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Geologic History Powerpoint Notes

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Adapted from serveral other powerpoints by Mr. Craig McKee, Mr. Greg Izzo and others

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Geologic History Powerpoint Notes

  1. 1. Interpreting Geologic History
  2. 2. If the history of our planet was condensed to only one year , when would the “important” events in our history have taken place? Earth’s History in One Year
  3. 3. <ul><li>Reminder add about early earth formation </li></ul>
  4. 5. January to March <ul><li>One quarter (1/4) of the year was over, and no life was present. The environment was extremely chaotic.Barren mountains dominated until the oceans formed in late March. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>http://slafee.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/anza-borrego-desert.jpg </li></ul>
  6. 8. April to November <ul><li>April Fool’s Day = first life on Earth! </li></ul><ul><li>Only single-cell organisms near thermal vents and in warm oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-cell organisms sprout up towards the end of August! </li></ul><ul><li>These types of life dominate all the way until December! </li></ul>
  7. 10. December <ul><li>December 2 nd – the first hard shelled organisms (trilobites). </li></ul><ul><li>December 3 rd – more complicated sea-creatures begin to show up. </li></ul>
  8. 11. December 6 th <ul><li>60% of North America is covered by water! </li></ul><ul><li>STILL NO LIFE ON LAND! </li></ul><ul><li>Endless torrential rain and huge amount of erosion over continents. </li></ul>
  9. 12. December 7 th <ul><li>FINALLY, plants are able to make their way onto land. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are washed away by the torrential rain, but some are able to grab hold and latch on. </li></ul>
  10. 14. December 10 th <ul><li>Where are all the people??? Still nowhere to be found! </li></ul><ul><li>Fish are thriving in the oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>Some grow feet, walk onto land, and call themselves Amphibians. </li></ul><ul><li>First land-only animals are on their way. </li></ul>
  11. 16. December 17 th <ul><li>Look out for the insects! </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the month, Jurassic Park opens up. Dinosaurs begin their reign on land. </li></ul>
  12. 17. December 20 th <ul><li>The Appalachian Mountains stand taller than any other mountain chain on the continent! They later shrunk in their old age. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs are chasing the first mammals around, enjoying snack-time. </li></ul>
  13. 18. It’s snack time!!! AHHH!!!
  14. 19. December 24 th <ul><li>An asteroid the size of Manhattan slams into the Yucatan Peninsula. The dinosaurs’ “one week” of dominance ends. The mammals are more than excited to see them go. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the day, the Rocky Mountains start to form. </li></ul>
  15. 20. December 25 th <ul><li>Here’s where the action kicks up! </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals are running around without having to worry about their buddy T-Rex. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mammal Baby-Boom begins. </li></ul>
  16. 21. December 28 th <ul><li>The Colorado River begins to cut through the land below it. A few days later, the Grand Canyon is about a mile deep. </li></ul>
  17. 22. December 31 st <ul><li>Where are all of the humans? During the morning and afternoon, there is still no sign of them. </li></ul><ul><li>At around 10 PM, early human ancestors appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 10 and 11 PM, massive ice sheets will advance and retreat over North America and Eurasia FOUR times. </li></ul>
  18. 24. The Last Hour on December 31 st <ul><li>Neanderthals show up to the New Year’s party. </li></ul><ul><li>With a half hour left before the end of the year, cavemen make drawings on the walls. </li></ul><ul><li>With fifteen minutes left, homo sapiens make the first weapons – spears and knives. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilizations appear in the last five minutes: Egyptians, Greeks and Romans each spend one minute building and destroying their empires. </li></ul>
  19. 27. The Last Minute of the Year! <ul><li>With 3 seconds left in the countdown, Columbus stumbles into the Americas. </li></ul>
  20. 28. The Last Minute of the Year! <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution began just one second before the New Year. </li></ul>
  21. 29. The Last Second of the Year! <ul><li>Within the last 5 tenths (0.5) of a second, humans invented cars, planes, computers, TV, cell phones, and nuclear weapons. </li></ul>
  22. 30. What Will the New Year Bring?
  23. 31. Welcome Back! Please complete the pre-test when you come in!
  24. 32. The Grand Canyon, AZ Geologic History A Journey Through Time Please take out your Earth's History Notes Packet
  25. 33. Geologic History Intro and Relative Dating Absolute Dating Fossils & Rock Correlations Geologic Time Life and Evolution “Do Now’s” and HW
  26. 34. Who’s Younger? How Do You Know??
