Unit 1: Energy Power Point Science 8

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Unit 1: Energy Power Point Science 8

  1. 1. Unit 1: ENERGY Stop Monkey-N-ing around and Go Green already! P.S. I’m Mookie the Monkey 1
  2. 2. What is ENERGY? Energy is the ability to do Work! _______! 2
  3. 3. Work occurs when a force! causes an _____ object to _____ in move! the same direction as the force.! 3
  4. 4. FORMS OF ENERGY Both basic states of energy, Kinetic and potential, can exist in many forms!!
  5. 5. THERMAL (HEAT) The total Kinetic! ________ energy of the particles in matter. (molecular motion)! 6
  6. 6. SOUND A type of mechanical energy. It is the energy produced when vibrate! objects ________. Ex: tuning fork, bell! 7
  7. 7. MECHANICAL Energy with which moving! objects ______ perform work.! Ex: Wind, flowing water, using a hammer! 8
  8. 8. ELECTRICITY A form of energy produced by movement! the ________ electrons! of ________! 9
  9. 9. CHEMICAL Energy STORED in chemical bonds! that can ____ be released. Ex: food, fossil fuels, battery acid! 10
  10. 10. STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: Stored energy due to a change in the shape of an object. Ex: ! A stretched rubber band! _______________! 11
  11. 11. STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: 12
  12. 12. LIGHT A form of radiant! _______ energy that moves in a wave! ______.! Ex: lamp, stars! 13
  13. 13. SOLAR ENERGY All forms of energy that SUN! come from the ______.! 14
  14. 14. NUCLEAR Energy STORED in the nucleus! ________ (center) of an atom.! Ex: nuclear bombs! 15
  15. 15. GEOTHERMAL (HEAT) Heat energy STORED within Earth! the _____. Ex:! Volcanic eruptions, geysers! 16
  16. 16. All forms of energy can be classified as Kinetic or potential. The two basic states of energy. So, what’s the difference?!17
  17. 17. POTENTIAL ENERGY 1) Potential energy is stored energy due to and object’s _____________! Position! 21
  18. 18. POTENTIAL ENERGY 2) An object that is lifted from its position on Earth gravitational! has __________ potential Energy which depends on height! ______ and mass! 22
  19. 19. POTENTIAL ENERGY 3) Massive objects have _____ more! potential energy than less massive objects! 23
  20. 20. POTENTIAL ENERGY 4) An object at a higher elevation will have more! _____ potential energy than an object at a lower elevation! 24
  21. 21. KINETIC ENERGY 1)  Kinetic is energy of ! Motion! ___________! 25
  22. 22. KINETIC ENERGY 2) Kinetic depends on the _____ and the MASS! _______ of an SPEED! object.! 26
  23. 23. KINETIC ENERGY 3) Faster objects More! have ____ kinetic energy than slower objects.! 27
  24. 24. REVIEW QUESTONS: WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST KINETIC ENERGY? A B D C
  25. 25. WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST POTENTIAL ENERGY? A B D C
  26. 26. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Do you remember the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY?! 30
  27. 27. Law of Conservation of ENERGY: (same for mass) Can’t be made  Mass/ NRG ____________  Mass/ NRG ______________  Can’t be destroyed  Mass/ Energy can only  __________  Change form!!! 
  28. 28. DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY, Gaining THE OTHER IS _______ ENERGY: THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY
  29. 29. DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY THE OTHER IS GAINING ENERGY: THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY
  30. 30. DURING ENERGY CHANGES THE TOTAL ENERGY REMAINS THE SAME ENERGY ALWAYS FLOWS FROM HIGH TO LOW (source to sink)
  31. 31. THE ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM: THE FLAME TO THE FINGER
  32. 32. ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM ICE THE FINGER TO THE ICE
  33. 33. THE LIQUID LOSES ENERGY AS THE ICE GAINS ENERGY
  34. 34. WHEN WILL THE EXCHANGE OF ENERGY STOP? WHEN EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED THE LIQUID AND THE ICE REACH THE SAME TEMPERATURE
  35. 35. UNUSABLE ENERGY: Very often during the energy transformation process, heat! some ____ energy is produced due to friction. This is wasted energy and is lost to the environment.! 39
  36. 36. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Example: A ! television changes ! electrical NRG! into light and! sound NRG! 40
  37. 37. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS 41
  38. 38. Do Now: Focused Free Write What is different about how each of the three popcorns? How were they made? Explain!
