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Prologue Note Packet 1 Handout (Blue)

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Prologue Note Packet 1 Handout (Blue)

1. 1. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Name:____________________________ Period:_____ Date:_________ 1. An observation is: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ When you observe, you use your ____________ to take in everything that is happening around you, paying close attention to detail. Examples: i. The rock is smooth and round. ii. Our Classroom has only one blackboard. iii. Make an observation: ____________________________________________ 2. An inference is __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ In other words, when you infer, you form a conclusion based on something you ____________________. Examples: i. The round and smooth rocks must have been carried here by running water. ii. Since the dog is wagging his tail, he must be happy. iii. Make an inference: ______________________________________________ 3. A prediction is: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Examples: i. An angular rock will eventually become rounded if it stays in the stream. ii. Ms. Gill will wear something stylish tomorrow. 4. Classification: _________________________________________________ We can organize or classify objects according to some pattern or trend or common characteristics. Page #___
2. 2. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 5. Measurements: The purpose of this guide is to guide you through converting units in the metric system! a. What are some measurable properties? __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ b. How do we make measurements? •Our senses are limited by how sensitive or by how accurate they are. To get more detailed information, we use instruments, such as rulers, thermometers, x-rays and telescopes c. The Metric System & Unit Conversion: The fundamental units of the metric system are: For Mass ______________________ For Length ______________________ For Liquid Volume __________________ By changing the prefix used with each unit you can change the size of the unit. We will use the following prefixes. (There are others for both larger and smaller units.) _________ _________ _________ basic unit ________ ________ _________ You can remember this by the following sentence. __________ ________ _________ _______ ________ ________ _________ To convert from any unit to any other unit count how many spaces are between them and move the decimal point that far in the same direction. Let’s look at the meter stick! How many meters (m) are in a meter (m) stick?___ How many centimeters (cm) are in a meter(m)? ___________ How many millimeters(mm) are in a centimeter (cm) ?__________ Now if there are 100cm in a meter and 10mm in a cm how many mm are in a m? __________ Page #___
3. 3. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Decimals are used because they are easier to convert than fractions! In the metric system we use abbreviations! Let’s fill them in below! Length Mass Liquid Volume meter__________ gram__________ liter__________ millimeter_______ milligram______ milliliter______ centimeter______ -------------- -------------kilometer_______ kilogram_______ kiloliter________ Let’s practice some unit conversions now! Convert the following! 1. 10 mm = ________________ cm 2. 1 km = ________________ m3. 1000 ml = ________________ L 4. 12 g = ________________ kg 5. 3.9 kg = _________________ mg 6. 89.3 cm = _______________ mm 6. Rounding:The first step in rounding is figuring out what place to round to and where that place is located. You must remember these place values: 2 , 6 4 3 , 9 7 5 , 8 6 4 . 9 3 1 Rounding Procedure: Step 1: Find the location of place that you are asked to round to. Lets call it: Sparky. Step 2: Look at the number to the right of this place lets call it the Boss. Step 3: If the boss is a 4 or lower, leave Sparky alone. If the Boss is 5 or higher, round the Sparky up one value. Here is a rhyme to help you remember: “Four and below, let it go. Five and above give it a shove” For Example: Round 7.289 to the nearest tenth: Answer: 7.3 Practice: Round to the nearest Round to the nearest Round to the nearest tenth: hundredth: ones: 1) 29.45: _______ 4) 0.745: ________ 7) 30.19: __________ 2) 711.319: ________ 5) 1.67234: _______ 8) 8,799.99: ________ 3) 9.999: _________ 6) 10.4637: _______ 9) 2.94: __________ Page #___
5. 5. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 9. Temperature: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Typically the faster the molecules vibrate with in a sample of matter the hotter it is. Let’s model this with our hands! There are 3 different systems to measure temperature: 1) English Units: Fahrenheit Degrees (F°) 2) Metric Units: Celsius Degrees (°C) 3) Kelvin Units (K) Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Water Freezes Water Boils Absolute zero 10. States of matter What variable determines the 3 states of Matter? ________________________ The three phases of Matter are: ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ See page 13 in your ESRT!!! 11. Area: Page #___