  27. 35. “ in a Nutshell” Geologic History of the Earth
  28. 36. Origins of our Solar System Video Clip
  29. 37. <ul><li>Earth formed through the gravitational attraction and accumulation of asteroids and rocky debris </li></ul><ul><li>This accretion of material generated a tremendous heat causing the planet to be molten </li></ul><ul><li>The denser materials settled into the interior and the Earth’s layered internal structure formed. </li></ul>Earth’s Formation
  30. 38. Creation of the Earth
  31. 40. Earth's first atmosphere 4.6 billion years ago was most likely comprised of hydrogen and helium (two most abundant gases found in the universe!) Through the process of outgassing, the outpouring of gases from the earth's interior, many other gases were injected into the atmosphere. These include: water vapor (produced rain - rivers, lakes, oceans) carbon dioxidenitrogenAs outgassing occurred over a period of millions of years, the atmosphere evolved to its current state
  32. 41. Life and Evolution Diverse Ordovician Sea-Life Video Clip
  33. 42. <ul><li>Evidence from the fossil record (preserved in sedimentary rocks) shows that a wide variety of life forms have lived in Earth’s changing environments over time. </li></ul>Variations in Fossils and Environments
  34. 43. <ul><li>The comparisons of fossil remains and current life forms enable scientists to make predictions about the Earth’s past environment. </li></ul><ul><li>A major reason for changes in Earth’s environment over geologic time has been the movements of plates and their associated landmasses. </li></ul>Variations in Fossils and Environments
  35. 44. <ul><li>The theory of organic evolution states that life forms change through time. </li></ul><ul><li>As environmental conditions change, variations within a species give certain individuals a greater chance for surviving and reproducing . </li></ul>Fossils and the Evolution of Life
  36. 45. <ul><li>These variations, along with others get passed on to future generation leading to the creation of a new species . </li></ul>
  37. 46. <ul><li>The fossil record provides evidence for the theory of organic evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>This also shows that evolution does not always occur at the same rate . </li></ul><ul><li>There are times of rapid extinctions and subsequently rapid evolution of new species. </li></ul>Rates of Evolution
  38. 47. <ul><li>An impact event , such as the collision of a comet or asteroid with Earth, may cause catastrophic environmental changes leading to rapid extinctions and evolutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Such an event probable occurred at 65 m.y. and is associated with a massive extinction of roughly 70% of the Earth’s species. </li></ul>Rates of Evolution
  39. 48. <ul><li>Precambrian (4.6 b.y - 544 m.y.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple organisms (invertebrates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Soft-Bodied” Organisms (Fossils are rare) </li></ul></ul>Life On Earth Throughout Geologic Time
  40. 49. Stromatolites Formed from the trapping of sediment in layers by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria)
  41. 50. <ul><li>Paleozoic (544 – 251 m.y.a.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms proliferate and become more complex ( vertebrates ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelled (mineralized skeletons and shells) organisms develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Brachiopods/Trilobites) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians develop from lobe-finned fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Era ends with a mass extinction killing off more than 95% of the life on earth </li></ul></ul>Life On Earth Throughout Geologic Time
  42. 51. Cambrian Life
  43. 52. Silurian Life
  44. 53. Eurypterid (Sea Scorpion) Fossil Largest fossil with human for scale
  45. 55. Eurypterid in Action
  46. 56. Devonian Life
  47. 57. Phacops Trilobite of the Devonian
  48. 58. Carboniferous Forests – formed extensive coal deposits
  49. 59. Evolution of Amphibian from Lobe-Finned Fish (Devonian)
  50. 61. <ul><li>Mesozoic Life (245-65 m.y.a.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Age of Reptiles ” (dinosaurs, flying reptiles and birds develop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern animals and plants begins to develop on land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Era ends with a mass extinction killing off dinosaurs, ammonoids, flying reptiles, and some swimming reptiles. </li></ul></ul>Life On Earth Throughout Geologic Time
  51. 62. Triassic Plateosaurs
  52. 64. Iguanodons
  53. 66. Cretaceous T-Rex
  54. 67. Impact Event
  55. 68. <ul><li>Cenozoic Life ( 65 m.y.a. – present) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Age of Mammals ” (mammals begin to develop and evolve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans develop from primates (Homo Habilus 1.6 m.y.) </li></ul></ul>Life On Earth Throughout Geologic Time
  56. 69. Early Hominids Mastodonts
  57. 71. ESRT, p. 8-9
  58. 72. <ul><li>Scientists have determined the age of the Earth to be about 4.6 billion years old. </li></ul><ul><li>4,600, 000, 000 years = 4.6 x 10 9 years (scientific notations you should know) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 9 = billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 6 = million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 3 = thousand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 12 = trillion </li></ul></ul></ul>How old is the Earth? For example, 10 9 can be read as “one with 9 zeroes after it” OR 1,000,000,000
  59. 75. <ul><li>Began in the late 1700’s when James Hutton published his Theory of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>In this work he was the first scientist to argue effectively that geologic processes proceed over long spans of time </li></ul>Birth of Modern Geology
  60. 76. <ul><li>The physical, chemical, and biological processes that operate today have also operated in the geologic past. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The present is the key to the past” </li></ul>Principle of Uniformitarianism Hutton's Major Contribution
  61. 77. THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIFORMITY: <ul><li>Geologists can infer events of the past by </li></ul>Looking at features of rocks and rock outcrops
  62. 78. Uniformitarianism (Principle of <ul><li>states that the forces that acted upon the </li></ul><ul><li>___________ crust… </li></ul>Uniformity) Earth’s
  63. 79. <ul><li>in the __________ are the same as those that are ____________ </li></ul><ul><li>today. </li></ul>past active ** THE KEY TO THE PAST IS THE PRESENT**
  64. 80. Relative Dating Techniques
  65. 81. <ul><li>Prior to the discovery of radioactivity, geologists had no reliable method of giving specific dates to geologic events and had to rely on relative dating techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Dating means placing rocks or events in their proper sequence of formation, based on a comparison to other rocks </li></ul>Relative Dating
  66. 82. 5 Basic Laws: <ul><li>1. Law of Original Horizontality </li></ul><ul><li>2. Law of Superposition </li></ul><ul><li>3. Law of Inclusions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>5. Law of Original Lateral Continuity </li></ul>
  67. 83. Law of Original Horizontality <ul><li>Strata is originally </li></ul><ul><li>deposited in flat horizontal layers because sedimentary particles settle from air and water under the influence of gravity </li></ul>
  68. 84. Law of Original Horizontality <ul><li>If strata are ___________, then they must have suffered some kind of disturbance after they were deposited. </li></ul>Grand Canyon Western Iran Steeply Inclined
  69. 85. <ul><li>Principle of Original Horizontality states that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers </li></ul>Layer 1 – Siltstone Layer 2 – Limestone Layer 3 – Sandstone Relative Dating Laws
  70. 86. What has happened to this rock strata?
