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GEOG100--Lecture 03--Maps

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GEOG100--Lecture 03--Maps

  1. 1. Maps—The Geographer’s Tool Cartography: The art and science of making maps
  2. 2. A 2-D View of a 3-D World
  3. 3. Maps Illustrate and Reinforce OurIdeas about the World Around Us
  4. 4. Maps Illustrate and Reinforce Our Ideas about the World Around Us What we see, what we don’t see, and what we’re not willing to see…
  5. 5. Maps Illustrate and Reinforce Our Ideas about the World Around Us What we see, what we don’t see, and what we’re not willing to see… How we think about the world around us…
  6. 6. Maps Illustrate and Reinforce Our Ideas about the World Around Us What we see, what we don’t see, and what we’re not willing to see… How we think about the world around us… What is important to us and what is not…
  7. 7. Maps Illustrate and Reinforce Our Ideas about the World Around Us What we see, what we don’t see, and what we’re not willing to see… How we think about the world around us… What is important to us and what is not…These things all “appear” on our maps
  8. 8. 1600’s
  9. 9. 1700’s
  10. 10. 1800’s
  11. 11. G.I.S. Geographic Information Systems has revolutionized the way we make maps However, the computer program only depicts what we tell it to…
  12. 12. A Simplification or a Lie?
  13. 13. A Simplification or a Lie? “cartographic censorship”
  14. 14. A Simplification or a Lie? “cartographic censorship”“[B]asic maps of most cities show streets, landmark structures,elevations, parks, churches, and large museums--but notdangerous intersections, impoverished neighborhoods, high crimeareas, and other zones of danger and misery that could beaccommodated without sacrificing information about infrastructureand terrain.
  15. 15. A Simplification or a Lie? “cartographic censorship”“[B]asic maps of most cities show streets, landmark structures,elevations, parks, churches, and large museums--but notdangerous intersections, impoverished neighborhoods, high crimeareas, and other zones of danger and misery that could beaccommodated without sacrificing information about infrastructureand terrain.“By omitting politically threatening or aesthetically unattractiveaspects of geographic reality...our topographic ‘base maps’ arehardly basic to the concerns of public health and safety officials,social workers, and citizens rightfully concerned about the well-being of themselves and others.”
  16. 16. A Simplification or a Lie? “cartographic censorship”“[B]asic maps of most cities show streets, landmark structures,elevations, parks, churches, and large museums--but notdangerous intersections, impoverished neighborhoods, high crimeareas, and other zones of danger and misery that could beaccommodated without sacrificing information about infrastructureand terrain.“By omitting politically threatening or aesthetically unattractiveaspects of geographic reality...our topographic ‘base maps’ arehardly basic to the concerns of public health and safety officials,social workers, and citizens rightfully concerned about the well-being of themselves and others.” -Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps, p. 122
  17. 17. Globe vs. Map
  18. 18. Globe vs. Map
  19. 19. All flat maps distort shape or size or direction
  20. 20. All flat maps distort shape or size or direction We can hold one constant, but not all three
  21. 21. Map Projections
  22. 22. Map Projections Trying to take something round and make it flat isn’t easy (especially if you’re trying to make it into a rectangle)!
  23. 23. Map Projections Trying to take something round and make it flat isn’t easy (especially if you’re trying to make it into a rectangle)! Map projections attempt to do this by “projecting” an image of Earth’s surface onto a piece of paper
  24. 24. Cylindrical Projection
  25. 25. Cylindrical ProjectionImagine a light bulb in the center of a globe, with a sheet of paperwrapped around it in the form of a cylinder. Meridians and parallelswould be "projected onto the cylinder as straight, parallel lines.Meridians on these projections do not meet at the poles, so thesemaps are increasingly stretched and distorted toward the poles.
  26. 26. Azimuthal or Planar Projection
  27. 27. Azimuthal or Planar ProjectionA perfectly flat piece of paper (aplane) would touch the globe at apoint (the tangent). This projection isa good choice for maps with circularor square shapes. When the point oftangency is one of the poles,meridians are shown as straight linesradiating from the pole. If parallelsare then drawn as equally spacedconcentric circles, this projectionwould be equidistant (scale is truealong any line radiating from thecenter point, in this case the pole).
  28. 28. Conic Projection
  29. 29. Conic ProjectionA cone of paper placed over a globe would touch its surface alongone standard line (usually a parallel). A cone that sliced through theglobe would intersect it twice, creating two standard parallels. Sucha projection is well-suited for showing areas in the middle-latitudeswith a mostly east-west extent (like the United States).
  30. 30. Pseudocylindrical ProjectionPseudocylindrical (or elliptical) projections normally have straightparallels and curved meridians (usually equally spaced). TheRobinson Projection is a popular example. It was created to makethe world "look" right by keeping angular and areal distortions to aminimum.
  31. 31. Interrupted Projection
  32. 32. Conformal vs. Equivalent Projections
  33. 33. “Reading” Maps