6. 6. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Formula for Area= L x W L: Length, the longer dimension of an 2 D object usually measured in meters, centimeters or millimeters. W: Width, the shorter dimension of a 2D object. Note that the units will always end up squared! Example: 4mm x 2mm = 8mm2 Lets practice finding the area! Always follow these Steps: Step 1: Write the formula Step 3: Plug in the numbers, Example: Area = L x W WITH UNITS. Example: A=4mm x 2mm Step 2: List all the variables including the unknown, WITH UNITS. Step 4: Calculate WITH Example: L = 4mm W= 2mm A= ? UNITS.Example: A= 8mm2 7 cm 4m 9m 7 cm Step 1:__________________ Step 1:__________________ Step 2: _________________ Step 2: _________________ Step 3: _________________ Step 3: _________________ Step 4:__________________ Step 4:__________________ 12. Page #___
7. 7. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Volume: -The amount of _______ an object takes up! -For solid cubes and boxes Volume is equal to: ____________. Depending on the size of the object the units may be either cm3 or m3. -But for liquids, volume is measured in _________ using a beaker or graduated cylinder. There are rules to reading beaker or graduated cylinder: 1. Read it at eye 2. You must read the meniscus to obtain an accurate level result. Due to cohesion (sticky) properties of fluids, the edges of the fluid touching the glass will slightly rise. Meniscus: 73 mL Factors that affect Volume: Fluid Displacement 1)Temperature •It is easier to measure irregular Heating a material will cause it to expand and shaped objects using fluid take up more space because the molecules need displacement. more room to move around. Therefore increasing temperature will increase volume. _________________  In order to Cooling a material will result in the opposite. measure this irregularly shaped So decreasing temperature will decrease rock you would drop it in a beaker volume. ____________________ filled with water and measure the Think about how your rings fit in the winter… change in volume. they seem to be bigger! 2) Pressure: Increasing pressure will force molecules closer together there by decreasing volume. ______________________ Decreasing pressure will allow molecules to spread out and take up more space thereby increasing volume. _________________ Let’s model this with a sponge. Page #___
8. 8. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 13. Density: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ • It tells us how tightly packed the molecules are, or how close to each other they are.If they are packed tightly, the density is high. •The unit for measuring density is grams per cubic centimeter, or g/cm³ •Density = Mass Volume So how do you solve a math problem in science class using a formula? Step 1:Write the formula Example: Density = Mass/Volume or D=M/V Step 2:List all the variables including the unknown, WITH UNITS. Example: D=? M = 38.0g V = 12.0cm3 Step 3:Plug in the numbers, WITH UNITS. Example: D=38.0g/12.0cm3 Step 4:Calculate WITH UNITS. Example: D=3.2g/cm3 Example: If an object has a mass of 13.4 grams and a volume 5.7 cm3 what is the density? Write out each step next to the corresponding number 1. 3. 2. 4. Page #___
9. 9. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 14. More on Density: •Each pure substance has its own particular density and it can be used to help identify that material at room temperature. •For example, liquid water has a density of 1g/cm³ because 1cm³ of water weighs 1 gram. One cm³ of water also occupies 1ml. •Solid quartz has a density of 2.7 g/cm³ Mixtures do not have a precise density. -Fluids tend to layer based on their density, with less dense fluid on top of more dense fluid. Can you think of any examples? ____________________________ Let’s check out this video: •http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid= 17500&fileitem=4738&catfilter=445 Factors that affect Density A. Temperature: Why does density matter? •Cooling a material causes its If a warm gust of wind meets cold air, molecules to move closer together, will the warm air go above or below the making its volume decrease and cold air? causing its density to increase. •Since hot air is less dense it will rise! ___________________ •And Cold air sinks because it is denser •Heating a material causes its than warm air molecules to move apart making its •A similar process happens when volume increase and causing the you boil water density to decrease. ___________________ •Note that Mass is staying the same!!! B. Pressure: •Increasing the pressure (squeeze) on a material causes its molecules to get pushed closer together, decreasing  the volume, making the density This rising and sinking of fluids due to increase. __________________ density and temperature differences is •Decreasing the pressure causes the called _________________________. opposite effect, since molecules move We will touch upon this concept many further apart, it becomes less dense. times through out the year. •Again, note mass remains the same! ______________________________________________ Page #___
