Weathering and Mass Wasting         Chapter 10
External vs. Internal Processes(the dynamic equilibrium model)
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)                                         3
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)                                         3
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)                                         3
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)  [Geomorphic threshold is reached]          ...
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)  [Geomorphic threshold is reached]          ...
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)  [Geomorphic threshold is reached]          ...
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)  [Geomorphic threshold is reached]• Destabil...
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)  [Geomorphic threshold is reached]• Destabil...
Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around  some average)  [Geomorphic threshold is reached]• Destabil...
Denudation—Large-scale removal of materialthat lowers the overall profile of thetopography
Denudation Processes
Denudation Processes• Weathering—The combined action of all  atmospheric and biologic processes that cause  rock to disint...
Denudation Processes• Weathering—The combined action of all  atmospheric and biologic processes that cause  rock to disint...
Denudation Processes• Weathering—The combined action of all  atmospheric and biologic processes that cause  rock to disint...
The Grand Canyon
Weathering of Bedrock
Weathering of Bedrock           ► Wherever bedrock is            exposed to the natural            elements, it weathers
Weathering of Bedrock           ► Wherever bedrock is            exposed to the natural            elements, it weathers
Weathering of Bedrock           ► Wherever bedrock is            exposed to the natural            elements, it weathers
Weathering of Bedrock           ► Wherever bedrock is            exposed to the natural            elements, it weathers  ...
Jointing
Jointing in Bryce Canyon, UT
Jointing in Bryce Canyon, UT
More Jointing
As rocks weather, surface area increases,offering more surfaces to be weathered…
…producing this result.
Mechanical Weathering
Mechanical Weathering• Physical disintegration of rock as a result  of natural phenomena, without a change in  its chemica...
Mechanical Weathering• Physical disintegration of rock as a result  of natural phenomena, without a change in  its chemica...
Mechanical Weathering     Processes
Mechanical Weathering              Processes•   Frost wedging•   Salt wedging•   Unloading/pressure-release jointing•   Th...
Frost Wedging
Frost Wedging• Repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in porespaces of rock fractures or joints
Frost Wedging• Repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in porespaces of rock fractures or joints• Expanding ice exerts...
Frost Wedging• Repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in porespaces of rock fractures or joints• Expanding ice exerts...
Frost Wedging
Salt Wedging• Similar to frost wedging• Growth of salt crystals breaks rocks apart• Most effective in coastal environments...
Unloading or Pressure-release jointing
Unloading or Pressure-release jointing• Rock brought near the surface as the rocks above (or  even glaciers) erode away re...
Unloading or Pressure-release jointing• Rock brought near the surface as the rocks above (or  even glaciers) erode away re...
Unloading or Pressure-release jointing• Rock brought near the surface as the rocks above (or  even glaciers) erode away re...
Thermal Expansion and     Contraction
Thermal Expansion and               Contraction• When rock is heated, it expands slightly, and when cooled,  it contracts
Thermal Expansion and               Contraction• When rock is heated, it expands slightly, and when cooled,  it contracts•...
Thermal Expansion and               Contraction• When rock is heated, it expands slightly, and when cooled,  it contracts•...
Thermal Expansion and     Contraction
Biologic Weathering            • Growth of plant roots,              burrowing animals            • Pressure is exerted by...
Chemical Weathering
Chemical Weathering• Rocks forming at depth are stable under  those conditions
Chemical Weathering• Rocks forming at depth are stable under  those conditions• Once rocks are exposed to surface  conditi...
Chemical Weathering
Chemical Weathering• Decomposition of rock thorough the  chemical alteration of its minerals  – Air, soil water solutions,...
Chemical Weathering• Decomposition of rock thorough the  chemical alteration of its minerals  – Air, soil water solutions,...
Chemical Weathering:The Influence of Temperature and Precipitation
Oxidation
Oxidation• Oxygen dissolved in soil water or  ground water can bond with the  chemical elements of the minerals to  form n...
Oxidation• Oxygen dissolved in soil water or  ground water can bond with the  chemical elements of the minerals to  form n...
Oxidation• Oxygen dissolved in soil water or  ground water can bond with the  chemical elements of the minerals to  form n...
Hydrolysis and Hydration
Hydrolysis and Hydration• Hydrolysis--Water may combine directly with  some minerals, producing completely new  mineral co...
Hydrolysis and Hydration             Formation of gypsum from anhydrous             calcium sulfate (the mineral          ...
