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Astronomy np3 outline


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Astronomy np3 outline

  1. 1. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C UNIT 2: ASTRONOMY  PACKET 3C: FROM EARTH’S PERSPECTIVE When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change P.S. I’m Theodore HONORS EARTH SCIENCE MS. GILL NOTE PACKET #3C NAME:_______________________ PER:____ DATE: ________ Page #______
  2. 2. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CName: ___________________________ Period: _____ Date:__________________Astronomy from Earth’s Perspective:Before the invention of technology that enable humans to leave earth’s perspective,astronomers relied solely on their observations of the heavens to make inferences aboutearth’s motions. Models of the Solar System  Based upon observations of the apparent motion of celestial objects.  Before our current understanding that the planets revolve around the sun, people actually believe that the sun and other planets revolved around earth. ___________________________ ___________________________ – The Sun is at the center, and the – Earth is the center of the solar planets revolve around it system, and all objects revolve around it. -Used epicycles (small sub-orbits) to explain retrograde (backward) motion of planets Page #______
  3. 3. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CCoordinates in the Sky…On earth we use latitude and longitude to locate places. In astronomy we use_______________ and __________________.Altitude is the angle above the horizon in degrees. (Horizon: imaginary boundary betweenthe sky and the ground)The highest angle of altitude is ______ and that is the point directly over the observershead. The 90° point is called the ________________.Azimuth is direction broken down into degrees from ________ to _______Altitude and azimuth together form a coordinate grid for locating objects in the sky.We draw this grid on a model of the sky on a dome called a ___________________.Earth’s ShapeRather than a perfect sphere Earth is an_____________________________________Meaning that the equatorial circumference is justslightly bigger than the polar circumference.(bulges at the equator) This difference is smalland can not be seen with the naked eye.Proof that the earth is round: -Ships appear to sink GRADUALLY below thehorizon as they travel away from observer-Polaris (North Star) changes altitude (anglemeasured in degrees above earth’s surface)directly with your latitude-Lunar Eclipses - Earth’s shadow on the moon-Satellite Imagery (pictures) – absolute proof Page #______
  4. 4. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CCelestial observations___________________________: any object in space (outside of earth’satmosphere) examples: Moon, planet, stars, sunThe apparent daily motion of celestial objects (like stars) have enabled scientist tocreate theories about earth’s motions: _________________ &__________________Earth’s Motions:Rotation:The apparent daily motions of thecelestial objects in our sky are due toEarth’s Rotation or spin on its axisHow long is one rotation? ________Rotation is responsible for:-Day and Night-Rising and Setting of our Sun-Rising and Setting of our Moon-Movement of stars through the sky-Seasons- Changing ConstellationsRotational FactsEarth’s axis is tilted ________ from the line perpendicular to earth’s orbit. Earth’s axisis always tilted in the same direction, this is called ____________________.___________– the imaginary line through Earth from the North Pole to the South PoleThe earth rotates _________________ when looking from down at the North Polefrom ______ to __________ when looking at a side view of earthHow many degrees per hour does the earth rotate? Show calculation:________ degrees per hour ________ degrees per day Page #______
  5. 5. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3COur North Star: Polaris • Polaris is the star that lies in space practically over the _________________ North Pole of the earth. • Since Polaris is located above our axis of rotation it is a __________________ in our sky above the North Pole. • Any one in the Northern Hemisphere can see Polaris but where it appears on the celestial sphere depends on the observer’s _____________________ • An observer on the North Pole would find that Polaris is at the observer’s ______________________ (directly over head) • An observer on the equator would find Polaris along the ________________. • Any observer in between would find Polaris has an altitude equal to their latitude. So for NYS, Polaris will have an altitude of approximately ___________. Altitude of Polaris = Your latitude!If you can spot Polaris in the sky, you can always tell which way is north. Because of this, Polaris was the most important star for navigating at sea. Finding Polaris: • To find Polaris, look for the Big Dipper. • Draw an imaginary line from the two end ‘pointer’ stars. • They will point approximately to the last star in the handle of the Little Dipper… Polaris! Page #______
  6. 6. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C Apparent Daily Motion An apparent motion is a motion an object appears to make, it can be real or an illusion. Celestial objects appear to move in the sky through out the night. This is due to the __________________________ Celestial Objects appear to move ______________, because Earth rotates 360° in ______ hours. The apparent daily motions of stars changes when the observer’s _________________ on earth changes. Therefore, at the poles (90° N or S) stars do not rise or set but at the Apparent daily motion of the Big equator (0° ) all stars rise and set Dipper, a ___________________ constellation (never sets) At 41° N (New York state) some stars, like the sun appear to rise in the east and set in the west making an arc across the celestial sphere. Other stars such as ones part of circumpolar constellations never set but instead trace out giant circles daily around the poles. Using a time-lapse camera we can document this phenomenon. We call these images _________________ Stars are so far away they appear stationary (not moving). Why do they have this pattern? _____________________ Page #______