10. 10. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 15. Density at Different Phases •As a material is heated, it changes from solid to liquid. • More heat changes the liquid to gas. The molecules move farther apart, so the volume increases, causing the density to decrease. General Rule of Thumb: Solids are most dense, gases are least dense The ONLY exception to this rule is water!!! •As water cools, its volume decreases until it reaches 4° C. • As it cools from 4° C to 0° C, its volume actually increases, so it becomes less dense again. •Water is most dense at 4°C, but is still a liquid. •This is due to my buddy Mr. Hydrogen Bond, you will meet him in Chemistry •Water at 0°C is solid ice, but is less dense than water, so ice floats!! •Water is the only material whose solid form will float in its liquid form. •This is why the top of a puddle, or a lake freezes first. 16. Does size affect density of an object? •You can NEVER change the density of a material by cutting it into pieces. •Since change both volume and mass, the ratio will remain the same, therefore each small piece will have the same density as the original large one. Page #___
11. 11. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 17. Let review some crucial relationships!!! •Temp. Volume Density l •Pressure Volume Density l l •Temp. Volume Density l •Pressure Volume Density You must understand and know these by heart!!! 18. Graphing: •Direct Relationship: •Inverse Relationship:Variables both variables “move in the same “move in opposite directions”. One direction” They both increase or variable goes up and the other goes both decrease. down. •Constant Variable: •Parabola: One variable changes, but the other remains As one variable increases, the the same. other increases and then decreases. Page #___
12. 12. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Error! Reference source not found. 19. More on charts and Graphs: Page #___
13. 13. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 20. Percent Deviation: This tells us how much error is in some measurements when it is compared to the true measurement. We find the amount of error using the formula: Percent Deviation = ---------------------------------------------------------------- This formula is on the front page of the ESRT. Example #1 A student determines a room to be 17 ft long, but the blue print for the room is 15 ft long. Find the % Deviation. 17-15ft /15 ft X 100% = ____________ Page #___
14. 14. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Example #2 •A student weighs himself on his bathroom scales at home where he is 125 lbs. At the Dr.’s office he actually weighs 135 lbs. What is the % D. of the bathroom scales? Show your work: Example #3 •A student calculates that the density of galena is 7.0 g/cm3. Use the back of your reference table to calculate the % deviation. Show your work: 21. Change: •When something observed is different Cyclic Change Non-cyclic Changes: Frames of reference to study change: Rate of Change: •Changes that repeat over and over in a •Changes that do not repeat at all or do •What has caused the change? •How fast did the change happen? known period of time. not repeat in a known period of time. •Time and Space. •Examples are: seasons, sun motions, •An example is: The Earth’s moon How much a measurable aspect of the moon and tides •Some examples are:Earthquakes and changes because we observe it in environment, called a field, is altered •Most changes are cyclic and they are Hurricanes. different locations in the sky and in over a given amount of time – years, very good to use when we are trying to different phases at different times hours, or seconds. make predictions during a month. Cyclic: repeats at known intervals Formula: Rate of = ________________ Change •Formula is on p. 1 in ESRT Page #___ “Change in Field Value” is the difference in what you are measuring.
15. 15. Unit 0: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 from when it was last observed 21. Interfaces: •Changes cannot take place unless there is a flow of energy from one location, which loses its energy, to another location, which gains the energy. •The energy flows across a boundary where the two materials or systems meet. •This boundary is known as the INTERFACE Sharp Interface: Diffuse Interface: •These interfaces are very easy to •Some interfaces are not easy to see. locate. •An example of an sharp interface •An example is the boundary between is the line where a wall meets the the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific floor. Ocean. 22. Dynamic Equilibrium: •Sometimes many changes take place, but often they “even” out. It is like your science test grades: some high, some low, but they even out. •This is called DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM Pollution: •When the amount of ANY substance, •Our natural environment is normally in a found ANYWHERE, becomes high state of dynamic equilibrium, but this enough to affect people, their balance can be upset. It is easy to properties, or plant or animal life. temporarily upset this balance, especially on a small, local scale as can happen just in the town of Long Beach. Unfortunately, human activities tend to cause permanent disruptions, especially when we pollute … Page #___