Earthquakes final


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  • Map of world Dots are earthquakes Not scattered all over the world, but make a pattern
  • Pattern of earthquakes defines the boundaries of tectonic plates About 23 major plates Can you see where we are? Boundary between two plates We’ll come back to this later
  • Three types of interactions between plates as they move around: Sliding past one another - transform boundary Running into one another - convergent boundary Moving away from one another - divergent boundary
  • Three types of faults Form depending on type of plate motion and complex reaction of earth’s lithospheric blocks Strike-slip Normal Thrust
  • Strike-slip example moletrack
  • Before earthquake manure pile was under window where farmer shoveled it out from inside Fault runs right under corner of barn After earthquake manure pile moved over about 10 feet
  • Northridge earthquake 1994 Parking garage at Cal State Northridge
  • LA on Pacific Plate San Francisco on North American Plate San Andreas Fault is boundary Relative motion Takes Big Bend above LA area and causes compression in our area
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Stop here and give class work for double period.
  • Use the demo that Mr. Mckee make
  • Earthquakes final

    1. 1. Dynamics of the Earth
    2. 3. Do Now: You are a geology detective, you are taking a hike in the Appellation Mountains upstate NY… you come across marine fossil in the bed rock and ask your self “How could Marine fossil be found so high in the bedrock… how did they get here? Give an explanation in your notebook.
    3. 4. I. Evidence of Crustal Motions: <ul><li>A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains. </li></ul>Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
    4. 5. B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
    6. 7. C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
    7. 8. TILTING
    8. 9. FOLDING
    10. 11. FAULTING
    11. 13. D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
    12. 14. World Distribution
    13. 15. U.S . Distribution
    14. 16. _______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
    16. 21. E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
    17. 22. Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
    18. 23. F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
    19. 24. G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
    20. 26. II: EARTHQUAKES
    21. 27. <ul><li>1. The movement of ____________ inside </li></ul><ul><li>_______________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken. </li></ul>A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
    22. 28. <ul><li>B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>within the rocks. </li></ul>Slow stress
    23. 29. Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
    24. 30. When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
    25. 31. Global Distribution of Earthquakes
    26. 32. Tectonic Plates Lisa Wald USGS Pasadena U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey USGS Earthquake Hazards Program
    27. 33. Plate Boundaries
    28. 34. Three Types of Faults Strike-Slip Thrust Normal
    29. 35. Strike-slip Fault Example
    30. 36. Strike-slip Fault Example 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
    31. 37. Normal Fault Example Dixie Valley-Fairview Peaks, Nevada earthquake December 16, 1954
    32. 38. Thrust Fault Example
    33. 39. Thrust Fault Example
    34. 40. What Controls the Level of Shaking? <ul><li>Magnitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More energy released </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaking decays with distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amplify the shaking </li></ul></ul>
    35. 41. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Northridge, CA 1994
    36. 42. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Northridge, CA 1994
    37. 43. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking KGO-TV News ABC-7 Loma Prieta, CA 1989
    38. 44. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Kobe, Japan 1995
    39. 45. Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking Kobe, Japan 1995
    40. 46. Earthquake Effects - Surface Faulting Landers, CA 1992
    41. 47. Earthquake Effects - Liquefaction Source: National Geophysical Data Center Niigata, Japan 1964
    42. 48. Earthquake Effects - Landslides Turnnagin Heights,Alaska,1964 Source: National Geophysical Data Center
    43. 49. Earthquake Effects - Fires KGO-TV News ABC-7 Loma Prieta, CA 1989
    44. 50. Earthquake Effects - Tsunamis Photograph Credit: Henry Helbush. Source: National Geophysical Data Center 1957 Aleutian Tsunami
    45. 51. Seismic Waves
    46. 52. Earthquake Magnitude M5 M6 M7
    47. 53. Earthquake Location
    48. 54. The San Andreas Fault
    49. 55. Pacific-North American Plate Boundary
    50. 56. Will California eventually fall into the ocean??? No!