  71. 87. Did it happen before or after the rock had formed? What has happened to this rock strata?
  72. 88. THE LAW OF SUPERPOSITION: <ul><li>the principle that the _________ layers in a sequence of rock strata must have been deposited __________ the layers above, unless the rock strata have been ___________ or___________ </li></ul>bottom before disturbed uplifted
  73. 89. <ul><li>The _______ rocks are found at the bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Geologists can date the </li></ul><ul><li>_________ ages of the strata from </li></ul><ul><li>________ to __________ </li></ul>older relative oldest youngest
  74. 90. oldest youngest
  75. 91. Law of Superposition <ul><li>Therefore the order of deposition is from the bottom upward. </li></ul>
  76. 92. <ul><li>Law of Superposition states that in an undeformed sequence of strata, each bed is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it. </li></ul>Relative Dating Laws
  77. 94. Younger  Older   Oldest
  78. 95. Grand Canyon, Sequence of Strata Oldest Youngest Which rock unit is the youngest? oldest?
  79. 96. Grand Canyon, Sequence of Strata
  80. 98. Older Younger Sheep Rock, Central OR
  81. 99. Law of Inclusions <ul><li>A rock must first exist in order to be weathered, deposited and cemented as a _____ in another rock. Therefore… </li></ul>clast
  82. 100. <ul><li>If rock is composed of _____________, the rock fragments must be ___________ than the rock in which they are found. </li></ul>fragments older
  83. 101. Law of Inclusions Which is older the Granite or the Sandstone? In figure A? In figure B? Sandstone is older Granite is older
  84. 102. What's the oldest part of this rock? Youngest?
  85. 103. <ul><li>The law of inclusions also applies to fossils preserved in the bedrock. </li></ul>
  86. 104. <ul><li>_________ are any naturally preserved remains or impressions of living things. </li></ul>Fossils
  87. 105. <ul><li>They are found in _______________ because </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>____________ </li></ul>Sedimentary rock Heat & pressure in igneous and metamorphic rock destroys them
  88. 106. FOSSILS GIVE US INFORMATION ABOUT THE ANCIENT ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE
  89. 107. ESRT pp. 8-9
  90. 108. <ul><li>Spiral shell </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Cambrian to present day </li></ul><ul><li>Foot-like muscle used to move </li></ul><ul><li>Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Land, Fresh Water, Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Present day example: a snail </li></ul><ul><li>Fed on algae </li></ul>Gastropods Worthenia
  91. 109. <ul><li>Varying shell shapes, not spiral </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Cambrian to present day </li></ul><ul><li>Attached themselves to rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Environment: Benthic Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul>Mucospirifer Brachiopods
  92. 110. <ul><li>Of the Phylum Arthropod </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Cambrian to Late Permian </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Benthic </li></ul><ul><li>Some were believed to consume mud, filter feed or scavenge </li></ul>Trilobites Phacops
  93. 112. <ul><li>Squid-like creatures with shells. Swam with water propulsion. Predators had beaks </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers separated with sutures </li></ul><ul><li>Nautiloids lived from the Cambrian to present day </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonoids lived from the Triassic to the Cretaceous </li></ul>Nautiloids and Ammonoids
  94. 114. <ul><li>Colonial or solitary animals, not plants! </li></ul><ul><li>Captures small prey with stinging cells </li></ul><ul><li>Live in shallow marine water Benthic </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Horn Coral (solitary) </li></ul><ul><li>Lived from the Cambrian to present day </li></ul>Cnidaria (Corals)
  95. 116. <ul><li>Lobster like creatures </li></ul><ul><li>Late Ordovician through Devonian </li></ul><ul><li>Sea scorpions (Predators) </li></ul><ul><li>Belong to the phylum Arthropoda (the same as Trilobites) </li></ul><ul><li>Marine, land, and fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Length could reach up to 2 meters long </li></ul>Eurypterids NYS Fossil
  96. 117.                                                                     
  97. 119. <ul><li>Planktonic (floated around) </li></ul><ul><li>Often good index fossils since they are found all over the world for a short period of time, in great numbers.Mid Cambrian Devonian Probably filter fed Once believed to be shark teeth </li></ul>Graptolites
  98. 120. <ul><li>“ Sea Lillies” </li></ul><ul><li>Late Ordovician to present day </li></ul><ul><li>Normally the stems are found </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feed </li></ul>Crinoids
  99. 121. <ul><li>Not always symmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Burrowers </li></ul><ul><li>Mud Eaters Benthic </li></ul><ul><li>Marine or Fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Of the Phylum Molluska </li></ul><ul><li>Cambrian to Present day </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Clams, mussels, scallops </li></ul>Bivalves
  100. 132. Unconformity <ul><li>Buried erosional surfaces that are preserved in the rock record.Create “gaps” in the geologic rock record </li></ul>
  101. 133. Rock Fragments (or Inclusions) that are contained in another rock are older than the rocks in which they are found Unconformity
  102. 134. Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships <ul><li>Any __________ or ______, must be younger than all rocks through which it cuts. Simply put, the body of rock that is cross-cut had to be there first in order to be cut by an intruding igneous body or fault. </li></ul>Igneous rock fault
  103. 135. <ul><li>In general rock is always_________ than the process that changed it. </li></ul>older
  104. 136. Some Processes Include: <ul><li>folds </li></ul><ul><li>faults </li></ul><ul><li>tilts </li></ul><ul><li>intrusions </li></ul><ul><li>extrusions </li></ul>
  105. 137. <ul><li>Intrusions are younger than the rocks that they intrude </li></ul><ul><li>Faults (or cracks) are younger than the </li></ul><ul><li>rocks that they cut through </li></ul><ul><li>Extrusions are younger than the rocks they form above </li></ul>Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
  106. 138. Fault Fold Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
  107. 139. How does the age of the fault compare to the age of the rock layers?
