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supervision and instruction

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supervision and instruction

  1. 1. CHAPTER THREE SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION EM 205-TEACHER SUPERVISION AND EVALUATION METHODS PRESENTED BY: MARIA ANGELA C. EROLES MAED
  2. 2.  The dictionary defines the word peer as “an equal in civil standing or rank, or an equal any respect.”  Peer assessment my lead to peer coaching or consultation which Sullivan and Glanz (2000)consider as an umbrella term of many different types of peer-to-peer assistance that are interchangeably referred to as collegial teaching and peer supervision.
  3. 3. PEER COACHING  Peer coaching takes place when a fellow teacher, who is knowledgeable about specific aspects of the teaching-learning process, serves as a coach or consultant to another seeking help.  Based on Joyce and Showers model (in Sullivan and Glanz, 2000), peer coaching involves regular meeting between or among two or more teachers in order to jointly solve problems using planning, feedback and creative thinking for development of a specific skills.
  4. 4.  Refine teaching practices;  Stimulate self-initiating, autonomous teacher thought;  Improve school culture;  Increase collegiality and professional dialogue; and  Share in the implementation of new or common instructional skills. -According to Joyce and Showers p.133
  5. 5.  The ERIC Digests (n.d.) defines a teacher portfolio as a collection of works, records, and documents demonstrating and highlighting a teacher’s knowledge and skills in teaching.  It is also a documentation created by a teacher that reveals and describes his/ her duties, expertise and professional growth.
  6. 6. 1. Teacher’s background 2. Class description: time, grade, and content 3. Licensure examinations 4. A personal statement of teaching philosophy and goals. 5. Faculty development 6. Implemented lesson plans, handouts, and notes
  7. 7. 7. Graded student work 8. Video/ audiotape of classroom lessons 9. Colleague observation records 10.Written reflection on teaching 11.Photographs of bulletin boards, chalkboards, or projects.
  8. 8.  A portfolio may be used as additional source of information for assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of teacher for administrative decisions such as retention and promotion (summative), or for providing feedback so that teachers may improve their teaching and level of professionalism(formative).
  9. 9. 1. Start slowly. 2. Gain acceptance. 3. Instill ownership. 4. Communicate implementation. 5. Use models. 6. Be selective. 7. Be realistic.
  10. 10. Action research is an inquiry that teachers design and conduct in order to improve teaching. It promotes the concept of teacher-as- researcher (ERIC Digests, n.d.) which encourages teachers to be collaborators not only in improving teaching behavior, but also in revising curriculum, improving working environment, professionalizing, teaching, developing policy. Action research is an inquiry that teachers design and conduct in order to improve teaching. It promotes the concept of teacher-as- researcher (ERIC Digests, n.d.) which encourages teachers to be collaborators not only in improving teaching behavior, but also in revising curriculum, improving working environment, professionalizing, teaching, developing policy.
  11. 11. o The most important feature of action research is the linking of “action ” and “research” while involves trying out practical ideas as means of increasing knowledge about improving curriculum, teaching, and learning (Kemmis and McTaggarrt, 1982). o The most important feature of action research is the linking of “action ” and “research” while involves trying out practical ideas as means of increasing knowledge about improving curriculum, teaching, and learning (Kemmis and McTaggarrt, 1982).
  12. 12. o Teacher-action research is solution- oriented. o It consists of spiraling cycles of problem identification, systematic data collection, analysis and reflection, data-driven, and problem redefinition. o Kemmis (O’brien,1998) developed a simple model of the cyclical nature of the action research process consisting of four steps: plan, act, observe and reflect. o Teacher-action research is solution- oriented. o It consists of spiraling cycles of problem identification, systematic data collection, analysis and reflection, data-driven, and problem redefinition. o Kemmis (O’brien,1998) developed a simple model of the cyclical nature of the action research process consisting of four steps: plan, act, observe and reflect.
  13. 13. 1. A description of the problem and the idea (intervention measure) to put into action. 2. The rationale for change. 3. The strategic action to be taken. 4. The people involved 5. The monitoring strategies 6. A realistic timetable 1. A description of the problem and the idea (intervention measure) to put into action. 2. The rationale for change. 3. The strategic action to be taken. 4. The people involved 5. The monitoring strategies 6. A realistic timetable
  14. 14. 1.Diaries and logbooks 2.Anecdotal records 3.Questionnaires 4.Tape recorders 5.Video cameras 6.Test 1.Diaries and logbooks 2.Anecdotal records 3.Questionnaires 4.Tape recorders 5.Video cameras 6.Test
  15. 15. •Those who are hired without any previous teaching experience usually after the completion of pre-service education, or those who enter the teaching profession after quitting a non-teaching job.