Hydrolysis and Hydration• Hydration--Water molecules form chemical  bonds to become part of the chemical  composition of t...
Carbonic Acid
Carbonic AcidLimestone and marble are mostsusceptible to this type of weathering
Carbonic Acid                    Carbon dioxide dissolved in                    water creates a weak acid                 ...
Acid Precipitation
Acid Precipitation• In urban areas with pollution from sulfur  and nitrogen oxides, these gasses can mix  with atmospheric...
Acid Precipitation• In urban areas with pollution from sulfur  and nitrogen oxides, these gasses can mix  with atmospheric...
Organic Acids• Decaying vegetation mixes w/ water to form  soil water w/ complex organic acids that can  react to dissolve...
Mass Wasting
Mass Wasting• Material is moved a short distance down a  slope under the influence of gravity
Mass Wasting• Material is moved a short distance down a  slope under the influence of gravity• Angle of repose—the steepes...
33
Mass Wasting• The type of  mass wasting  event that  occurs will  depend upon  speed and the  degree of  saturation
Mass Wasting(another view)
Types of Mass Wasting
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow• Earth flow
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow• Earth flow• Mudflow
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall               • Slump• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow• Earth flow• Mudflow
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall               • Slump• Rock slide and Topple   • Solifluction• Debris flow• Earth flow• M...
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall               • Slump• Rock slide and Topple   • Solifluction                          • ...
Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall               • Slump• Rock slide and Topple   • Solifluction                          • ...
Rock Fall   Talus slopes—Regolith which   has fallen down steep slopes,   funneled into “blankets” of rock   called talus ...
Rock Fall
Rock Slide
Mudflow and Debris Flow
Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater  mixed with soil flowing  very quickly downslope  as a river of mud
Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater  mixed with soil flowing  very quickly downslope  as a river of mud   – Usually...
Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater  mixed with soil flowing  very quickly downslope  as a river of mud   – Usually...
Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater  mixed with soil flowing  very quickly downslope  as a river of mud   – Usually...
Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater  mixed with soil flowing  very quickly downslope  as a river of mud   – Usually...
Earthflow
Earthflow     • Water-saturated soil or       rock material
Earthflow     • Water-saturated soil or       rock material     • Moves a limited distance       down slope as one large  ...
Earthflow     • Water-saturated soil or       rock material     • Moves a limited distance       down slope as one large  ...
Earthflow     • Water-saturated soil or       rock material     • Moves a limited distance       down slope as one large  ...
Near La Conchita Slide, along Hwy. 101 in Ventura County
La Conchita Slide (Earthflow) Hwy. 101, Ventura County
La Conchita Slide (Earthflow) Hwy. 101, Ventura County
Slump—Slow, concave sliding
Slump
Slump
Slump
Solifluction
Solifluction• Continuous freeze and  thaw cycles slowly move  weathered particles  downslope• Over time, the entire  slope...
Solifluction
Solifluction LobesEmphasized by Animal Trails
Soil Creep
Induced Mass Wasting
Induced Mass Wasting
Induced Mass WastingMass wasting caused by human activity
Induced Mass WastingMass wasting caused by human activity
Induced Mass WastingMass wasting caused by human activity
Induced Mass Wasting  Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during  construction...
Induced Mass Wasting  Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during  construction...
Induced Mass Wasting  Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during  construction...
Induced Mass Wasting  Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during  construction...
Induced Mass Wasting  Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during  construction...