  7. 7. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CSince earth is spherical as it rotates greater distances are covered at the equator thanat the poles for every degree the earth turns.Rotational speed at Poles _____________________Rotational speed at Equator ____________________The Earth is moving ________________ at the equator than at the ____________How many degrees did the stars move from diagram 1 to diagram 2? ____________How can you find Polaris?_________________________________________________________________What hemisphere must you be in if you can see these constellations? Why?_________________________________________________________________What direction must you be looking? ______________________________Do the stars appear to move clockwise or counterclockwise? ___________________What causes them to appear to move at all?__________________________________________________________________ Page #______
  8. 8. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C Evidence of Earth’s Rotation 1. ____________________________________ 2. ___________________________________ Foucault’s Pendulum Coriolis Effect As the pendulum swings back and A projectile fired northward from forth, the Earth rotates underneath the equator appears to veer it so that the direction of the eastward because it retains the pendulums swing appears to change. eastward speed of the equator, which is greater than the eastward Since there is NO force that makes speeds north or south of the pendulum rotate – must be earth that equator. is rotating!!! Because of the Coriolis effect, The ground moves under the freely projectiles and currents of air and swinging pendulum. water veer to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the The Pendulum appears to move but is left in the southern hemisphere actually swing in the same initial direction Page #______
  9. 9. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CDetermining Time of Day: Since the earth rotate at a predictable rate (15 °perhour) we can easily determine the time of day when looking at an aerial image of earthon the equinoxes. Start by indicating the direction of rotation. Then label yourdiagram with 12 AM, 12 PM, 6 AM and 6 PM. Draw in the lines of longitude, alllocations on this line will have the same time.Remember12pm (noon)will be in the middle of the dayor lit portion of the earth.12 am (midnight)will be in the middle of the night,or dark side of the earth.Revolution:The apparent yearly change in position of all celestial objects is due to the Earth’sRevolution around the sun.Period of revolution: the length of time for one orbit around the sun = 1 yearHow many days are in 1 year ? ________To account for the .26, Every leap year we add February 29 to our calendar to accountfor the four quarter days we accumulated over the last four years.How many degrees does the earth travel in its orbit around the sun in one day?_____________ Show calculation below:Revolution is responsible for:-Sun’s Path across the sky-Angle of Insolation-Seasons (combined with Earth’s tilt)-Changing Constellations-Rising and setting of the moon Page #______
  10. 10. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CSeasons:Name the four seasons and their starting dates:Season Starting dateHow many days are in each season on average? _______What causes the seasons?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________As earth revolves around the sun– the tilt of Earth’s axis does not change producing acyclical change of seasons…. Earth’s axis is always tilted __________. Label the seasons on the aerial views of earth… Note the position of the shadow Label perihelion and aphelion…Is distance important to seasonal change? ________ because earth’s orbit is a ___________________________________Earth is farthest away from the sun on ________ this is called _____________Earth is closest on to the sun on ________ this is called _______________ Page #______
  11. 11. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CWhat changes do we observe during seasons in NY?1. ________________________ changes-The sun is highest on June 21 (summer)-The sun is lowest on Dec. 21 (winter- _________________________ at our latitude.2. ___________________________________ also change with the season.-On the equinoxes, the sun always rise due east and sets due west.-The rises and sets South of east and west in __________ and _____________.-The Sun rises and sets North of East and West in ___________ and ____________.3. __________________________( Duration of Insolation) changes with the season.- ___________ hours of day light: Shortest on Winter Solstice, Dec. 21- ___________ hours of day light: Longest on Summer Solstice, June 21-12 hours on Equinox for all locations on Earth Important facts about the solstices and equinoxes in the Northern HemisphereSummer Solstice Winter Solstice Both Equinoxes1.June 21, longest day of the 1.Dec. 21, shortest day of 1.Sept. 21 and March 21.year. the year. 2. Equal day/night 12 hrs of2.Sun at highest altitude at 2.Sun at lowest altitude at daylight, 12 hrs of night.noon. noon. 3.Direct sun ray at Equator.3.24 hrs of daylight at North 3.24 hrs. of darkness at 4.Sun rise – E, Sun set – W.Pole. North Pole.4.Direct sun ray at 23.5° 4.Direct sun ray at 23.5°north latitude. south latitude.5.Sun rise – NE, Sun set - 5.Sun rise – SE , Sun set –NW SW Page #______
  12. 12. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C Apparent Solar Motion Rotation cause Sun’s apparent daily path from sunrise to sunset has the shape of an arc moving l5° per hour. However, the sun’s arc changes both its position and its length with the seasons due to the earth’s Revolution. The sun appears to move across the sky, like all celestial objects due to earth’s rotation. But sun’s apparent path in the sky varies by _______________ and _______________. How does the location of the sun change through out the year? -No matter where you are on the globe, on the equinoxes, the sun will always rise due east and set due west. The path depends on your latitude. -Changes in the altitude of the path and horizon position of sunrise and sunset are due to _______________________________Date Sun Rise Sun Set Altitude of Solar Noon is…Equinoxes(Spring/ Fall)SummerSolsticeWinterSolstice Page #______