  34. 34. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)
  35. 35. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min)
  36. 36. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min) (sec”)
  37. 37. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S)
  38. 38. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)
  39. 39. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min)
  40. 40. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”)
  41. 41. “Reading” Maps(Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”) (E/W)
  42. 42. “Reading” MapsIn order to find your way around a map,you need to know how standard mapcoordinates are written: (Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”) (E/W)
  43. 43. “Reading” MapsIn order to find your way around a map,you need to know how standard mapcoordinates are written: (Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”) (E/W)
  44. 44. “Reading” MapsIn order to find your way around a map,you need to know how standard mapcoordinates are written: (Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”) (E/W)
  45. 45. “Reading” MapsIn order to find your way around a map,you need to know how standard mapcoordinates are written: (Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”) (E/W) Quest of the day: Where is this place?
  46. 46. “Reading” MapsIn order to find your way around a map,you need to know how standard mapcoordinates are written: (Lat.°)(min) (sec”) (N/S) (Long.°)(min) (sec”) (E/W) Quest of the day: Where is this place? 37°32’12”N 122°20’02”W
  47. 47. Quick Quiz:Which of the following is written incorrectly?
  48. 48. Quick Quiz:Which of the following is written incorrectly? a) 0º0º
  49. 49. Quick Quiz:Which of the following is written incorrectly? a) 0º0º b) 0º180º
  50. 50. Quick Quiz:Which of the following is written incorrectly? a) 0º0º b) 0º180º c) 38ºS 120ºE
  51. 51. Quick Quiz:Which of the following is written incorrectly? a) 0º0º b) 0º180º c) 38ºS 120ºE d) 89º56’62”W 179º01’59”N
  52. 52. Elements of a Good Map
  53. 53. Elements of a Good MapAll maps need certain characteristics in order to be easily readable.
  54. 54. Elements of a Good MapAll maps need certain characteristics in order to be easily readable.
  55. 55. Elements of a Good MapAll maps need certain characteristics in order to be easily readable. So what is it that makes a map
  56. 56. Elements of a Good MapAll maps need certain characteristics in order to be easily readable. So what is it that makes a map a “good” map?
  57. 57. Elements of a Good Map
  58. 58. Elements of a Good Map  Title
  59. 59. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date
  60. 60. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key
  61. 61. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction
  62. 62. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location
  63. 63. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location  Index
  64. 64. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location  Index  Data Source
  65. 65. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location  Index  Data Source  Projection Type
  66. 66. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location  Index  Data Source  Projection Type  Scale
  67. 67. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location  Index  Data Source  Projection Type  Scale  Relief and Topography
  68. 68. Elements of a Good Map  Title  Date  Legend/Key  Direction  Location  Index  Data Source  Projection Type  Scale  Relief and Topography  Design
  69. 69. Topographic Maps USGS—United States Geological Survey
  70. 70. How a Topographic Map is Made
  71. 71. Isolines
  72. 72. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:
  73. 73. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:
  74. 74. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.
  75. 75. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.
  76. 76. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.2. Except in rare cases (such as an overhanging cliff), isolines do not cross.
  77. 77. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.2. Except in rare cases (such as an overhanging cliff), isolines do not cross.
  78. 78. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.2. Except in rare cases (such as an overhanging cliff), isolines do not cross.3. The elevation difference between one isoline and the next is called an “interval”. Intervals may differ between maps, but are usually the same throughout any one map.
  79. 79. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.2. Except in rare cases (such as an overhanging cliff), isolines do not cross.3. The elevation difference between one isoline and the next is called an “interval”. Intervals may differ between maps, but are usually the same throughout any one map.
  80. 80. IsolinesFour basic characteristics:1. Isolines always form closed shapes. The connecting section may be cut off at the edges of the map, but at some point all isolines meet and close.2. Except in rare cases (such as an overhanging cliff), isolines do not cross.3. The elevation difference between one isoline and the next is called an “interval”. Intervals may differ between maps, but are usually the same throughout any one map.4. Where isolines are close together, there is a steep gradient, or slope, or a rapid change of some sort. Where they are further apart, there is a gentle gradient, slope, or slow change.
  81. 81. USGS Topo MapsTake one and check it out!
  82. 82. Scale

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