Induced Mass Wasting:Construction of the Panama Canal
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GEOG 100--Lecture 15--Weathering and Mass Wasting

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  • GEOG 100--Lecture 15--Weathering and Mass Wasting

    1. 1. Weathering and Mass Wasting Chapter 10
    2. 2. External vs. Internal Processes(the dynamic equilibrium model)
    3. 3. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) 3
    4. 4. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) 3
    5. 5. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) 3
    6. 6. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) [Geomorphic threshold is reached] 3
    7. 7. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) [Geomorphic threshold is reached] 3
    8. 8. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) [Geomorphic threshold is reached] 3
    9. 9. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) [Geomorphic threshold is reached]• Destabilizing event 3
    10. 10. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) [Geomorphic threshold is reached]• Destabilizing event• Adjustment 3
    11. 11. Dynamic Equilibrium• Equilibrium stability (fluctuating around some average) [Geomorphic threshold is reached]• Destabilizing event• Adjustment• New condition of equilibrium stability 3
    12. 12. Denudation—Large-scale removal of materialthat lowers the overall profile of thetopography
    13. 13. Denudation Processes
    14. 14. Denudation Processes• Weathering—The combined action of all atmospheric and biologic processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically because of exposure near Earth’s surface (from bedrock to regolith)
    15. 15. Denudation Processes• Weathering—The combined action of all atmospheric and biologic processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically because of exposure near Earth’s surface (from bedrock to regolith)• Mass wasting—spontaneous downslope movement of soil and eroded rock fragments under the influence of gravity, but without the action of moving air, water or ice
    16. 16. Denudation Processes• Weathering—The combined action of all atmospheric and biologic processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically because of exposure near Earth’s surface (from bedrock to regolith)• Mass wasting—spontaneous downslope movement of soil and eroded rock fragments under the influence of gravity, but without the action of moving air, water or ice• Erosion—extensive removal of rock material, generally transported long distances
    17. 17. The Grand Canyon
    18. 18. Weathering of Bedrock
    19. 19. Weathering of Bedrock ► Wherever bedrock is exposed to the natural elements, it weathers
    20. 20. Weathering of Bedrock ► Wherever bedrock is exposed to the natural elements, it weathers
    21. 21. Weathering of Bedrock ► Wherever bedrock is exposed to the natural elements, it weathers
    22. 22. Weathering of Bedrock ► Wherever bedrock is exposed to the natural elements, it weathers ► Any crack, joint, or cavity in the rock will allow weathering agents to penetrate and break it apart
    23. 23. Jointing
    24. 24. Jointing in Bryce Canyon, UT
    25. 25. Jointing in Bryce Canyon, UT
    26. 26. More Jointing
    27. 27. As rocks weather, surface area increases,offering more surfaces to be weathered…
    28. 28. …producing this result.
    29. 29. Mechanical Weathering
    30. 30. Mechanical Weathering• Physical disintegration of rock as a result of natural phenomena, without a change in its chemical composition
    31. 31. Mechanical Weathering• Physical disintegration of rock as a result of natural phenomena, without a change in its chemical composition – Pounding, pushing, cracking, breaking, wedging apart
    32. 32. Mechanical Weathering Processes
    33. 33. Mechanical Weathering Processes• Frost wedging• Salt wedging• Unloading/pressure-release jointing• Thermal expansion and contraction• Biologic weathering
    34. 34. Frost Wedging
    35. 35. Frost Wedging• Repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in porespaces of rock fractures or joints
    36. 36. Frost Wedging• Repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in porespaces of rock fractures or joints• Expanding ice exerts pressure, breaking rocks apart
    37. 37. Frost Wedging• Repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in porespaces of rock fractures or joints• Expanding ice exerts pressure, breaking rocks apart• Most effective where there is repeated freeze and thaw (asin arctic or tundra environments)
    38. 38. Frost Wedging
    39. 39. Salt Wedging• Similar to frost wedging• Growth of salt crystals breaks rocks apart• Most effective in coastal environments and semi-arid environments Honeycomb (tafoni), Salt Point, Sonoma Coast
    40. 40. Unloading or Pressure-release jointing
    41. 41. Unloading or Pressure-release jointing• Rock brought near the surface as the rocks above (or even glaciers) erode away relieves confining pressure and allows the rock to expand slightly, forming cracks
    42. 42. Unloading or Pressure-release jointing• Rock brought near the surface as the rocks above (or even glaciers) erode away relieves confining pressure and allows the rock to expand slightly, forming cracks – Sheeting—The breaking away of layers of rock in sheets, caused by expansion, usually from unloading processes
    43. 43. Unloading or Pressure-release jointing• Rock brought near the surface as the rocks above (or even glaciers) erode away relieves confining pressure and allows the rock to expand slightly, forming cracks – Sheeting—The breaking away of layers of rock in sheets, caused by expansion, usually from unloading processes • Exfoliation dome—Sheeting on a massive scale, over the face of a large segment of rock (Half Dome in Yosemite, Sierra Nevada Mtns.)
