Weathering

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Weathering

  1. 1. What do These 3 Things Have in Common?? statue Grand Canyon Sand Pile
  2. 2. They have all been subjected to the process of WEATHERING
  3. 3. WEATHERING: is THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS THAT CHANGES ROCK
  4. 4. For weathering to occur the rocks must be exposed to: AIR (atmosphere) WATER (hydrosphere) ACTION OF HUMANS & OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS
  5. 5. Evidence of Weathering: the end product of the weathering of rock is SEDIMENT
  6. 6. Sediments are classified by size: use the reference tables page 6 to complete the chart Sediment Name Diameter range(cm) Boulder 25.6 or larger Cobble 6.4-25.5 Pebble 0.2-6.3 Sand 0.006-0.1 Silt (colloid-suspended) 0.0004-0.005 Clay (colloid-suspended) Less than 0.0004 Dissolved particles (ions) Not visible Examples:salt,calcite
  7. 7. PHYSICAL WEATHERING: ROCKS ARE BROKEN INTO SMALLER PIECES WITHOUT CHANGING THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE ROCK
  8. 8. Explain how water and wind can can cause physical weathering in the following ways:
  9. 9. The alternate freezing and thawing of water
  10. 10. WATER EXPANDS WHEN IT FREEZES This is called…….
  11. 11. Ice Wedging or Frost Action
  12. 12. a weathered sidewalk
  13. 13. Half Dome in Yosemite California
  14. 14. *ABRASION
  15. 15. RUNNING WATER AND WIND CAN RUB OR WEAR DOWN ROCKS
  16. 16. RUNNING WATER AND WIND CAN CAUSE ROCKS TO RUB AGAINST EACH OTHER AND WEAR THEM DOWN
  17. 17. * BIOLOGIC ACTIVITY
  18. 18. My sidewalk being lifted by the tree roots!!
  19. 19. PLANT ROOTS EXPOSES NEW SURFACES TO WEATHERING
  20. 20. *Humans can influence the rate of weathering by the use of powerful equipment
  21. 21. If you increase the surface area increase you will ___________ the rate of weathering
  22. 22. rate of weathering Surface area
  23. 23. CHEMICAL WEATHERING: Rocks are broken and the chemical composition is also CHANGED ___________
  24. 24. • OXIDATION OCCURS OXYGEN WHEN __________ FROM AIR COMBINES WITH MINERALS ___________ TO FORM OXIDES RUST
  25. 25. This was washed up on a beach!!
  26. 26. A rusty gate……
  27. 27. • CARBONATION WATER OCCURS WHEN __________ CONTAINING CARBONIC __________ ACID DISSOLVES MINERALS
  28. 28. EX. LIMESTONE CAVES
  29. 29. * POLLUTANTS can speed up the rate of chemical weathering OXIDES OF SULFER AND NITROGEN MAKE RAINWATER UNNATURALLY ACIDIC ACID RAIN
  30. 30. • HYDRATION OCCURS WHEN MINERALS SUCH AS _______ MICA AND WATER FELDSPAR ABSORB ________ AND CLAY WEAKEN AND FORM ________
  31. 31. Moderate If: temperature = 5 physical and precipitation = 100 chemical weathering
  32. 32. temperature = 20 Faster rate precipitation = 100 of chemical weathering
  33. 33. If: temperature = -10 Faster precipitation = 50 physical weathering
  34. 34. CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON WEATHERING: PHYSICAL WEATHERING DOMINATES IN COLD, MOIST CLIMATES
  35. 35. CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON WEATHERING: CHEMICAL WEATHERING DOMINATES IN WARM, MOIST CLIMATES
  36. 36. IN GENERAL WHEN THERE IS MORE MOISTURE THERE IS MORE WEATHERING
  37. 37. CLEOPATRA’S Central Park NEEDLE
  38. 38. RATE OF WEATHERING ALSO DEPENDS ON: MINERAL COMPOSITION ROCK RESISTANCE (HARDNESS)
  39. 39. WATER DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE MOST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  40. 40. DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE MOST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  41. 41. DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE LEAST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  42. 42. DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE LEAST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  43. 43. SOIL FORMATION: SOIL IS THE COMBINATION OF: ROCK PARTICLES MINERALS ORGANIC MATTER
  44. 44. THE END RESULT OF WEATHERING AND BIOLOGIC ACTIVITY IS:
  45. 45. Adding to a compost pile
  46. 46. SOIL FORMATION: Breakdown of rock Addition of organic material ( from decomposition ) (biological activity)
  47. 47. Soil Horizons A B C
  48. 48. SOIL HORIZONS (LAYERS) A (TOP SOIL) rich in organic material B little organic material rich in minerals leeched from horizon A C partly weathered broken up bedrock sits on top of solid bedrock
  49. 49. The two types of sediment (soil) are: Transported Residual
  50. 50. TRANSPORTED SOILS: CARRIED FROM LOCATION OF PARENT ROCK MOST OF NEW YORK SOIL IS TRANSPORTED
  51. 51. SOIL ASSOCIATIONS (CHARACTERISTICS 3 WAYS THAT SOIL CAN DIFFER IN VARIOUS LOCATIONS: 1. COMPOSITION (MINERALS) 2. MOISTURE 3. ORGANIC MATERIAL
  52. 52. HOW CAN WE IMPROVE THE SOIL’S ABILITY TO SUSTAIN LIFE?
  53. 53. Terrace planting
  54. 54. Wind breaks like trees Planted To Stop Wind erosion

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