Earthquake Notes Slide show


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If you are absent you can review the power point slides on your own. Theses are also great to study from.

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  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Stop here and give class work for double period.
  • Use the demo that Mr. Mckee make
  • Earthquake Notes Slide show

    1. 1. Dynamics of the Earth
    2. 3. I. Evidence of Crustal Motions: <ul><li>A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains. </li></ul>Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
    3. 4. B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
    5. 6. C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
    6. 7. TILTING
    7. 8. FOLDING
    9. 10. FAULTING
    10. 12. D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
    11. 13. World Distribution
    12. 14. U.S . Distribution
    13. 15. _______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
    15. 19. E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
    16. 20. Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
    17. 21. F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
    18. 22. G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
    19. 23. II: EARTHQUAKES
    20. 24. <ul><li>1. The movement of ____________ inside </li></ul><ul><li>_______________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken. </li></ul>A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
    21. 25. <ul><li>B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>within the rocks. </li></ul>Slow stress
    22. 26. Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
    23. 27. When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
    24. 28. III.Measuring the Earthquakes: <ul><li>A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. ________________ </li></ul>Mercalli Richter
    25. 29. <ul><li>B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It </li></ul><ul><li>measures ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>of the earthquake from </li></ul><ul><li>____ to ____ </li></ul>Mercalli intensity 1 12
    26. 30. Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
    27. 31. <ul><li>C._______________ </li></ul><ul><li>uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude is the total </li></ul><ul><li>______ released by the earthquake. </li></ul>Richter Scale magnitude energy
    28. 32. <ul><li>Its numerical scale is ____ to ____. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase. </li></ul>1 10 31X
    29. 33. Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
    30. 34. V. Parts of the Earthquake: <ul><li>A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake. </li></ul>focus
    31. 36. <ul><li>The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly. </li></ul>epicenter
    32. 37. A. The 2 most important energy waves are: <ul><li>P-wave or Primary </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>S-wave or Secondary </li></ul>
    33. 38. P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
    34. 39. B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves: <ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul>Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
    35. 40. C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves: <ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul>Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
    37. 42. <ul><li>D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>material. </li></ul>denser
    38. 43. VI. Finding the Epicenter: <ul><li>A. The seismograph records the ________________ and </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________ </li></ul>magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
    39. 44. Seismograph
    40. 46. B. The steps for calculating your distance from the epicenter: <ul><li>1. ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. ________________________ </li></ul>Subtract arrival time of P from arrival time of S Mark the interval on Y-axis Slide marks to match P & S curve Follow down to x-axis and read distance
    41. 47. 01:10:00 01:20:00 01:18:00 01:24:00
    42. 48. Step 1 <ul><li>Subtract the arrival time of the P wave from the arrival time of the S wave </li></ul><ul><li>01:24:00 </li></ul><ul><li>- 01:18:00 </li></ul><ul><li>00:06:00 </li></ul><ul><li>Lag time= </li></ul><ul><li>6 minutes !!! </li></ul>
    43. 49. Step 2 <ul><li>Mark the interval on the Y-axis </li></ul>
    44. 50. Step 3 <ul><li>Slide the marks to match the P and S Curves. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the paper is straight! </li></ul>
    45. 51. Step 4 <ul><li>Follow down to the X-axis and read distance </li></ul>
    46. 53. Practice questions: <ul><li>1. The arrival of the P-wave is 12:03:00. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of an S-wave is 12:07:00 the difference is: </li></ul><ul><li>How far is this earthquake from the seismic station? </li></ul>4 minutes 2600 Km
    47. 54. Practice questions: <ul><li>2. The arrival time of the </li></ul><ul><li>P-wave is 2:05:00 </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of the S-wave is 2:08:00 </li></ul><ul><li>the difference is: </li></ul><ul><li>How far is this earthquake from the seismic station? </li></ul>3 minutes 1800 Km
    48. 55. Practice questions: <ul><li>3. If the difference in arrival </li></ul><ul><li>time between P and S waves is </li></ul><ul><li>2 minutes 35 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>what is the distance from the earthquake to the </li></ul><ul><li>Seismograph stations? </li></ul>1500 Km
    49. 56. Practice questions: <ul><li>4. How long does it take for a P-wave to travel from the focus of an earthquake to a seismograph station 2,000 km. away? </li></ul>4 minutes
    50. 57. Practice questions: <ul><li>5. What is the difference in arrival time between P and S waves for an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>that is 5,000 kilometer away from a seismograph station? </li></ul>6 mins 40 secs
    51. 58. VII. THE ORIGIN TIME OF AN EARTHQUAKE: <ul><li>A. Earthquake waves detected at _______ times by observers are at _______ distances from the epicenter. </li></ul>later greater
    52. 59. B. To find the origin time seismologists need to know: <ul><li>1. _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. _____________________ </li></ul>Arrival time of P-wave Travel time of P-wave (how long it took)
    53. 60. Example: <ul><li>A seismograph recording station located 5,700 km. from an epicenter. </li></ul><ul><li>It receives a P-wave at 2:45pm </li></ul><ul><li>At what time did the earthquake actually occur at the epicenter? </li></ul>
    54. 61. <ul><li>First: </li></ul><ul><li>use the distance to find out </li></ul><ul><li>the travel time. </li></ul><ul><li>Then: subtract the travel time from the arrival time. </li></ul>The answer is: 9 min . 2:36
    55. 62. SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
    56. 63. VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH: <ul><li>A. The crusts thickness______ </li></ul><ul><li>It is _________________ </li></ul><ul><li>under the oceans and </li></ul><ul><li>_________ under continents. </li></ul>varies thinner thicker
    57. 64. <ul><li>Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________ </li></ul>granitic dark dense basaltic low light
    58. 66. B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior: <ul><li>1. Studying the _____________ </li></ul><ul><li>of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior. </li></ul>transmission Earth Quake Waves
    59. 67. S-waves can not pass through liquid
    60. 68. P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
    61. 69. <ul><li>2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through. </li></ul><ul><li>Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities </li></ul>velocity density refracted
    62. 70. <ul><li>We know that P-waves can be transmitted through </li></ul><ul><li>________ _______ & ______ </li></ul><ul><li>S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul>solid liquid gas solid
    63. 71. <ul><li>3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones: </li></ul><ul><li>When an earthquake occurs both </li></ul><ul><li>____________ are received from most of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives </li></ul><ul><li>____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core. </li></ul>S and P waves S P liquid
    64. 72. S-waves can not pass through liquid
    65. 73. <ul><li>____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries) </li></ul>refraction interfaces
    66. 75. L et’s Draw This Diagram in our Notebook :