  108. 140. Folded Rock Strata
  109. 141. How does the age of the crack compare to the age of the rock?
  110. 143. Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
  111. 144. Sedimentary layers (the law of original horizontality)
  112. 145. Sedimentary layers
  113. 146. Sedimentary layers
  114. 147. Sedimentary layers
  115. 148. Sedimentary layers
  116. 149. The fault came after the rock was formed
  117. 150. Sedimentary layers The tilt came after the the rock was formed
  118. 151. The extrusion came after the rock was formed 1 2 3 4 5 Contact metamorphism
  119. 152. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The extrusion came after the lower layers were formed but…. Before the top layer
  120. 153. 1 2 3 4 5 This intrusion came after all the layers
  121. 155. <ul><li>These changes can lead to exceptions to the Law of Superposition: </li></ul><ul><li>a.An __________ is </li></ul><ul><li>an igneous rock that formed from lava on the surface of the crust. </li></ul>extrusion
  122. 156. <ul><li>An __________ must be younger than the strata below it, but ________ than any layers above. </li></ul>extrusion older
  123. 157. <ul><li>b. __________ are created when molten rock (________) is injected into older rock layers in the crust. </li></ul>intrusions magma
  124. 158. <ul><li>_____________ are </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ than </li></ul><ul><li>all the rock layers in contact with them. </li></ul>Intrusions younger
  125. 159. <ul><li>c. _______ are bends </li></ul><ul><li>in the rock strata. ________ can overturn rock strata so that ________ rock lies on top of _________ rock. </li></ul>Folds folding older younger
  126. 162. <ul><li>d. _______ are cracks </li></ul><ul><li>in rock strata. </li></ul><ul><li>_______ produce offset layers. </li></ul>Faults Faults
  127. 163. <ul><li>d. _______ are cracks </li></ul><ul><li>in rock strata. </li></ul><ul><li>_______ produce offset layers. </li></ul>Faults Faults
  128. 164. <ul><li>Rock strata must be </li></ul><ul><li>________ than the process that changed it. </li></ul>older
  129. 165. <ul><li>_________, ________ and ________ ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>are features created after rock or sediment has been deposited. </li></ul>cracks veins natural cement
  130. 167. The following diagram represents a cross-sectional view of a portion of Earth’s crust. What is the relative age of the igneous rock? The igneous rock is older than the … The igneous rock is younger than the …
  131. 168. Law of Original Lateral Continuity <ul><li>. When sediment is dumped by an agent of erosion, strata extends from the source until it gradually thins to zero, or until it reaches the edges of the basin of __________. </li></ul>deposition
  132. 169. Folding of strata (rock layers) over upon itself Possible Exceptions to the Law of Superposition
  133. 170. Strata is displaced by a Fault ( Thrust Fault ) Possible Exceptions to the Law of Superposition
  134. 171. Law of Original Lateral Continuity
  135. 172. Law of Original Lateral Continuity <ul><li>This concept enables us to correlate outcrops of strata that has been dissected by processes of ________. </li></ul>erosion
  136. 173. Let’s follow the progression of geological events that formed the sequence below.
  137. 174. Step One Deposition of rock units A-E
  138. 175. Step Two Area is uplifted, and is intruded by rock unit D (Sill)
  139. 176. Step Three Intrusion of rock unit F (Dike)
  140. 177. Step Four The rock sequence is tilted and then eroded, setting the stage for an angular unconformity
  141. 178. Step Five Area subsides, followed by the deposition of rock units G-K
  142. 179. Step Six Area is uplifted and the upper surface begins to undergo erosion
  143. 181. That is the story behind this rock sequence
  144. 182. Fossils & Rock Correlations
  145. 183. CORRELATION OF ROCK STRATA: <ul><li>Correlation is </li></ul>Matching similar rock strata at different locations to see if they formed at the same time
  146. 185. <ul><li>Correlation is the process of matching rock units or events in separate rock formations </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation of rock units and geologic events can be based upon continuity, similar rock composition, fossil evidence, and volcanic markers . </li></ul>Rock Correlation
  147. 186. <ul><li>Correlation by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity – “ walking the outcrop ”; performed by following a rock layer for great distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities in rock composition and texture can be used to match rocks over large areas </li></ul></ul>
  148. 188. Grand Canyon Stratigraphy
  149. 194. <ul><li>Fossils can be used to help match separate rock layers </li></ul>Unconformity Fossil Evidence and Rock Correlation
  150. 195. Correlation using Index Fossils
  151. 196. Ways to correlate rock formations: <ul><li>“ Walking the outcrop” </li></ul><ul><li>is done by </li></ul>Walking from end to end
  152. 197. <ul><li>This is correlation by </li></ul>continuity
  153. 198. You can match the rock strata in one location with rock strata in more distant locations by Comparing , c o l o r texture composition sequence of layers
  154. 199. Time correlation compares ____________ contained in the rock strata index fossils 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 3
  155. 200. The best index fossils: <ul><li>a. _________________ </li></ul><ul><li>b. _________________ </li></ul>Exist for a brief period of time are widespread
  156. 201. Which fossil would make the best index fossil? Found in only 1 layer (short lived) Found in all samples (widespread)
  157. 202. Another way of correlating layers by time is through ___________________ Volcanic ash falls
  158. 203. These ash falls are very ________ events. A single layer of ______ can be found over a large area, this allows geologists to make a__________________ from one location to another at the position of a common ash fall. brief ash time correlation