    44. 44. Thermal Expansion and Contraction
    45. 45. Thermal Expansion and Contraction• When rock is heated, it expands slightly, and when cooled, it contracts
    46. 46. Thermal Expansion and Contraction• When rock is heated, it expands slightly, and when cooled, it contracts• Rapid expansion and contraction of the surface of the rock causes cracks to form and propagate
    47. 47. Thermal Expansion and Contraction• When rock is heated, it expands slightly, and when cooled, it contracts• Rapid expansion and contraction of the surface of the rock causes cracks to form and propagate• Most effective in regions with large differences in temperature between daily highs and nightly lows
    48. 48. Thermal Expansion and Contraction
    49. 49. Biologic Weathering • Growth of plant roots, burrowing animals • Pressure is exerted by the growth of tiny rootlets in joint fractures, which causes the loosening of small rock particles and mineral grains • Burrowing animals such as squirrels and oysters may also erode rocks
    50. 50. Chemical Weathering
    51. 51. Chemical Weathering• Rocks forming at depth are stable under those conditions
    52. 52. Chemical Weathering• Rocks forming at depth are stable under those conditions• Once rocks are exposed to surface conditions many of the minerals become less stable and may undergo a slow chemical change that weakens their internal structures
    53. 53. Chemical Weathering
    54. 54. Chemical Weathering• Decomposition of rock thorough the chemical alteration of its minerals – Air, soil water solutions, and groundwater solutions contain dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, or other reactive elements – Water is the greatest agent of chemical weathering
    55. 55. Chemical Weathering• Decomposition of rock thorough the chemical alteration of its minerals – Air, soil water solutions, and groundwater solutions contain dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, or other reactive elements – Water is the greatest agent of chemical weathering – Chemical weathering is most effective in warm, moist climates
    56. 56. Chemical Weathering:The Influence of Temperature and Precipitation
    57. 57. Oxidation
    58. 58. Oxidation• Oxygen dissolved in soil water or ground water can bond with the chemical elements of the minerals to form new minerals
    59. 59. Oxidation• Oxygen dissolved in soil water or ground water can bond with the chemical elements of the minerals to form new minerals• Causes expansion and exerts pressure that breaks the rocks apart
    60. 60. Oxidation• Oxygen dissolved in soil water or ground water can bond with the chemical elements of the minerals to form new minerals• Causes expansion and exerts pressure that breaks the rocks apart• Example: iron (Fe) turning to rust (Fe2O3) in the presence of oxygen and water
    61. 61. Hydrolysis and Hydration
    62. 62. Hydrolysis and Hydration• Hydrolysis--Water may combine directly with some minerals, producing completely new mineral compounds as the water molecules alter the mineral elements – granite: fedspar turns to clays + quartz sand – contributes to spheriodal weathering
    63. 63. Hydrolysis and Hydration Formation of gypsum from anhydrous calcium sulfate (the mineral anhydrite) which has absorbed water into its chemical structure
    64. 64. Hydrolysis and Hydration• Hydration--Water molecules form chemical bonds to become part of the chemical composition of the rock. Mineral alteration and expansion caused by hydration results in grain-by-grain destruction of rocks Formation of gypsum from anhydrous calcium sulfate (the mineral anhydrite) which has absorbed water into its chemical structure
    65. 65. Carbonic Acid
    66. 66. Carbonic AcidLimestone and marble are mostsusceptible to this type of weathering
    67. 67. Carbonic Acid Carbon dioxide dissolved in water creates a weak acid called carbonic acid which can dissolve some minerals, especially calcium carbonateLimestone and marble are mostsusceptible to this type of weathering
    68. 68. Acid Precipitation
    69. 69. Acid Precipitation• In urban areas with pollution from sulfur and nitrogen oxides, these gasses can mix with atmospheric water, forming acid precipitation
    70. 70. Acid Precipitation• In urban areas with pollution from sulfur and nitrogen oxides, these gasses can mix with atmospheric water, forming acid precipitation• Dissolves limestone and marble (often used for public statues and tombstones) and other types of building stones
    71. 71. Organic Acids• Decaying vegetation mixes w/ water to form soil water w/ complex organic acids that can react to dissolve or chemically alter minerals
    72. 72. Mass Wasting
    73. 73. Mass Wasting• Material is moved a short distance down a slope under the influence of gravity
    74. 74. Mass Wasting• Material is moved a short distance down a slope under the influence of gravity• Angle of repose—the steepest angle that loose fragments can lie without movement if undisturbed
    75. 75. 33
    76. 76. Mass Wasting• The type of mass wasting event that occurs will depend upon speed and the degree of saturation
    77. 77. Mass Wasting(another view)
    78. 78. Types of Mass Wasting
    79. 79. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall
    80. 80. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple
