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# Honors ES Prologue Note Packet 1 Power Point

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### Honors ES Prologue Note Packet 1 Power Point

1. 1. Unit 0: Prologue<br />The Physical Setting<br />
2. 2. Do Now: Free Write<br />-Looking back at the murder mystery case that you cleverly solved… how was your approach as a detective similar to being a scientist?<br />
3. 3. The Nature of Science!<br />P.S. I’m Fred<br />
4. 4. 1.An Observation is:<br />is the use of the 5 senses to learn something about the environment.<br />
5. 5. Senses<br />a. When you observe, you use your ____________ to take in everything that is happening around you, paying close attention to detail<br />b. Examples:<br />The rock is round and smooth.<br />
6. 6. Let’s make some observations about our classroom…<br />We have only one blackboard in our room.<br />What other observations can you make?<br />
7. 7. 2.INFERENCE:<br />-Are interpretations of your observations.<br />-In other words, when you infer you form a conclusion based on something you observed.<br />
8. 8. b. An example of an inference is:<br />i. The round and smooth rocks must have been carried here by running water.<br />
9. 9. b. Examples<br /> ii. Since the dog is wagging his tail he must be happy.<br />iii. Make an inference about something your observe in the classroom. <br />
10. 10. 3. Prediction<br /><ul><li>Lets looks at this picture again, what will eventually happen to the circled rock? </li></ul>How is a prediction different than an inference?<br />
11. 11. 3.Prediction<br />An educated guess as to what will happen in the near future based usually on your observations and inferences.<br />An example of a prediction:<br />i. An angular rock will eventually become rounded if it stays in the stream. <br />ii. Ms. Gill will wear something stylish tomorrow. <br />
12. 12. 4. CLASSIFICATION:<br />To put things into groups. <br />We can organize or classify objects according to some pattern or trend or common characteristics.<br />
13. 13. 5. Measurements<br />
14. 14. a. What are some measurable properties?<br />Think on a daily basis, what might be some of the things you measure?<br />-Mass -Area<br />-Temperature -Volume<br />-Density -Pressure<br />
15. 15. b. How do we make measurements?<br />Our senses are limited by how sensitive or by how accurate they are. To get more detailed information, we use instruments, such as rulers, thermometers, x-rays and telescopes <br />
16. 16. c. Metric System & Unit Conversion<br />The fundamental units of the metric system are: For Mass ______________________ <br /> For Length ______________________<br /> For Liquid Volume ________________<br />Grams (g)<br />Meters (m)<br />milliliters (mL)<br />
17. 17. Prefix Fun!<br />By changing the prefix used with each unit you can change the size of the unit. We will use the following prefixes. (There are others for both larger and smaller units.)<br />Hecto-<br />(102)<br />Deca-<br />(101)<br />Kilo-<br />(103)<br />Centi-<br />(10-2)<br />Milli-<br />(10-3)<br />Deci-<br />(10-1)<br />Basic Unit<br />(100)<br />
18. 18. Prefix Fun!<br />Kilo- (103)<br />You can remember this using the following sentence:<br />King Henry died, drinking chocolate milk<br />Hecto- (102)<br />Deca- (101)<br />Basic Unit (100)<br />Deci- (10-1)<br />Centi- (10-2)<br />Milli- (10-3)<br />
19. 19. To convert from any unit to any other unit count how many spaces are between them and move the decimal point that far in the same direction.<br />Let’s look at the meter stick! How many meters (m) are in a meter (m) stick?___<br />How many centimeters (cm) are in a meter(m)? ___________<br />1<br />100<br />
20. 20. How many millimeters(mm) are in a centimeter (cm) ?__________ Now if there are 100cm in a meter and 10mm in a cm how many mm are in a m? __________<br />10<br />1000<br />
21. 21. Decimals are used because they are easier to convert than fractions! In the metric system we use abbreviations! Let’s fill them in below!<br /> Length ___ Mass Liquid Volume meter__________ gram_______ liter________ millimeter_______ milligram______ milliliter______ centimeter_______ ------------ ------------meter __________ gram_________ liter_________ kilometer_______ kilogram______ kiloliter______<br />m<br />g<br />L<br />mg<br />mm<br />mL<br />cm<br />m<br />L<br />g<br />kL<br />km<br />kg<br />Please complete the practice questions 1-15<br />