    51. 57. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey USGS Earthquake Hazards Program The End http: //pasadena . wr . usgs . gov/ Where to go for more information:
    52. 58. III.Measuring the Earthquakes: <ul><li>A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. ________________ </li></ul>Mercalli Richter
    53. 59. <ul><li>B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It </li></ul><ul><li>measures ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>of the earthquake from </li></ul><ul><li>____ to ____ </li></ul>Mercalli intensity 1 12
    54. 60. Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
    55. 61. <ul><li>C._______________ </li></ul><ul><li>uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude is the total </li></ul><ul><li>______ released by the earthquake. </li></ul>Richter Scale magnitude energy
    56. 62. <ul><li>Its numerical scale is ____ to ____. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase. </li></ul>1 10 31X
    57. 63. Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
    58. 64. Do Now: Read the Mercalli Intensity Scale and the highlighted section of the script.
    59. 65. Let’s Use The Mercalli Intensity Scale to Create An Isoseismal Map To Locate the Epicenter of An Earth Quake
    61. 67. V. Parts of the Earthquake: <ul><li>A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake. </li></ul>focus
    62. 69. Do Now: Slinky Demo Time!!! Read over the Seismic Wave chart
    63. 72. Primary (p-wave Secondary (s-waves) Surface Also called… (compressional, shear) Causes the most damage… (Check one) Relative Speed (Slowest, Fastest or Intermediate) Describe the Wave Motion compared to the direction that the wave is traveling. Bonus: In what layers of the earth can they travel?
    64. 74. <ul><li>The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly. </li></ul>epicenter
    65. 75. A. The 2 most important energy waves are: <ul><li>P-wave or Primary </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>S-wave or Secondary </li></ul>
    66. 76. P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
    67. 77. B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves: <ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul>Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
    68. 78. C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves: <ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul>Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
    70. 80. <ul><li>D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>material. </li></ul>denser
    71. 81. Do Now: Take out Chart from Slinky Demo. Finish it.
    72. 82. VI. Finding the Epicenter: <ul><li>A. The seismograph records the ________________ and </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________ </li></ul>magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
    73. 83. Seismograph
    74. 85. B. The steps for calculating your distance from the epicenter: <ul><li>1. ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. ________________________ </li></ul>Subtract arrival time of P from arrival time of S Mark the interval on Y-axis Slide marks to match P & S curve Follow down to x-axis and read distance
    75. 86. 01:10:00 01:20:00 01:18:00 01:24:00
    76. 87. Step 1 <ul><li>Subtract the arrival time of the P wave from the arrival time of the S wave </li></ul><ul><li>01:24:00 </li></ul><ul><li>- 01:18:00 </li></ul><ul><li>00:06:00 </li></ul><ul><li>Lag time= </li></ul><ul><li>6 minutes !!! </li></ul>
    77. 88. Step 2 <ul><li>Mark the interval on the Y-axis </li></ul>
    78. 89. Step 3 <ul><li>Slide the marks to match the P and S Curves. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the paper is straight! </li></ul>
    79. 90. Step 4 <ul><li>Follow down to the X-axis and read distance </li></ul>
    80. 92. Practice questions: <ul><li>1. The arrival of the P-wave is 12:03:00. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of an S-wave is 12:07:00 the difference is: </li></ul><ul><li>How far is this earthquake from the seismic station? </li></ul>4 minutes 2600 Km
    81. 94. Practice questions: <ul><li>2. The arrival time of the </li></ul><ul><li>P-wave is 2:05:00 </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of the S-wave is 2:08:00 </li></ul><ul><li>the difference is: </li></ul><ul><li>How far is this earthquake from the seismic station? </li></ul>3 minutes 1800 Km
    82. 96. Practice questions: <ul><li>3. If the difference in arrival </li></ul><ul><li>time between P and S waves is </li></ul><ul><li>2 minutes 35 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>what is the distance from the earthquake to the </li></ul><ul><li>Seismograph stations? </li></ul>1500 Km
    83. 98. Practice questions: <ul><li>4. How long does it take for a P-wave to travel from the focus of an earthquake to a seismograph station 2,000 km. away? </li></ul>4 minutes
