<br />CABANILLA, CHRISTOPHER PACTANAC<br />CABANOS, JAIME JR. DEUS<br />CAJIGAL, PAULA MARIE NAZ<br />CALIBUSO, MAUREEN PAGADUAN<br />
  65. 65. REFERENCES:<br />References:<br />Ocampo-Balabagno, A.V., et.al.: Pathophysiology: 3-54, 2006<br />Porth, C.M.: Pathophysiology, Concepts of Altered Health States<br />http://www.cancer.org<br />http://www.slideshare.net/frankbonilla/principles-of-chemotherapy<br />http://www.dynamicchiropractic.ca/mpacms/dc_ca/article.php?id=54916<br />http://www.news-medical.net/news/20110618/Cancer-Statistics-2011-report-finds-progress-has-not-benefitted-all-segments-of-the-population-equally.aspx<br />http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cancerlibrary/what-is-cancer<br />(http://www.curesearch.org/for_parents_and_families/intreatment/medical/article.aspx?StageId=3&TopicId=70&ArticleId=3126%20<br />

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