22. 22. 6. Rounding:<br />The first step in rounding is figuring out what place to round to and where that place is located. You must remember these place values:<br />2 , 6 4 3 , 9 7 5 , 8 6 4 . 9 3 1<br />tens<br />ones<br />hundreds<br />tenths<br />Billions<br />Ten Millions<br />Hundredths<br />millions<br />Thousands<br />Thousandths<br />Ten thousands<br />Hundred millions<br />Hundred Thousands<br />
23. 23. Rounding Procedure:<br />Step 1: Find the location of place that you are asked to round to. Lets call it: Sparky. <br />Step 2: Look at the number to the right of this place lets call it the Boss. <br />Step 3: If the boss is a 4 or lower, leave Sparky alone. If the Boss is 5 or higher, round the Sparky up one value. <br />
24. 24. Rounding Procedure:<br />Here is a rhyme to help you remember:<br />“Four and below, let it go. Five and above give it a shove”<br />For Example: Round 7.289 to the nearest tenth: Answer: 7.3<br />Now complete practice problems 1-9!<br />
25. 25. 7. MASS:<br />Is the amount of matter in an object.<br />It is how much “stuff” the object is made of, the number of molecules in it.<br />
26. 26. How do we measure Mass<br />Can we count the atoms? One by one? Lol<br />Nope! Instead we use a triple beam balance which gives us a value usually in grams.<br />Let’s click here for an interactive triple beam balance!<br />
27. 27. Is Weight the same as Mass?<br />Weight is NOT the same as mass, but weight is used to measure the mass of an object on the Earth.Think about what would happen if you weighed your self on the moon. You would weight less because there is less gravity pulling you down onto the scale, even though your mass did not change.<br />Let’s check our our weight on the MOON!!! <br />
29. 29. 9. Temperature:<br />It is the amount of heat energy an object has.<br />Typically the faster the molecules vibrate with in a sample of matter the hotter it is. <br />
30. 30. English Units: Fahrenheit Degrees (F°)<br />Water Freezes : 32°F.<br />Water Boils: 212°F.<br />Metric Units: Celsius Degrees (°C)<br /><ul><li>Water freezes: 0°C.
31. 31. Water boils: 100° C.</li></ul>So can you memorize this by tomorrow?!?<br />
32. 32. No Worries!!!<br />You have your handy dandy ESRT!<br />Look at page 13, what is the freezing and boiling temperature for water in Kelvin?<br />
33. 33. Kelvin Units (K)<br />Absolute zero: 0 Kelvin’s<br />Water freezes: 273 Kelvin’s<br />Water boils: 373 Kelvin’s<br />ABSOLUTE ZERO:<br /><ul><li>The lowest possible temperature and occurs when ALL heat is removed.
34. 34. It is equal to -272°C.</li></li></ul><li>10. States of matter:<br />What variable determines the different phases?<br />Temperature<br />What are three states, or phases of matter? <br />Solid (ice) Liquid (water) Gas (water vapor)<br />
35. 35. 11. Area:<br />The amount of space a 2-dimensional object takes up<br />For squares and rectangles area is equal to:<br />L xW<br />L: Length, the longer dimension of an 2 D object usually measured in meters, centimeters or millimeters.<br />W: Width, the shorter dimension of a 2D object.<br />Note that the units will always end up squared! Example: 4mm x 2mm = 8mm2<br />
36. 36. 11. Area:<br />Let’s practice using the following steps:<br />Step 1: Write the formula<br />Example: Area = L x W <br />Step 2: List all the variables <br /> including the unknown, WITH UNITS. Example: L = 4mm W= 2mm A= ?<br />
37. 37. 11. Area:<br />Let’s practice using the following steps:<br />Step 3: Plug in the numbers,WITHUNITS. Example: A=4mm x 2mm <br />Step 4: Calculate WITH UNITS.<br />Example: A= 8mm2<br />Practice the two examples on your own!<br />
38. 38. 12. Volume:<br />The amount of space an object takes up<br />For solid cubes and boxes, Volume is equal to: L x W x H Depending on the size of the object the units may be either cm3 or m3. <br />
39. 39. 12. Volume:<br />But for liquids, volume is measured in liters using a beaker or graduated cylinder. There two rules:<br />1. Always read it at eye level<br />This is a beaker!<br />
40. 40. 12. Volume:<br />2. You must read the meniscus to obtain an accurate result. Due to cohesion (sticky) properties of fluids, the edges of the fluid touching the glass will slightly rise. <br />Meniscus = 73 mL<br />
41. 41. Fluid Displacement:<br />It is easier to measure irregular shaped objects using fluid displacement. In order to measure this irregularly shaped rock you would drop it in a beaker filled with water and measure the change in volume. <br />
