PRE COLONIAL PERIOD
Very close family ties
Nuclear and extented family
Women enjoyed relative freedom in precolonial society. They
had rights, held property, conducted business, and had a public
men were in general, monogamous
courtship usually begins with paninilbihan
if the man wins the trust of the parents, he does not immediately
marry the woman, but he has to satisfy several conditions:
- give a dowry or bigay-kaya
- pay the panghihimuyat
- pay the wet nurse bigay-suso
- pay the parents himaraw
- bribe for the relatives called sambon (among the
pamamalae or pamamanhikan or
weddings are officiated by the priestess or
uncooked rice is thrown on the couple after the
Marriage ceremony - eating
Colonialism stripped Filipino women of their
position. They were expected to remain within
the home and only concern themselves with
housework and raising children.
The ideal woman was a "Maria Clara" in the mold
of Jose Rizal's tragic heroine from Noli Me Tangere -
- meek and self-effacing. But despite this, many
women showed the strong will and determination
that would allow them to go beyond social
constraints and move on equal footing with men.
FILIPINO FAMILY DURING COLONIAL
Also, in rural communities, kin members can build
their household dwellings close to each other, which
may not be possible in the city.
Moreover, Filipinos who move away to study or work
in cities, locally and abroad, tend to stay with their
more affluent relatives, and this increases the size of
the family household.
POST COLONIAL PERIOD
As societies modernize, social relationships become
more impersonal and businesslike.
At the same time, less religiously oriented and more
Western-models continue to dominate development
Moreover, the modern Filipino family continues to
be close knit and centered on the family.
Relationships among extended kin continue to be
marked by reciprocal obligations and privileges even
across great geographic distances.
Filipino parents consider it their duty to provide for
the material and educational needs of their children.
Children, in turn, are expected to obey and respect
their parents and to take care of their parents when
they grow old.
Also, older children, until they marry and have
families of their own, are expected to help younger
siblings with school, and to assist them in getting a
job after graduation.
POST COLONIAL PERIOD
• Close Family Ties:.
• Utang na Loob:
o Amor Propio: Concern for self image.
o Delicadeza: Sense of honor
o Palabra de Honor: "word of honor"
Although these traits are generally positive, these practices also have
the inclination to be applied in the wrong context. A debt of gratitude
is sometimes repaid by giving special favors to the other person
regardless of the moral outcome. Close familial ties can also lead to
POST COLONIAL PERIOD
Beginning in the 1970s, the Philippine government
implemented an overseas employment program to absorb
the increasing numbers of Filipino workers.
This has led to new conceptualizations of the Filipino
family and changing gender roles, as many married
females have decided to migrate abroad to work, and their
husbands stay home to care for the children.
Today, most Filipino families are maintaining and
reproducing transnational household connections and
networks. The Filipino family continues to be adaptive and
functional in these new and changing circumstances.
Once a couple is married, keeping the relationship
intact remains the number one priority, regardless
of any indiscretions such as extramarital affairs.
“Divorce is illegal in the Philippines. . .A mistress on
the side, even another child or two outside
society tends to hold the marriage vows sacred;
whatever the man's extramarital habits might be, he
is expected to support his family and not humiliate
them through abandonment or by flaunting his
The woman is expected to be loyal to her marriage
and to strive to maintain it.” (Gochenour
Traditional Filipino families often consult each other
about when making important decisions.
"Going to college, taking a job overseas, and getting
married may sometimes be individual decisions, but
quite often they are family decisions" (Gochenour
Actual family involvement in personal decision
making has decreased for most of those surveyed
"In spite of limited resources, Filipinos help friends
and relatives and they welcome visitors with warmth
and plenty of food" (Sustento-Seneriches 1995: 121).
Most Filipino families have remained hospitable and
generous to visiting friends and relatives
today are more
exposed to a
growing number of
problems than any
has ever been.
FILIPINO FAMILY TODAY
DISINTEGRATION OF FAMILY
Increasing fragility of marriage.
• Among the many factors which contribute to the
fragility of urban Filipino families is the loosening
control on the young.
• Today young people are more independent and
are allowed greater freedom. The increased
mobility of young people for recreation and leisure
purposes has made it difficult for parents to monitor
Delinquency among adolescents
Juvenile Delinquency- can be explained by the failure of
social control which is one of the responsibilities of the family
Children and young adults use drugs
The most common reason given by children and
young adults is that these prohibited drugs are relatively
easy to get.
Pushers roam neighborhoods where children could be
easily lured and victimized.
Other reasons which are more serious and should be given
immediate attention are:
1. Abusive parents
2. Family problems
3. Peer pressure
5. The feeling that parents have given up on the child
6. Accesibility or visibility of some kind of inhalant in the
home such as rugby of thinner.
Today, the family is broken
because of the diminishing opportunities
for them to be one.
The real meaning of family has
been distorted. Family is equated with
material possessions. Many parents
leave their young children to seek better
Many parents replace their
presence with the latest gadgets.
Absence of parents destroys the
solidarity in the family.
Although it has been
acknowledged that money is not
the most important thing in the
family, we have to admit that
economic difficulties is one of
the biggest challenges being
faced by many families today.
As a result of this, children are
malnourished, cannot go to school
and instead work to augment family
income at a very young age.
Children and young people in the
streets are exposed to all kinds of
hazards (addiction, exposure to
toxic substances and pollution)
with negative impact on their health
and overall development.
ABSENCE OF FAMILY GOALS AND DETERIORATING VALUES
The absence of values and goals to guide family
decisions and activities can cause members to lose sight of
what is truly worthwhile.
Values are strong feelings or beliefs about issues, ideas
or things that are considered important by the person.
Individuals and families have different values. It
influences a person’s most important decisions about friends,
sexual relationship, family education, work and money.
Failure of parents to recognize higher meaning and
purpose of the family can lead to materialism, instant
gratification and pleasure as life’s chief goals.
RISING INCIDENCE OF EARLY
Too Early Sexual Involvement
This refers to engaging in some
form of sexual encounter or
sexual intercourse at an early age.
Too early sexual involvement often
leads to WASTED lives.
W eak self-image
A dolescent or teenage pregnancy
S exually transmitted infections
T een marriage
E motional wounds
D isrupted goals
STRONG NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA
Media has a negative influence on the family, especially on the youth
Too much exposure to violent crimes
and sex in the media brings damage
to the upbringing of children.
Because of media, the interpersonal
relationship in the family seems to
have been neglected. Family ties that
used to be very close are being
LITY OF PARENT
GOALS & VALUES
STATUS OF WOMEN IN