    84. 99. Practice questions: <ul><li>5. What is the difference in arrival time between P and S waves for an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>that is 5,000 kilometer away from a seismograph station? </li></ul>6 mins 40 secs
    85. 100. VII. THE ORIGIN TIME OF AN EARTHQUAKE: <ul><li>A. Earthquake waves detected at _______ times by observers are at _______ distances from the epicenter. </li></ul>later greater
    86. 101. B. To find the origin time seismologists need to know: <ul><li>1. _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. _____________________ </li></ul>Arrival time of P-wave Travel time of P-wave (how long it took)
    87. 102. Example: <ul><li>A seismograph recording station located 5,700 km. from an epicenter. </li></ul><ul><li>It receives a P-wave at 2:45pm </li></ul><ul><li>At what time did the earthquake actually occur at the epicenter? </li></ul>
    88. 103. <ul><li>First: </li></ul><ul><li>use the distance to find out </li></ul><ul><li>the travel time. </li></ul><ul><li>Then: subtract the travel time from the arrival time. </li></ul>The answer is: 9 min . 2:36
    89. 104. Do Now: Plot the following City Distance to Epicenter Denver 1.50 x 10 3 Km Tampa 3.80 x 10 3 Km San Diego 0.65 x 10 3 Km
    90. 105. Do Now: Plot the following City Distance to Epicenter Wink 1.8 x 10 3 Km New York 1.1 x 10 3 Km Seattle 3.0 x 10 3 Km
    91. 106. SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
    92. 107. Do Now: Focused Free Write: How could you use seismic (P&S) waves to determine if an egg is raw, soft-boiled or hard-boiled without breaking the egg? Explain in 3-4 sentences.
    93. 108. VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH: <ul><li>A. The crusts thickness______ </li></ul><ul><li>It is _________________ </li></ul><ul><li>under the oceans and </li></ul><ul><li>_________ under continents. </li></ul>varies thinner thicker
    94. 109. <ul><li>Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________ </li></ul>granitic dark dense basaltic low light
    95. 111. B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior: <ul><li>1. Studying the _____________ </li></ul><ul><li>of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior. </li></ul>transmission Earth Quake Waves
    96. 112. S-waves can not pass through liquid
    97. 113. P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
    98. 114. <ul><li>2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities </li></ul>velocity density refracted
    99. 115. <ul><li>We know that P-waves can be transmitted through </li></ul><ul><li>________ _______ & ______ </li></ul><ul><li>S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul>solid liquid gas solid
    100. 116. <ul><li>3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones: </li></ul><ul><li>When an earthquake occurs both </li></ul><ul><li>____________ are received from most of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives </li></ul><ul><li>____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core. </li></ul>S and P waves S P liquid
    101. 117. <ul><li>____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries) </li></ul>refraction interfaces
    102. 119. L et’s Draw This Diagram in our Notebook :
    103. 121. p-wave arrival at 21:58:30 s-wave arrival at 22:02:45 surface waves
    104. 122. Summary <ul><li>p-wave arrival at 21:58:30 </li></ul><ul><li>s-wave arrival at 22:02:45 </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in arrival times — 4 min. 15 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Time Curves Distance = 2700 km </li></ul><ul><li>Actual Distance between Binghamton, NY and Port-Au-Prince, Haiti = 2647 km </li></ul>
    105. 123. Volcanoes <ul><li>A Volcano is both the opening in the Earth’s crust through which molten rock flows, and the landform that develops around it. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Etna </li></ul>
    106. 124. Where Volcanoes Form <ul><li>1. At Subduction Boundaries – Subducted plate material melts to form new magma </li></ul><ul><li>Hot magma is less dense than surrounding rock, so it rises. </li></ul><ul><li>Magma reaches the surface to form volcanoes </li></ul>
    107. 125. Augustine, Alaska
    108. 126. Where Volcanoes Form <ul><li>2. At Divergent Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Magma forms at mid-ocean ridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland formed as the result of volcanoes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. </li></ul>
    109. 127. Where Volcanoes Form <ul><li>3. Hot Spots – Caused by plumes of hot material from deep within the mantle. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian Islands were formed in this way. </li></ul><ul><li>As plate moves over hot spot, new islands form. </li></ul>
    110. 128. Mauna Loa
    111. 129. Kilauea
    112. 130. Stromboli
    113. 131. Stromboli
    114. 132. Paricutin, Mexico
    115. 133. Nevada Del Ruiz, Colombia
    116. 134. Pacaya, Guatemala
    117. 135. Mount Vesuvius
    118. 136. Pompeii
    119. 137. Crater Lake