    81. 81. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple
    82. 82. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow
    83. 83. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow• Earth flow
    84. 84. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow• Earth flow• Mudflow
    85. 85. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall • Slump• Rock slide and Topple• Debris flow• Earth flow• Mudflow
    86. 86. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall • Slump• Rock slide and Topple • Solifluction• Debris flow• Earth flow• Mudflow
    87. 87. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall • Slump• Rock slide and Topple • Solifluction • Creep• Debris flow• Earth flow• Mudflow
    88. 88. Types of Mass Wasting• Rock fall • Slump• Rock slide and Topple • Solifluction • Creep• Debris flow• Earth flow • Induced mass wasting• Mudflow
    89. 89. Rock Fall Talus slopes—Regolith which has fallen down steep slopes, funneled into “blankets” of rock called talus cones Fresh slopes are very unstable
    90. 90. Rock Fall
    91. 91. Rock Slide
    92. 92. Mudflow and Debris Flow
    93. 93. Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater mixed with soil flowing very quickly downslope as a river of mud
    94. 94. Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater mixed with soil flowing very quickly downslope as a river of mud – Usually in canyons of mountainous regions
    95. 95. Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater mixed with soil flowing very quickly downslope as a river of mud – Usually in canyons of mountainous regions – Can carry large objects, destroying property and taking lives
    96. 96. Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater mixed with soil flowing very quickly downslope as a river of mud – Usually in canyons of mountainous regions – Can carry large objects, destroying property and taking lives – Flows until mud thickens, slows, and eventually stops
    97. 97. Mudflow and Debris Flow• Mudflow—Rainwater mixed with soil flowing very quickly downslope as a river of mud – Usually in canyons of mountainous regions – Can carry large objects, destroying property and taking lives – Flows until mud thickens, slows, and eventually stops• Debris flow—More rock fragment than mudflow, but similar in other characteristics
    98. 98. Earthflow
    99. 99. Earthflow • Water-saturated soil or rock material
    100. 100. Earthflow • Water-saturated soil or rock material • Moves a limited distance down slope as one large mass
    101. 101. Earthflow • Water-saturated soil or rock material • Moves a limited distance down slope as one large mass • Generally slower in motion (over the course of hours)
    102. 102. Earthflow • Water-saturated soil or rock material • Moves a limited distance down slope as one large mass • Generally slower in motion (over the course of hours) • Common form of earth movement causing road closures and property destruction during heavy rains
    103. 103. Near La Conchita Slide, along Hwy. 101 in Ventura County
    104. 104. La Conchita Slide (Earthflow) Hwy. 101, Ventura County
    105. 105. La Conchita Slide (Earthflow) Hwy. 101, Ventura County
    106. 106. Slump—Slow, concave sliding
    107. 107. Slump
    108. 108. Slump
    109. 109. Slump
    110. 110. Solifluction
    111. 111. Solifluction• Continuous freeze and thaw cycles slowly move weathered particles downslope• Over time, the entire slope moves downhill
    112. 112. Solifluction
    113. 113. Solifluction LobesEmphasized by Animal Trails
    114. 114. Soil Creep
    115. 115. Induced Mass Wasting
    116. 116. Induced Mass Wasting
    117. 117. Induced Mass WastingMass wasting caused by human activity
    118. 118. Induced Mass WastingMass wasting caused by human activity
    119. 119. Induced Mass WastingMass wasting caused by human activity
    120. 120. Induced Mass Wasting Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during construction on steep hillsides
    121. 121. Induced Mass Wasting Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during construction on steep hillsides – Carried away as debris flows or mudflows during heavy rains
    122. 122. Induced Mass Wasting Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during construction on steep hillsides – Carried away as debris flows or mudflows during heavy rains• Removal of material supporting the base of a slope
    123. 123. Induced Mass Wasting Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during construction on steep hillsides – Carried away as debris flows or mudflows during heavy rains• Removal of material supporting the base of a slope• The wetting of weathered rock material and soil from pipe breakage, lawn watering, etc. causing slippage
    124. 124. Induced Mass Wasting Mass wasting caused by human activity• Moving weathered rock material downslope during construction on steep hillsides – Carried away as debris flows or mudflows during heavy rains• Removal of material supporting the base of a slope• The wetting of weathered rock material and soil from pipe breakage, lawn watering, etc. causing slippage• Debris removal by heavy rains after fire may also remove stabilizing vegetation
    125. 125. Induced Mass Wasting:Construction of the Panama Canal

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