  39. 39. Methods of Energy Transfer
  40. 40. Energy moves from regions of high _________ concentration to low ________ concentrations of energy. 44
  41. 41. Source _______ To sink _______
  42. 42. There are 3 methods of Energy Transfer  Radiation  ConDuction  ConVection
  43. 43. ConDuction
  44. 44. Explanation of Transfer Direct contact (touch) Molecule To Molecule
  45. 45. -Conduction is a form of heat transfer by contact! direct _______ of molecules! 49
  46. 46. Best Medium for energy transfer -Conduction occurs solids! fastest in _______! 50
  47. 47. metals! are the best -_______ conductors of he heat energy.! 51
  48. 48. Examples  Touching a hot surface  Electricity
  49. 49. Conduction lab:
  50. 50. Con ection
  51. 51. Explanation of Transfer Energy transfer Due to Density differences
  52. 52. -Convection is a form of heat transfer that occurs by up and down motions of a fluid! _______ due to differences in ______! density! 56
  53. 53. Best Medium for energy transfer fluids! -occurs ONLY in _____ which are liquids and gases!! 57
  54. 54. Examples  Hot air or water rising  Volcanoes  Lava lamp
  55. 55. convection
  56. 56.  Radiatio
  57. 57. Explanation of Transfer Electromagnetic (EM) waves that move Through a vacuum (empty space)
  58. 58. -radiation is the transfer of heat in waves! _____.! 62
  59. 59. -Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of ______.! light! 63
  60. 60. Best Medium for energy transfer No medium needed
  61. 61. Examples Gamma X-rays UV Visible Infrared Microwave radio
  62. 62. HEAT NOTES 1. HEAT: the energy of particles! moving __________! 66
  63. 63. HEAT NOTES 2. HOT OBJECTS contain more! __________ heat than than cold ones! 67
  64. 64. HEAT NOTES 3. All objects above Absolute zero! __________ contain heat! 68
  65. 65. HEAT NOTES 4. Heat always flows hotter! from ______ objects to ______ objects cooler! until the objects same! reach _____ temperature.! 69
  66. 66. HEAT NOTES 5. The greater the difference in temperature between the two objects, the faster! _________ heat is transferred.! 70
  67. 67. HOW IS HEAT TRANSFERRED BETWEEN OBJECTS? 71
  68. 68. Heat Transfer at Work
  69. 69. Name that type of heat transfer! Conduction! Radiation! Convection! 73
  70. 70. Heat Transfer across the globe  http://www.classzone.com/ books/earth_science/terc/ content/visualizations/ es1705/es1705page01.cfm
  71. 71. Specific Heat Quantity of heat needed to raise One gram of any Substance by 1 degree Celsius
  72. 72. Specific Heat The higher the Specific heat… The more energy is needed to raise the temperature
  73. 73. Read the Did you know box!!!
  74. 74. Measuring Specific Heat Energy can be measures in many different ways. Typical units include: Joules ____________________, _________________, & Watts calories ___________________
  75. 75. The term “Joule” is named after English Scientist James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that Heat is a type of Energy! 1,000 joules =1 kilojoule = 1 Btu
  76. 76. PHASES OF Matter:
  77. 77. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules.
  78. 78. A) SOLID B) LIQUID C) GAS
  79. 79. Motion How is it Does it have Volume? (Kinetic bonded? A definite energy) shape? Solid Little K.E. Molecules Strong yes yes vibrate More Liquid K.E. Not Molecules bonded no yes move freely rigidly Most Gas K.E. Not no no Molecules move bonded fast
  80. 80. What are the changes of phase called? FREEZING solid liquid MELTING CONDENSATION liquid gas VAPORIZATION
  81. 81. 2. ENERGY IS RELEASED (lost) DURING: FREEZING SOLID LIQUID CONDENSATION LIQUID GAS from higher K.E. to lower K.E.
