Chem Packet

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Chem Packet

  1. 1. Alex Sarah Qiana Matt Rachel Alec Cheyenne Antonio Dylan Lisa DiNar. Tatianna Alexis Lisa Dubin Frank Mike Samantha Aaron Antoine Jared Christina Connor Jackie Bridget Grant Eddie Front of Room Door 1 2 3 4 5 Windows 1 2 3 4 5 6
  2. 2. Chemistry!
  3. 3. Do Now: <ul><li>Look at your periodic table, what one word to the symbols for these three words spell? </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Neodymium </li></ul><ul><li>Yttirium </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of __________and it’s __________. </li></ul><ul><li>But what is matter anyway? </li></ul>matter reactivity
  5. 5. Matter is… <ul><li>Anything that has ______ and takes up ___________________. In other words it’s stuff. Not Energy! But Stuff! </li></ul>mass Space (volume)
  6. 6. Matter is… <ul><li>Stuff that’s made of tiny particles called ______! </li></ul>atoms
  7. 7. Matter Exists in 4 forms: <ul><li>SOLID </li></ul><ul><li>LIQUID </li></ul><ul><li>GAS </li></ul><ul><li>PLASMA: </li></ul>Most important on Earth, we will focus on these. an ionized charged gas. Most common in the universe.
  8. 8. Four States of Matter:
  9. 9. Gas <ul><li>Particles have _______ spaces between them. Gases are mostly empty space. </li></ul>large
  10. 10. Gas: (continued) <ul><li>Particles can ___________ in all directions </li></ul><ul><li>Particles _______________ their containers </li></ul><ul><li>_________ energy </li></ul>Move freely Expand to fill Highest
  11. 11. Liquids! <ul><li>Particles are in contact but they are ____________ as in solids. </li></ul>Not as close
  12. 12. Liquid: (continued) <ul><li>Particles can ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>Past one another, changing their positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids _______________ their containers </li></ul>Slip and slide Take the shape of
  13. 13. Solid <ul><li>Particles are ____________ in an orderly arrangement </li></ul>Tightly Packed
  14. 14. Solid (Continued) <ul><li>Particles __________ but ____________ move freely. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids have a ______ shape </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul>Vibrate do not definite Lowest Energy
  15. 15. Changes in State (Phase) <ul><li>Matter can change from one form into another by either changes in _ ______ or changes in ___________ . </li></ul>Pressure Temperature
  16. 16. You must be able to describe all phase changes! Do they require addition or release of heat? Phase Changes
  17. 17. Phase Changes of Water
  18. 18. Heating Curve <ul><li>Each Substance undergoes phase changes at different temperatures! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Important Fact! <ul><li>The temperature _______ change during a phase change. This is indicated by a __________ (flat) line on a heating curve. </li></ul>does not horizontal
  20. 20. Part Two: Atomic Structure
  21. 21. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>An ELEMENT is: </li></ul><ul><li>A simple ______ substance made from one type of atom that can’t be further broken down. </li></ul>pure
  22. 22. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>2. An ATOM is: </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest part of an _______ that retains the properties of the element. </li></ul>element
  23. 23. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>3. A COMPOUND is: </li></ul><ul><li>two or more _______ joined ____________. </li></ul>chemically elements
  24. 24. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>4. A MOLECULE is: </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest part of a _________ that retains the properties of the compound. </li></ul>compound
  25. 25. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>5. A Chemical Bond is: </li></ul><ul><li>the ____________ (joining) of atoms. </li></ul>connection
  26. 26. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>The center of an atom is called the ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Particles in the nucleus are the ______ and the _______ </li></ul>nucleus protons neutrons
  27. 27. Must know Facts about Atoms!!!
  28. 28. Must Know facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>c. The protons have a ________ charge and the neutrons have ___ charge. </li></ul>positive no
  29. 29. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>d. Tiny _________ orbit the nucleus in specific regions called ___________ or _______. These particles have a ________ charge. </li></ul>electrons energy levels Orbitals negative
  30. 30. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>e. _____ electrons fit in the first energy level, _______ in the second, and _______ in the third. </li></ul>Two eight eight
  31. 31. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>f. The number of protons in an atom is called the _____________. </li></ul>Atomic Number Atomic Number Symbol
  32. 32. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>g. The number of protons and neutrons added together is called the _____________. </li></ul>Atomic Mass
  33. 33. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>h. Atoms without an overall charge are called _______. </li></ul><ul><li>i. Atoms with an overall charge are called ______. </li></ul>neutral ions
  34. 34. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>j. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (and different atomic masses) are called _____________. </li></ul>isotopes
  35. 35. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! Atomic Number Symbol Atomic Mass
  36. 36. Do Now: <ul><li>Put Homework in the box! </li></ul><ul><li>Sit quietly in your seats and wait for Ms. Gaga’s Performance… you must be very very quiet or she will not perform! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! Simple Carbon Atom + 4e- 2e-
  38. 38. A Visual Representation Notice that the same elements can combine in a variety of ways to form new, unique substances that have different chemical properties!