  159. 204. Volcanic Eruptions and Rock Correlation <ul><li>Violent volcanic eruptions can emit large quantities of volcanic ash </li></ul><ul><li>The ash can spread out over a large area of land, creating an excellent geologic marker for rock correlation </li></ul>
  160. 206. Rock Correlation Activity
  161. 207. Rock Correlation Activity
  162. 208. GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE: <ul><li>A. Geologists noticed that rock _________ can be identified by the fossils they contained. </li></ul>formations
  163. 209. <ul><li>They also found that certain __________ were consistently located ________ or _________ other formations. </li></ul>formations above below
  164. 210. <ul><li>From these observations they established a </li></ul><ul><li>______ ____ ______ </li></ul><ul><li>with a sequence of fossil groups from ______ to </li></ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul>relative time scale oldest youngest
  165. 211. <ul><li>Each of these groups was named for a location where its ____________ ______ could be observed in the rocks. </li></ul>Characteristic fossil Example: Devon fossil “ Devonian ” found in Devon England
  166. 212. <ul><li>Further observations from around the world established a </li></ul><ul><li>________ _____ _____ </li></ul>Geologic time scale
  167. 213. <ul><li>Based on __________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>and ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________ _____ _____ </li></ul>Inferred positions of Earth’s Landmasses Major Geologic Events (ex. Ice ages & Orogenys)
  168. 214. <ul><li>The study of geologic time allows us to reconstruct Earth’s history, gaining a sense of the world before humans and allows us to possibly predict events and conditions of the future. </li></ul>Geologic Time
  169. 215. <ul><li>An ________ is the process of mountain building </li></ul><ul><li>TURN TO PAGES 8 & 9 IN YOU ESRT! </li></ul>Orogeny
  170. 218. GEOLOGIC EVENTS OF THE PAST: <ul><li>_________ causes gaps in the geologic record. </li></ul>Erosion MISSING LAYERS
  171. 219. <ul><li>When a new layer </li></ul><ul><li>of rock is laid down on a surface that has been _______ it forms a buried erosional surface or an </li></ul><ul><li>___________________ </li></ul>Eroded, unconformity
  172. 220. NEW BOTTOM LAYER APPEARS (EMERGES)
  173. 221. LAYER C IS MISSING EROSION
  174. 222. EROSION
  175. 223. THE UNCONFORMITY IS THE BURIED EROSIONAL SURFACE BETWEEN B AND D
  176. 226. Who’s Younger? How Do You Know??
  177. 227. Relative vs. Absolute Dating <ul><li>Five family members’ ages are compared: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony is the youngest. </li></ul><ul><li>Melanie is 4 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael is older than Susan. </li></ul><ul><li>Susan is 16 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashley is older than Melanie, but younger than Susan. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the order of the family members from oldest to youngest. Also, which descriptions give relative ages and which give absolute ages? </li></ul>Michael Susan Ashley Melanie Anthony
  178. 228. <ul><li>Age of rock or geological event in years before the present ( as opposed to relative ages ). </li></ul><ul><li>Common units are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>millions of years ago = m.y. = 10 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>billions of years ago = b.y. = 10 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do scientists find absolute ages? </li></ul>
  179. 229. What were some of the techniques used to determine absolute time prior to the discovery of radioactivity. Tree Rings Varves
  180. 231. <ul><li>Modern science now uses Radioactive Isotopes to find the absolute age of a given material (rock, fossil, etc.). </li></ul>Modern Absolute Dating Techniques
  181. 232. Mass spectrometer – instrument used in the detection and study of isotopes
  182. 233. VII. RADIOACTIVE DATING: <ul><li>A. Fossils enabled geologists to give ___________ time, </li></ul>relative
  183. 234. Relative Time <ul><li>Compares rock ages to _______________. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The Limestone is older than the Sandstone. </li></ul>each other
  184. 235. However, <ul><li>B . Measurements of natural ___________in ( metamorphic and igneous) rocks have allowed the _________ time scale to be an ________ time scale. </li></ul>geologic absolute radioactivity
  185. 236. <ul><li>The _________ _____ of an object is measured in years. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The limestone formed 5 mya and the sandstone formed 2 mya </li></ul>absolute age
  186. 237. <ul><li>C. Chemical elements often have several forms called _______________ </li></ul>isotopes
  187. 238. <ul><li>Let’s review some basic chemistry so that we can obtain a better understanding of this technique. </li></ul>Modern Absolute Dating Techniques
  188. 239. Let’s review the structure of an atom The basic building block of matter Basic Chemistry Review
  189. 240. <ul><li>An element is a substance consisting of atoms that are chemically alike (# of protons). </li></ul><ul><li>Most elements exist in several different types of isotopes (atoms with a different number of neutrons in their nuclei). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Carbon isotopes, C-12 & C-14 </li></ul>Basic Chemistry Review
  190. 241. <ul><li>The nucleus (containing neutrons and protons) of radioactive isotopes are unstable and over time they will emit particles and electromagnetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as Radioactive Decay , and changes the radioactive isotope into other isotopes or atoms. This occurs until, a stable isotope forms. </li></ul>Basic Chemistry Review
  191. 242. <ul><li>The rate of decay (breakdown) for any radioactive isotope is constant . </li></ul><ul><li>Over a given period of time, a definite fraction of the atoms of an isotope will decay . </li></ul>How can we use radioactive elements to date things?