  82. 82. 3. ENERGY IS ABSORBED (gained) DURING: MELTING SOLID LIQUID VAPORIZATION LIQUID GAS from lower K.ETo higher K.E.
  83. 83. Energy stored during a phase change is called Latent heat __________________ No change in temperature 87
  84. 84. TAKE OUT YOUR EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLES 88
  85. 85. Heating Curve of Water VAPORIZATION 100 STEAM temp CONDENSATION 0C WATER MELT 0 FREEZE ICE HEAT ENERGY ADDED (Joules)
  86. 86. MELTING / FREEZING Energy is absorbed + 334 J/gram 00 C 00 C - 334 J/gram Energy is released
  87. 87. VAPORIZATION/ CONDENSATION Energy is absorbed +2260 J/g 1000 C -2260 J/g 1000 C Energy is released
  88. 88. 1. Which phase changes release energy? freezing & condensation 2. Which phase changes absorb energy? Vaporization & melting 3. Which phase has the most K.E.? GAS (STEAM)
  89. 89. Waves: Waves are disturbances that transfer energy from place to place. If you throw a stone into a pond, circular waves move along the surface since some of the stones kinetic energy was transferred.
  90. 90. Waves: The substance through which waves travel is called a medium. This can be solid, liquid or gas. Light does not need a medium it can travel through empty space called a vacuum.
  91. 91. Waves: There are two types of waves: Transverse and Compressional. Compressional Transverse
  92. 92. Sound Energy: Sound waves are compressional and they need a medium to travel through. When sound travels through air its vibrates the air molecules until it reaches your ear and then it vibrates the bones and tissues of your ear.
  93. 93. Sound Energy: Sound waves are much slower than light waves. This is why you see lighting before your hear thunder. Light waves are transverse.
  94. 94. The Earth is always trying to achieve Equilibrium Energy is constantly being re-distributed flowing from source to sink
  95. 95. The Earth Receives Energy from two sources:
  96. 96. SUN
  97. 97. Radioactive Energy CORE
  98. 98. All matter radiates some _____________ Electromagnetic _____________ Energy
  99. 99. The sun emits energy in _____ ALL wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum
  100. 100. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  101. 101. Each type of energy differs in its wavelength __________ 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  102. 102. A wavelength is the distance between two crests of the wave.
  103. 103. Frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time.
  104. 104. The Sun gives off light and heat in the form of VISIBLE _________________ and UV __________________ electromagnetic energy.
  105. 105. However, the short wavelengths (dangerous UV radiation) are mostly GAMMA absorbed by the ozone so they don’t OZONE reach earth’s surface
  106. 106. The Ozone layer is found in the stratosphere _________________ layer of the atmosphere.
  107. 107. 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  108. 108. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  109. 109. SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE gamma, X-RAYS OZONE
  110. 110. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  111. 111. SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE gamma, x-rays, UV OZONE
  112. 112. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  113. 113. This energy is absorbed by Earth’s surface, which in turn reradiates the energy in the form of heat called infrared ________________ radiation
  114. 114. OZONE VISIBLE LIGHT : PASSES THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE WITH THE GREATEST INTENSITY
  115. 115. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  116. 116. 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  117. 117. Sun emits all Infrared: wavelengths Heat energy that Earth re-radiates
  118. 118. How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming? CO2 H2 0 VAPOR INFRARED METHANE GAS CO2 absorbs infrared
  119. 119. Interactions between Electromagnetic Energy & The Environment:
  120. 120. 1. ABSORBTION - UV ABSORBED by OZONE IN STRATOSPHERE INFRARED ABSORBED BY CO2&H2O vaporoxide methane, nitrous 2. REFLECTION - BY CLOUDS, ICE, SNOW & WATER 3. SCATTERING - BY AEROSOLS, WATER DROPLETS, ICE CRYSTALS, AIR POLLUTANTS, DUST, POLLEN 4. LIGHT IS BENT AS IT REFRACTION MOVES THROUGH VARIED DENSITIES 5. TRANSMISSION WHEN ENERGY PASSES THROUGH A MEDIUM
  121. 121. 1. ABSORPTION 2. REFLECTION 3.SCATTERING 4. REFRACTION 5. TRANSMISSION
  122. 122. Less than half ______of the incoming solar radiation is received by the Earth’s surface
  123. 123. Surface properties of the Earth and Absorption of Energy:
  124. 124. Reflection vs. Absorption & Radiation Color: Light (white) reflects dark (black) absorbs Texture: Rough surface absorbs smooth surface reflects
  125. 125. Absorption   Good absorbers are also good re-radiators.   What type of surface is the best absorber? – Dark Pavement warms before – Rough grassy lawns.   What type of surface is the best reflector of radiation? – Light Snow and Ice reflect – Shiny insolation and remain – Flat cold.