  39. 39. THOUGHT QUESTION: <ul><li>Are there more compounds or elements in the world? Explain. </li></ul>There are more compounds.
  40. 40. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic number determines the __________ of the element. </li></ul>Identity
  41. 41. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>In a NEUTRAL atom with no charge, the electrons ________ the protrons. </li></ul>equal
  42. 42. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>Use your notes to label the diagram! </li></ul>
  43. 43. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The center of the atom is called the _______ </li></ul><ul><li>It is a cluster of ________ & ________ </li></ul>Nucleus (0 charge) (+ charge) Neutrons Protons
  44. 44. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>If you add the number of protons and the number of neutrons you get the _____________ </li></ul>Atomic Mass
  45. 45. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The number of _______ can be obtained by subtracting the proton number from the atomic mass. </li></ul>neutrons
  46. 46. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The rings represent different regions around the nucleus called energy levels, shells or _____________ </li></ul>Orbitals
  47. 47. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>Let’s read the explanation paragraph at the bottom of the page! </li></ul>
  48. 48. Do Now: Focused Free Write <ul><li>Today is Twin day…. Explain how even though you are wearing the same clothes, that I can still tell you apart. Relate this concept to what you know about chemistry. Hint: use words such as “compound” “element” “isotope” “properties” </li></ul>
  49. 49. Diagram of an Atom <ul><li>Use this page to review vocabulary and to complete the Atomic Structure Activity on the next page! </li></ul>
  50. 50. The Periodic Table
  51. 51. Look at this page:
  52. 52. Elements and the Periodic Table: 1. PERIODIC TABLE : a chart which organizes elements by their _________. Atomic #
  53. 53. Elements and the Periodic Table: 2. METALLOIDS : elements that are located along the ________. They have properties of ________ metals and non-metals. staircase both
  54. 54. Elements & the Periodic Table: 3. A NON-METAL : an element located to the _____ of the staircase elements which is usually ____, ________ and a ______ conductor or energy. ________________ right dull brittle (or they are a gas) poor
  55. 55. Elements & the Periodic Table: 4. A METAL : is located to the ______ of the staircase. Metals are usually _______ and good _________ of energy. left shiny conductors
  56. 56. Elements & the Periodic Table: <ul><li>4. Metals (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>They are _______, which means they can be drawn into thin ______. </li></ul><ul><li>They are ________, which means they can be hammered into thin sheets. </li></ul>ductile wires malleable
  57. 57. Elements & the Periodic Table: 5. NOBLE GASES: belong in group ___ . They are _______, which means they ________ react with any other elements. They’re SNOBS!!! 18 inert DO NOT
  58. 58. Do Now: Debate <ul><li>Why does ice float in water? </li></ul><ul><li>This is confusing because solid are usually denser than liquids… think about this!!! Isn’t water wacky!!! What do you think? </li></ul>
  59. 59. Elements & the Periodic Table: Use your periodic table to complete the information in the chart.
  60. 60. Part Three: Chemical Reactions
  61. 61. Why do Atoms form Chemical Bonds? <ul><li>To get a “full” Valence shell of electrons </li></ul>
  62. 62. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Electrons located in the outermost energy level of a given atom </li></ul>
  63. 63. Sodium (Na) P=___ N=___ 11 12 2e- Valence Electrons 8e- 1e-
  64. 64. Chlorine (Cl) P=___ N=___ 17 18 2e- Valence Electrons 8e- 7e-
  65. 65. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Atoms need to have FULL valence shells or they will react with other substances! </li></ul>
  66. 66. Valence Electrons <ul><li>How many valence electrons are in one sodium atom? ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Is it full? _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Will sodium react?_____ </li></ul>1 No Yes
  67. 67. Valence Electrons <ul><li>How many valence electrons are in one chlorine atom? ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Is it full? _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Will sodium react?_____ </li></ul>7 No Yes
  68. 68. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Sodium will donate (give away) it’s one valence electron to chlorine. This way both atoms will have their out shell filled! </li></ul>
  69. 69. Valence Electrons <ul><li>When this happens, sodium will become a +1 ION and chlorine will become a -1 ION. Since opposite charges attract, sodium and chlorine will form an… </li></ul>
  70. 71. Ion: <ul><li>A charged atom (either because electrons are lost or gained!) </li></ul>
  71. 72. Ionic Bond: <ul><li>The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions </li></ul>
  72. 73. However, <ul><li>Some atoms do not transfer or donate their electrons. Instead, the share their electrons! this is called… </li></ul>
  73. 75. Covalent Bond: <ul><li>A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons </li></ul>
  74. 76. <ul><li>One oxygen atom will form covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms to form one molecule of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Lets draw it! </li></ul>
  75. 77. Oxygen (8) P=___ N=___ 8 8 2e- Valence Electrons 6e-
  76. 78. Hydrogen (1) P=___ N=___ 1 0 Valence Electrons 1e-
  77. 79. Important Fact: <ul><li>When atoms form chemical bonds, the properties of the elements __________! </li></ul>change
  78. 80. Important Fact: <ul><li>For example, sodium is highly reactive metal and chlorine is a greenish gas. However, when they chemically form crystalline salt! </li></ul>
  79. 81. THOUGHT QUESTION: <ul><li>Helium and Neon never form compounds? Explain why. (Hint: you may need to draw the atoms) </li></ul>They have a full valence shell.