  16. 16. • The first category is composed of new graduates with either a Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSE) or a Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEE) degree from Pre-service education institutions. • The second category usually comprises graduates of other professions who have taken 18 units of pedagogy to qualify to teach.
  17. 17. Pre-service education is the formal teacher education program designed to help an individual prepare for the teaching profession.
  18. 18. • Under Philippine Law, both types of novice teachers have to be certified by the Licensure Board for Teachers after passing the professional examination. • According to Dukes, Cangelosi, and Knight (in Cangelosi, 1991), pre-service teacher education programs provide beginning teachers with necessary, but still insufficient, competencies to be successful in service teachers.
  19. 19. 1.New teachers are well-prepared (because of their pre-service training ) for their initial classroom and school experiences. 2.Teachers can develop professional expertise on their own. 3.Teaching can be mastered in a relatively short period of time.
  20. 20. • To become consistently effective, especially in the initial years of their teaching careers, beginning teachers need assistance and feedback as they perform their work. This is the function of supervision. • Gordon and Maxey(2000) report that many educators believe that it takes three years to induct a new teacher fully. • This period according to Cangelosi (1991), is the most critical and career threatening.
  21. 21. • Reyes(2003) conducted an investigation of 137 neophyte teachers in 15 private schools in the National Capital region to fin out the major problems they encountered in the workplace during the probationary period (first three years). • The results of the study showed a gradual decrease in the percentage of distribution of the problem areas- except for professional relationships -during the first three years of teaching.
  22. 22. ProblemArea 1st year% 2nd year% 3rd year% Motivation 98 48 17 Organization and planning 94 35 17 Instructional skills 79 43 15 Professional relationships 75 28 39 Professional growth 84 39 11 Classroommanagement 73 39 13 Evaluation of students 73 28 13 Mastery of subject matter 64 28 15 Communication skills 73 25 7 Source: Reyes, F. (2003) Comparative-correctional analysis of problems of neophyte teachers: Basis for connecting pre- service preparation and beginning years of teaching. Tanglaw, Official Journal of the College of Education. DLSU-Manila: DLSU Press.
  23. 23. ProblemArea 1st yearRank 2nd yearRank 3rd yearRank Talking to my immediate supervisorregarding my problems 1 1 2 Conducting conferences with parents regarding theirchildren’s progress 2 4 2 Effectively communicating ideas to teachers, supervisors, and school personnel 3 2 2 Getting assistance fromcolleagues regarding my problems in teaching 4 5 4 Maintaining a professional teaching attitude while working with students. 5 3 5 Source: Reyes, F. (2003) Comparative-correctional analysis of problems of neophyte teachers: Basis for connecting pre-service preparation and beginning years of teaching. Tanglaw, Official Journal of the College of Education. DLSU-Manila: DLSU Press.
  24. 24. 1.1. 2.2. 3.3.
  25. 25. 1.1. • Although all neophyte teachers experience difficulties during the first few years of teaching , the born teachers succeed immediately. • At the start of their career, the performance of born teachers is already comparable with, or even better than that of some experienced teachers. • They need minimal supervision. • Their teaching performance further improves with experience.
  26. 26. 2.2. • To achieve satisfactory classroom performance levels, these neophyte teachers need experience and instructional supervision to overcome initial problems. • With reasonable supervisory support and encouragement, they are able to surmount difficulties and develop into competent teachers.
  27. 27. 3.3. • These beginners require an unreasonable and costly supervision in order to achieve satisfactory classroom performance levels. • The research findings of Reyes that were earlier cited suggest that adequate support and encouragement should be given to all types of beginning teachers primarily by supervisors and secondarily by experienced teachers and other school personnel.
  28. 28. 1.Assignment to difficult classes 2.Isolation of classrooms from colleagues and supervisors 3.Poor physical facilities 4.Burdensome extra class assignments 5.Lack of understanding of school expectations 6.Inadequate supervision 7.Inadequate use of technology
  29. 29. In addition, beginning teacher fear: 1.Not living up to personally imposed standards 2.Meeting parents 3.Being evaluated 4.Being rejected by students and colleagues 5.Being embarrassed A similar view is held by Gordon and Maxey (2000) who propose that there are work-related and person- related problems that confront beginning teachers.
  30. 30. These concerns may be clustered as follows: 1.Curriculum concerns 2.Instructional concerns 3.Relationship concerns 4.School environment concerns 5.Personal concerns 6.Concerns about expectation
  31. 31. There are reasons to improve provisions for the professional development of new teachers: 1.To make their job easier 2.To make them feel more confident inside and outside the classroom 3.To reduce their feelings of isolation 4.To enhance quantity and quality of their interaction with colleagues and administration. -(Lunenberg and Ornstein, , 2000)

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