  126. 126. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: LAB 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Decreasing wavelength Increasing wavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  127. 127. Spectroscope Lab
  128. 128. Greenhouse Effect Short wavelength visible light enters the greenhouse, is absorbed, then re-radiated as longer wavelength infrared (heat). The glass traps the infrared.
  129. 129. What is Global Warming? increase An ___________ in the Earth’s Average surface air temperature
  130. 130. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 139
  131. 131. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT HEAT IS TRAPPED BY THE GLASS OF THE GREENHOUSE Incoming is Short wave outgoing is Ex: Visible light Longer wave Infrared 140 Energy absorbed
  132. 132.  Short wave radiation Visible light like ___________ passes through the glass of a greenhouse and is absorbed _______________ by the objects inside the greenhouse. 141
  133. 133.  These objects reradiate __________________ the energy as infrared Long Wave Radiation ___________________ _, which get reflected back into the greenhouse and warms the air. 142
  134. 134.  In Earth’s atmosphere, there are many gases that act like the glass of a greenhouse and trap ________ long-wave radiation, keeping it in the Earth’s Atmosphere. These are known as… 143
  135. 135. Greenhouse Gases! 144
  136. 136. Greenhouse Effect  CO2 and H2O absorb infrared that is re -radiated from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, holding that heat in the atmosphere and raising the global temperature.
  137. 137. What are the Greenhouse gases? H2 0 VAPOR CO2 METHANE GAS INFRARED Ozone CFCs
  138. 138. Without some greenhouse gases, the Earth would cold be too _____________ for us to survive. But an overload of greenhouse gases creates a problem as well!
  139. 139. How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming? CO2 H2 0 VAPOR INFRARED METHANE GAS CO2 absorbs infrared
  140. 140. Greenhouse Effect  What human activities contribute to CO2 production and an increase in the greenhouse effect? – Burning of fossil fuels – Global deforestation
  141. 141. If present trends continue possible effects may include  Rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps;  Increasing frequency and severity of storms and hurricanes;  More frequent heat waves and droughts; and  Relocation of major crop growing areas.
  142. 142. Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth? A B c
  143. 143. Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth? A B c
  144. 144. WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B? A)  INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET B A D) INFRARED ENERGY
  145. 145. WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B? A)  INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET B A D) INFRARED ENERGY
  146. 146. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? An energy resource ! that is Being used faster ________________ than Earth Produces ________________ it! _______.! 155
  147. 147. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? Examples:! Fossil Fuels, minerals! __________________! 156
  148. 148. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? To make our non- renewable resources last longer we can Reduce! ________________ Reuse! ________________ Recycle! _____________.! 157
  149. 149. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? An energy resource ! that is Earth supplies faster ________________ than we use it ________________ “unlimited”!.! _______ 158
  150. 150. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? Examples: Solar, wind, biomass ________________ (trees etc..)! _______________! 159
  151. 151. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? A renewable resource produces less _________ (substance pollution! that can harm living things and/or the environment! 160
  152. 152. Look at the pie graph!!!  Only 7% of our energy consumption is from renewable resources!!! Try to make little changes in your life to reduce your dependence on Non-Renewable Resources!  What do you plan to do?

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