  80. 82. Chemical Reactions Notes <ul><li>Chemical Reaction: When _____ are ____ or ______to form new ___________ </li></ul>bonds substances broken made
  81. 83. Turn the page! <ul><li>Lets look at this cartoon which models different kinds of chemical reactions. </li></ul>
  82. 84. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 1. A SPONTANEOUS ________ change. I’m not talking about painting a house! It’s a change that happens on its own like a apple that turns brown in the air color
  83. 85. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 2. A SPONTANEOUS production of energy such as _______ or ____. If you mix two substances without Adding or Removing heat and you notice a temp change or light. Bingo!!! Heat Light
  84. 86. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 3. The production of a ____________! This is when you mix two liquids and get the formation of a solid substance. This is seldom in everyday life! Precipitate
  85. 87. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 4. The formation of a _____. Bubbles and fizzing indicate the formation of new substance. Bubbles during boiling do not count! Phase changes are physical changes! Gas
  86. 88. Do Now: <ul><li>Lets complete part one! </li></ul><ul><li>A Quick Review of Physical and Chemical Changes </li></ul>
  87. 89. Writing Chemical Equations: A CHEMICAL EQUATION is a ______________ way of showing showing what’s happening during a chemical reaction. Short- hand
  88. 90. Writing Chemical Equations: Scientist are busy!!! They can’t write out everything! Its just like how you text message your friends… TTYL… LOL… J/K… Please read the box…
  89. 91. Helpful Terms: 1. REACTANT: a __________ material. Reactants are written BEFORE the arrow starting
  90. 92. Helpful Terms: 2. PRODUCT: an ________ material. Products are written after the arrow. ending
  91. 93. Helpful Terms: 3. COEFFICIENT: A number placed __________ an atom or molecule to show the amount of each atom or molecule. ( Doesn’t jump the plus sign) in front of
  92. 94. Helpful Terms: 5. A BALANCED EQUATION: When writing a chemical equation the number of atoms on the reactant side MUST _____ the number on the product side? Why? equal
  93. 95. Law of Conservation of Mass: (same for mass) Mass/ NRG ____________ Mass/ NRG ______________ Mass/ Energy can only __________ Can’t be made Can’t be destroyed Change form!!!
  94. 96. Law of Conservation of Mass: (same for mass) CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 0 C=1 C=1 H=4 = H=4 O=4 O=4 The equation demonstrates the law of conservation of mass.
  95. 97. Classwork!!! Determine the number of atoms in the following chemical formulas.
  96. 98. Reaction Rates What factors affect how quickly or slowly a reaction takes place? Factor #1 _____________________ Factor #2 _____________________ Factor #3 _____________________ Factor #4 _____________________ Catalysts / Inhibitors Concentration Surface Area Temperature
  97. 99. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 1. TEMPERATURE is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move.
  98. 100. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>TEMPERATURE: The greater the temperature the _________ the reaction time. </li></ul>greater temperature reaction rate slow fast
  99. 101. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 2. SURFACE AREA: is the amount of an object that is exposed to the environment. The smaller the particles in a sample the greater the surface area
  100. 102. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 2. Surface Area: The greater the surface area the _________ the reaction time. greater Surface area reaction rate slow fast
  101. 103. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 3. CONCENTRATION: refers to the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent. The more stuff dissolved in a given volume of solvent the more concentrated the solution
  102. 104. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 3. Concentration: The greater the concentration the _________ the reaction time. greater Concentration reaction rate slow fast
  103. 105. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>The ADDITION OF A CATALYST: </li></ul><ul><li>Catalysts are substances that ___________ a reaction rate. Watch the hydrogen peroxide demonstration to show how yeast acts as a catalyst. </li></ul>increase
  104. 106. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>The ADDITION OF A INHIBITOR: </li></ul><ul><li>An inhibitor will decrease a reaction rate! </li></ul>

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