42. 42. What factors affect Volume?<br />1)Temperature<br /> Heating a material will cause it to expand and take up more space because the molecules need more room to move around. Therefore increasing temperature will increase volume. <br />_________________<br /> Cooling a material will result in the opposite. So decreasing temperature will decrease volume. ____________________<br />Think about how your rings fit in the winter… they seem to be bigger!<br />T V<br />T V<br />
43. 43. What factors affect Volume?<br />2) Pressure:<br />Increasing pressure will force molecules closer together there by decreasing volume. ______________________<br />Decreasing pressure will allow molecules to spread out and take up more space thereby increasing volume. _________________<br />Let’s model this with a sponge. <br />P V<br />P V<br />
44. 44. 13. DENSITY<br />The amount of matter (mass) in a given amount of space (volume).<br />It tells us how tightly packed the molecules are, or how close to each other they are.<br />If they are packed tightly, the density is high.<br />
45. 45. DENSITY UNITS<br />The unit for measuring density is <br />grams per cubic centimeter, or g/cm³<br />Density = Mass<br /> Volume<br />M<br />V<br />D<br />
46. 46. How do you solve a math <br />problem in science class<br /> using a formula?<br />
47. 47. Step 1<br />Write the formula<br />Example: Density = Mass/Volume<br /> or <br /> D=M/V <br />
48. 48. Step 2<br />List all the variables including the unknown, WITH UNITS.<br />Example: D=?<br /> M = 38.0g<br /> V = 12.0cm3<br />
49. 49. Step 3<br />Plug in the numbers, WITH UNITS.<br />Example: <br /> D=38.0g/12.0cm3<br />
50. 50. Step 4<br />Calculate WITH UNITS.<br />Example: <br />D=3.2g/cm3<br />
51. 51. Example<br /> If an object has a mass of 13.4 grams and a volume 5.7 cm3 what is the density?<br />Solution:<br />
52. 52. Let’s Practice !!!<br />Please complete the worksheet<br />
53. 53. 14. More on Density <br />Each pure substance has its own particular density and it can be used to help identify that material at room temperature. <br />For example, liquid water has a density of 1g/cm³ because 1cm³ of water weighs 1 gram. One cm³ of water also occupies 1ml.<br />solid quartz has a density of 2.7 g/cm³ Mixtures do not have a precise density.<br />
54. 54. -Fluids tend to layer based on their density, with less dense fluid on top of more dense fluid. Can you think of any examples?<br />Let’s check out this video!<br /><ul><li>http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid=17500&fileitem=4738&catfilter=445</li></li></ul><li> Factors that affect Density<br />a. Temperature<br />Cooling a material causes its molecules to move closer together, making its volume decrease and causing its density to increase.<br />Heating a material causes its molecules to move apart making its volume increase and causing the density to decrease<br />Note that Mass is staying the same!!!<br />T VD<br />TVD<br />
55. 55. Factors that affect Density:b. Pressure<br />Increasing the pressure (squeeze) on a material causes its molecules to get pushed closer together, decreasing the volume, making the density increase.<br />Decreasing the pressure causes the opposite effect, since molecules move further apart, it becomes less dense.<br />Again, note mass remains the same!<br />P VD<br />P VD<br />
56. 56. So why does density matter?If a warm gust of wind meets cold air, will the warm air go above or below the cold air?<br /><ul><li>Since hot air is less dense it will rise!
57. 57. And Cold air sinks because it is denser than warm air
58. 58. This happens when </li></ul> you boil water <br />
59. 59. This rising and sinking of fluids due to density and temperature differences is called…<br />A CONVECTION CURRENT!!!<br />We will touch upon this concept many times through out the year<br />
60. 60. 15. Density at Different Phases<br />As a material is heated, it changes from solid to liquid. <br />More heat changes the liquid to gas. The molecules move farther apart, so the volume increases, causing the density to decrease. <br />Solids are most dense, gases are least dense<br />
61. 61. The exception to this rule is water<br />As water cools, its volume decreases until it reaches 4° C.<br />As it cools from 4° C to 0° C, its volume actually increases, so it becomes less dense again.<br />Water is most dense at 4°C, but is still a liquid.<br />This is due to my buddy Mr. Hydrogen Bond, you will meet him in Chemistry<br />
62. 62. Water at 0°C is solid ice, but is less dense than water, so ice floats!!<br />Water is the only material whose solid form will float in its liquid form.<br />This is why the top of a puddle, or a lake freezes first.<br />
63. 63.