  192. 243. ISOTOPE: An unstable element with different number of neutrons than a normal (stable) element. (Its unstable so wants to change to stable)
  193. 244. EX. C C 6 6 12 14 6 protons 6 protons 6 neutrons Unstable 8 neutrons
  194. 245. EX. C C 6 6 12 14 6 protons 6 protons 6 neutrons 8 neutrons unstable
  195. 246. D. If the nucleus has more or fewer than the normal number of ____________, the isotope may be ____________ neutrons radioactive (unstable)
  196. 247. <ul><li>E. A radioactive isotope will break down naturally into a lighter element called </li></ul><ul><li>_____ ________ which is stable. </li></ul>decay product
  197. 248. This process is called… Radioactive Decay
  198. 249. RADIOACTIVE DECAY: <ul><li>WHEN AN UNSTABLE ________ ELEMENT CHANGES INTO A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT (BUT STABLE) __________ ELEMENT </li></ul>DAUGHTER PARENT
  199. 250. <ul><li>F. A sample starts out at “Time zero” with _______ Percent of radioactive material. </li></ul>100
  200. 251. <ul><li>Time Zero: when the sample is originally formed by cooling or solidification of igneous or metamorphic rock </li></ul>
  201. 252. <ul><li>As time goes by and the sample gets older, the radioactive element decay, and _______ radioactive atoms remain in the sample. </li></ul>fewer
  202. 253. <ul><li>Therefore, the higher the ratio of decay product to the radioactive element, the _____ the sample. </li></ul>older
  203. 254. <ul><li>The ratio between the mass of the radioactive element and its decay product in a sample is the _______________ </li></ul>decay product ratio
  204. 255. <ul><li>G. The decay of the parent atoms in a sample to daughter atoms is a _________ process… </li></ul>random
  205. 256. <ul><li>That happens at _____________ rates for different radioactive elements. Lets model this with pennies… </li></ul>different
  206. 257. <ul><li>H. The rate of decay of a radioactive element is measured by its’ _______ _________ </li></ul>half life
  207. 258. HALF-LIFE: <ul><li>THE AMOUNT OF TIME IT TAKES FOR </li></ul><ul><li>HALF OF THE UNSTABLE </li></ul><ul><li>ATOMS IN A SAMPLE TO CHANGE TO THE STABLE DECAY PRODUCT </li></ul>
  208. 259. Original=100% Decay product=0% 100/0 Or 1 to 0
  209. 260. Original=50% Decay product=50% 50/50 Or 1 to 1 After one Half-life:
  210. 261. Original=25% Decay product=75% 25/75 Or 1:3 After two Half-lives:
  211. 262. Original=12.5% Decay product=87.5% 12.5/87.5 After three Half-lives:
  212. 263. Original=6.25% Decay product=93.75% 6.25/93.75 After four Half-lives:
  213. 264. <ul><li>The time required for half of the atoms in a given mass of an isotope to decay is known as the half-life of the isotope. </li></ul><ul><li>Each radioactive isotope has its own characteristic half-life, which is not affected by any environmental factors (T o , P, or chemical reactions), mass or volume . </li></ul>Half-Life
  214. 266. <ul><li>The method of using the half-life of a radioactive isotope to determine the absolute age of a material. </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio between the amount of the original isotope ( Parent Material ) and the amount of its decaying product ( Daughter Product ), is used to establish the absolute age of a sample. </li></ul>Radioactive Dating
  215. 267. “ Daughter Product” “ Parent Material”
  216. 268. Carbon Dating 0 Half-Life Key Other C 14 N 14
  217. 269. Carbon Dating 1 Half-Life (5,700 years) Key Other C 14 N 14
  218. 270. Carbon Dating 2 Half-Lives (11,400 years) Key Other C 14 N 14
  219. 271. Carbon Dating 3 Half-Lives (17,100 years) Key Other C 14 N 14
  220. 272. Carbon Dating 4 Half-Lives (22,800 years) Key Other C 14 N 14
  221. 273. Carbon Dating 5 Half-Lives (28,500 years) Key Other C 14 N 14
  222. 274. Carbon Dating 5 Half-Lives (28,500 years) Key Other C 14 N 14
  223. 275. (ESRT, pg. 1) Which isotope has the shortest half life? Longest?
  224. 276. 1/16 1/32 1/64 22,800 28,500 34,200 Old REGENTS Questions
  225. 277. Do Now How many Potassium-40 half lives have passed if there are 3 times more Argon-40 atoms than Potassium-40 atoms? What if there are 3 times as many Potassium-40 atoms?
  226. 278. <ul><li>Igneous and metamorphic rocks work excellent for radioactive dating because at the time of crystallization (or recrystallization), a specific ratio of stable and radioactive isotopes are incorporated into the crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, sedimentary (clastic) rocks do not work well because they are composed of older, pre-existing rock fragments. </li></ul>Can all rocks be dated using this technique?
  227. 279. <ul><li>Imagine a rock forms with zircon mineral grains containing U 238 and no Pb 206 . </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Facts on this Isotope </li></ul><ul><li>Half Life of Uranium-238 (U 238 ) = 4.5 * 10 9 yr </li></ul><ul><li>U 238 decays to become Lead-206 (Pb 206 ) </li></ul>How does this Technique Work?
  228. 280. Decay of U-238 If this rock were to be found today, and contained a 1:1 ratio, equal quantities of both U 238 to Pb 206 , it would be concluded that the rock formed 4.5 b.y. How old would the sample be if it had a 1:3 ratio of U-238 to Pb-206?