64. 64. 16. Does size affect density of an object?<br />You can NEVER change the density of a material by cutting it into pieces. <br />Since change both volume and mass, the ratio will remain the same, therefore each small piece will have the same density as the original large one.<br />
65. 65. 17. Let review some crucial relationships!!!<br />Temp. Volume Density <br />Temp. Volume Density<br />You must understand and know these by heart!!!<br />
66. 66. Let review some crucial relationships!!!<br /><ul><li>Pressure Vol. Density
67. 67. Pressure Vol. Density</li></ul>You must understand and know these by heart!!!<br />
68. 68. 18. Graphing<br />Direct Relationship: both variables “move in the same direction” They both increase or both decrease.<br />
69. 69. Inverse Relationship<br />Variables “move in opposite directions”. One variable goes up and the other goes down.<br />
70. 70. One variable changes, but the other remains the same.<br />
71. 71. As one variable increases, the other increases and then decreases.<br />
72. 72. 19. More on Charts and Graphs:Equal values<br />Equal Value<br />
73. 73. Circle Graph (Pie Graph)<br />A=50% B=25% C=12.5% D= ______<br />C<br />B<br />D<br />A<br />
74. 74. Bar Graph<br />
75. 75. 20. PERCENT DEVIATION<br />This tells us how much error is in some measurements when it is compared to the true measurement. We find the amount of error using the formula:<br />
76. 76. Difference between accepted and measured value<br />_____________________________ X 100<br />Accepted value<br />This formula is on the front page of the ESRT.<br />
77. 77. Example:<br />A student determines a room to be 17 ft long, but the blue print for the room is 15 ft long. Find the % Deviation.<br />17-15ft /15 ft X 100% =<br />
78. 78. Example:<br />A student weighs himself on his bathroom scales at home where he is 125 lbs. At the Dr.’s office he actually weighs 135 lbs. What is the % D. of the bathroom scales?<br />135-125lbs / 135 lbs X 100 =<br />
79. 79. Example:<br />•A student calculates that the density of galena is 7.0 g/cm3. Use the back of your reference table to calculate the % deviation. <br />7.6-7.0 g/cm3 / 7.6 g/cm3 X 100 =<br />
80. 80. 21. Change:<br />When something observed is different from when it was last observed<br />
81. 81. Frames of reference to study change.<br />What has caused the change?<br />Time and Space.<br />An example is: The Earth’s moon changes because we observe it in different locations in the sky and in different phases at different times during a month.<br />
82. 82.
83. 83. Rate of change<br />How fast did the change happen?<br />How much a measurable aspect of the environment, called a field, is altered over a given amount of time – years, hours, or seconds.<br />
84. 84. Formula:<br />Change in field value(Difference in<br />Change in timewhatever you<br /> are measuring)<br />Formula is on p. 1 in ESRT<br />
85. 85. Cyclic Change:<br />Changes that repeat over and over in a known period of time.<br />Examples are: seasons, sun motions, moon and tides<br />
86. 86. Most changes are cyclic and they are very good to use when we are trying to make predictions<br />
87. 87. Cyclic: repeats at known intervals.<br />
88. 88. Non-cyclic Changes:<br />Changes that do not repeat at all or do not repeat in a known period of time.<br />Some examples of these are:<br />Earthquakes and Hurricanes.<br />
89. 89. 21. Interfaces<br /><ul><li>Changes cannot take place unless there is a flow of energy from one location, which loses its energy, to another location, which gains the energy.
90. 90. The energy flows across a boundary where the two materials or systems meet.
91. 91. This boundary is known as the INTERFACE</li></li></ul><li>Sharp Interfaces<br />These interfaces are very easy to locate. <br />An example of an sharp interface is the line where a wall meets the floor.<br />
92. 92.
93. 93. DIFFUSE INTERFACE<br />Some interfaces are not easy to see.<br />An example is the boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.<br />
94. 94.
95. 95. 22. Dynamic Equilibrium<br />Sometimes many changes take place, but often they “even” out. It is like your science test grades: some high, some low, but they even out.<br />This is called DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM<br />
96. 96. <ul><li>Our natural environment is normally in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but this balance can be upset. It is easy to temporarily upset this balance, especially on a small, local scale as can happen just in the town of Long Beach.
97. 97. Unfortunately, human activities tend to cause permanent disruptions, especially when we pollute.</li></li></ul><li>POLLUTION:<br />When the amount of ANY substance, found ANYWHERE, becomes high enough to affect people, their properties, or plant or animal life.<br />population<br />pollution<br />