  229. 281. <ul><li>Radioactive isotopes with very long half-lives are excellent for dating very old rocks, but for younger objects, isotopes with shorter half-lives are better at the finding absolute age. </li></ul><ul><li>One such isotope is Carbon-14 (C 14 ), with a half-life of 5,700 years. </li></ul>Using Different Isotopes for Different Studies
  230. 282. Carbon-14 (C 14 ) <ul><li>Carbon-14 dating – also called radiocarbon dating – can be used to date remains that contain carbon up to 70,000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>This method has been used to date early humans, mastodonts, and many other geologically “recent” organic remains. </li></ul>
  231. 283. Let’s examine the breakdown of Carbon-14
  232. 284. N 14 Ar 40 Pb 206 Sr 87 5.7 x 10 3 1.3 x 10 9 4.5 x 10 9 4.9 x 10 10 Element Decay Product Half-life
  233. 285. <ul><li>“ Time Zero” for carbon dating begins when the organism ___________ or when the ________ burns out. </li></ul>dies wood fire
  234. 286. <ul><li>H. Calculating the age of a rock: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What would be the age of the rock if it has equal amounts of C-14 and its decay product N-14? </li></ul>
  235. 287. One half life has gone by <ul><li>5.7 x 10 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>or 5,700 years </li></ul>
  236. 288. <ul><li>2.What % of the sample is radioactive after the following half-lives, </li></ul><ul><li>1 half-life </li></ul><ul><li>2 half-lives </li></ul><ul><li>3 half-lives </li></ul>50% 25% 12.5%
  237. 289. <ul><li>3. After 11,200 years how much C-14 would remain in a 10 gram sample? </li></ul>25% or 2.5 grams 1/4 of the original amount
  238. 290. I. Selecting the Best Radioactive Element: <ul><li>1. Under 50,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>2. Over 50,000 years </li></ul>Use Carbon-14 Use Uranium-238
  239. 291. <ul><li>Carbon 14 is used for dating </li></ul><ul><li>organic material </li></ul><ul><li>And ancient wood fires </li></ul>
  240. 292. State the best isotope to use to discover the age of the individual “caught off guard” in the cartoon below. Why?
  241. 293. DO NOW Please pick up a copy of the Absolute Dating Lab!
  242. 294. Do Now’s
  243. 295. The following diagram represents a cross-sectional view of a portion of Earth’s crust showing sedimentary rock layers that have not been overturned. The letters identify the specific layers. Which rock layer is the oldest? Youngest? DO NOW
  244. 296. What is represented by line A-B?
  245. 297. List the rock layers from oldest to youngest. A D C E B B A, D, C, E, B Do Now Take out your HW!!!
  246. 298. C D E B A G F H I Dating the Lunar Surface
  247. 299. C D E A H I G F B
  248. 300. Do we remember this stuff... What is the evidence that indicates the fault is the most recent geologic event to have occurred in this area?
  249. 301. What is the evidence that indicates rock layer B is younger than layers A and C? Earth Science Review Concepts
  250. 302. How does the age of the igneous intrusion [B] compare with the age of the shale [F]?
  251. 303. The most apparent buried erosional surface is found between which rock units?
  252. 304. E D B A C Can you figure this out?
  253. 305. <ul><li>What is the definition of a half life? </li></ul><ul><li>Of the radioactive isotopes listed on the front of the ESRT, which one has the longest half life? </li></ul>The time required for half of the atoms in a given mass of a radioactive isotope to decay Rubidium-87 Spend a moment and look this up...
  254. 306. Do Now Which letter (A,B,C) represents one half-life?
  255. 307. Do Now How much time is represented by letter B?
  256. 308. Take out your HW
  257. 309. Do Now Which isotope (A, B, C, D) has the shortest half-life?
  258. 310. Do Now Which isotope is represented by line B? (use your ESRT, p. 1)
  259. 311. Do Now Take out your HW
  260. 312. DO NOW Please take out your Absolute Dating Lab
  261. 313. Do Now Clear your desks and get ready for the Quest!!!
  262. 314. Decay and Growth Curve of Isotopes Take out your HW! Notes Packet, p. 13 - Radon decays into radioactive solids - Half -Life of 4.5 days - Generated during the decay of Uranium - Inhalation of Radon or decay products may cause lung cancer Radon Facts
  263. 315. Explain how radioactive isotopes are used to find the absolute age of a rock, bone, fossil?
  264. 316. State the name of the isotopes in the graph.
  265. 317. Which rock layer is the oldest?
  266. 318. Which is older, rock layer F or rock layer D?
  267. 319. What is an unconformity?
  268. 320. <ul><li>Review Book </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice Problems </li></ul>Take out your HW <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul>9. 4 10. 3 11. 1 12. 3 13. 2 14. 4 15. 4
  269. 321. Take out your Marsium Lab DO NOW 1 half-life Sample Data
  270. 322. Which rock layer is the oldest? _______ _____
  271. 323. What evidence suggests that rock layer D is older than layer C?
  272. 324. Which is older, rock layer F or rock layer D?
  273. 325. E D B A C State the age of the rocks in order from oldest to youngest.
  274. 326. How does the age of the igneous intrusion [B] compare with the age of the shale [F]?
  275. 327. What is represented by line A-B?
  276. 328. What is an unconformity?
  277. 329. What evidence indicates that an unconformity exists between layers A and B?
  278. 330. The most apparent buried erosional surface is found between which rock units?
  279. 331. Explain why radioactive isotopes are used to find the absolute age of a rock, bone, fossil? _______ _____
  280. 332. How many half-lives are represented by letter A, B, & C?
  281. 333. State the name of the isotopes in the graph.
  282. 334. Which isotopes are represented by the following graphs (A, B, C)? A B C
  283. 335. Ms. Gill’s Baby Picture Clear your desks and get ready for the Quest!!!
  284. 336. What is the story here? 1
  285. 337. What is the story here? 2
  286. 338. What is the story here? 3
  287. 339. What is the story here? 4
  288. 340. What is the story here? 5
  289. 341. What is the story here? 6
  290. 342. What is the story here? 7
  291. 343. What is the story here? 8
  292. 344. What is the story here? 9
  293. 345. What is the story here? 10
  294. 346. What is the story here? 11
  295. 347. What are the rules for reading rock layers? <ul><li>Superposition </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cutting Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Unconformities </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Metamorphism </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity of Process </li></ul>
  296. 348. Thanks to the collective resources of ESPRIT for contributing images Design via Threadless
  297. 349. Practice: what happened here?
  298. 351. Practice: what happened here?
  299. 353. Practice: what happened here?
  300. 355. Practice Geologic Profiles Look at the geologic profiles, write down what you think is the correct sequence of events. Then click the mouse to advance the presentation. Repeat this process for each of the profiles.
  301. 356. Profile 1 <ul><li>Ss with fish </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Sh </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul>Sequence of Events Remember the law of superposition. Oldest Youngest
  302. 357. Profile 2 <ul><li>Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Cngl </li></ul><ul><li>Sh </li></ul><ul><li>Faulting </li></ul><ul><li>Ss </li></ul>Sequence of Events Faults are younger than the rock they are in. How do you know there is a fault? Look for the same rock layers. They do not line up.
  303. 358. Profile 3 <ul><li>Ss with fish </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Sh </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Tilting, uplifting, erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidence (sinking) </li></ul><ul><li>Cngl </li></ul><ul><li>Sh </li></ul><ul><li>Ss with fish </li></ul><ul><li>Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Sh </li></ul>Sequence of Events Do you know what this is? An unconformity! These two steps formed it. Remember this a buried erosional surface
  304. 359. Profile 4 <ul><li>Sh </li></ul><ul><li>Ss with fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cngl </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Folding </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion and Extrusion </li></ul>Sequence of Events Intrusions and extrusions are younger than the rock they are in. Metamorphic rock tells you whether you have an intrusion or an extrusion .
  305. 360. Profile 5 <ul><li>Sh </li></ul><ul><li>Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Cngl </li></ul><ul><li>Ss with fish </li></ul><ul><li>Ls </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Uplifting </li></ul>Sequence of Events Magma was forced in between the existing layers of rock to create this formation. You know it is an intrusion because… Metamorphic rock is on all sides.
  306. 361. Exposed volcanic ash layers in Alaska provide an excellent unit for correlation and establishing ages for geologic units and events
  307. 362. Rock Correlation Activity Create a full sequence of strata from these four different outcrops.
  308. 363. Rock Correlation Activity
  309. 364. Rock Correlation Activity
  310. 365. What can you infer happened in this area based on these footprints (trace fossils)?
  311. 366. Geologic Timeline
  312. 367. <ul><li>What are the characteristics of a good index fossil? (You must know 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why volcanic ash deposits make good index layers for rock correlation? </li></ul>Fossils of organisms that lived for a short period of time over a wide geographic area Volcanic ash deposits cover a large geographic area in a relatively short period of time You and your neighbor need to be able to complete these questions. Use your notes to help (p. 14-15)
  313. 368. _ __
  314. 369. _ __
  315. 370. _ __ Take out your HW Notes, p. 16-17
  316. 371. Take out a pencil, ESRT and calc. QUIZ TIME!
  317. 372. <ul><li>What is longer unit of time, a geologic era or a period? </li></ul><ul><li>What geologic period of time are we in today? Epoch? </li></ul>_ __ Take out your ESRT (p. 8-9) and complete the following questions with your neighbor... An Era is larger and they are broken up into Periods Quaternary Period, Holocene Epoch
  318. 373. Which geologic period ended with the extinction of many kinds of marine animals, including trilobites? Which orogeny was caused by the collision of North America and Africa along a transform margin creating Pangaea? The Permian Period The Appalachian (Alleghanian) Orogeny _ __ Use your ESRT to complete the following Questions
  319. 374. The Devonian aged siltstone shown in the photograph below occurs as surface bedrock in Hamilton, NY. What does the presence of the fossil suggest about the environment of Hamilton during the Devonian? _ __
  320. 375. Earth's History Notes Packet, p. 23
  321. 376. _ __ Use your ESRT [p. 8-9] to complete the following question
  322. 377. _ __ Mr. Gill's Baby Picture Please take out your ESRT
  323. 378. The table below gives information about the radioactive decay of carbon-14. Part of the table has been deliberately left blank for student use. After how many years will 1/128 of the original carbon-14 remain?
  324. 379. What is the correct order of development from the original (oldest) stage to the most recent (youngest) stage? DO NOW Work with a partner
  325. 380. Constructed Response Questions State one method used to correlate rock layers… State one piece of evidence why the limestone is the most resistant rock layer in the outcrops. Comparing rock texture / composition, looking for index fossils, examining sequencing of strata The limestone unit extends the furthest out of the outcrop (cliff)
  326. 381. Constructed Response Questions What does the discovery of Ordovician aged fossil corals in the surface bedrock of NYS cause you to infer? Parts of NYS were once in a shallow, warm marine envrionment

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