  13. 13. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CDirections:On the diagramsbelow, draw andlabel the path ofthe sun for eachlocation duringthe equinox, thespring solsticeand the wintersolstice. . Long Island, New York Latitude = approximately 40° Summer max altitude of noon sun is ____ Winter is ______ Spring/Autumn: _______ A location along the Equator Latitude = 0 Summer max altitude of noon sun is ____ Winter is ______ Spring/Autumn: _______ A location along the arctic circle Latitude = approximately 6° Summer max altitude of noon sun is ____ Winter is ______ Spring/Autumn: _______ Page #______
  14. 14. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CInsolation:a. “IN”-coming “SOL”-ar radi-“ATION”b. The ____________the Sun is in the sky, the stronger (more intense) the sunlight is.c. Places near the ____________________ receive the most intense insolation.d. At places near the _________, the Sun never rises high in the sky, so the sunlight is always weak. The Polar Regions receive the least intense insolation.e. During the summer months, the duration, angle, and intensity of insolation are _________________f. Day=hot; Night= cold (no insolation)g. Summer=hot; Winter = coldAngle of Insolation:h. ___________________ - found at the altitude where the sun is at its zenith (altitude of sun 90° overhead) so sun’s rays are perpendicular to earth’s surface. (No shadow)i. Angle of Insolation and earth’s surface = _______________________. (depends on latitude and time of day)j. As the angle of Insolation increases, the intensity of insolation increases (it’s hotter).k. The intensity of Insolation increases as the as the sun’s altitude ______________.L. Solstice - when the direct ray is at a maximum distance from the equator (Tropics) .m. Equinox - when the duration of insolation equals __________at every location on earth. Direct ray is at the equatorn. Due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis, the sun’s rays are only perpendicular (directly overhead) at noon, between 23.5° N and 23.5° S during the yearo. Because of the earth’s spherical shape, on any particular date, there is just 1 place where insolation is at an angle of 90°. All other places are less than 90°.Question: Does the 90° ever reach the United States? _____________________Directions: Draw in the rays of the sun. Remember thay are parallel to each other.Label the with an arrow the latitudes that receive direct rays with theDate they receive the direct rays.________________________________________________ Page #______
  15. 15. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CYour shadow!-In NY, the noon sun will always be in the SouthSky! So which way will your shadow fall? ________-Your shadow always changes with the altitude ofthe sun and time of day!-The length and direction of a shadow depends onthe ____________________ and the observers____________________. Both variables effectthe sun’s altitude and the angle of insolation.-Your shadow will always be opposite of the sun, ifthe sun is just rising in the east, your shadow willfall west. If the sun is high in altitude, your shadowis small, when it is low in altitude your shadow islong.-Five different shadows, A, B, C, D, and E, arecast on a certain day by the post when the Sun is inpositions A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Length of Day The tilt of the Earth on its axis is also responsible for the day and night length EQUINOX (MEANS EQUAL NIGHTS) =12 HOURS OF DAY AND 12 HOURS OF NIGHT 1) If Earth’s axis were tilted less than 23.5○, which seasonal average temperature change would occur in New York State?____________________________________ 2) Which position of Earth represents the first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere? _________ 3) How many degrees will the Sun’s vertical rays shift on Earth’s surface as Earth travels from position C to position D? ________________________ Page #______
  16. 16. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C Constellations: Constellations are groupings of stars that make an imaginary image in the night sky. They have been named after mythological characters, people, animals and objects. In different parts of the world, people have made up different shapes out of the same groups of bright stars. It is like a game of connecting the dots. In the past constellations have became useful for navigating at night and for keeping track of the seasons. Stars in constellations are often very far from one another but we see them in the same direction in the skyEvidence of Earth’s Revolution around the Sun-Seasonal Constellations: Because of the Sun’s annual motion, some constellations arevisible at night only during certain seasons.-Constellations are visible when the dark side of Earth (away from sun) faces toward theconstellation.-The 13 constellations the sun appears to travel through during the year Position Season Constellation Visible A B C DDirections:Draw label the positions of thebig dipper during the yearly cycle Page #______
  17. 17. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3CThe Moon The __________ is Earth’s only natural satellite It is estimated to be about ____________________ years old Features The Moon’s interior is thought to have _________, similar to earth The Moon’s surface is covered with _________, caused by ________________ impacts. The Moon’s Surface  Dark areas called _________ (from Latin mare, meaning sea). These are ancient lava flows.  Light areas are ___________________, which are mountain ranges made of lighter color rocks. Moon Rocks  Rocks on the Moon are made of ______________ similar to those on Earth. Rotation and Revolution  The Moon’s periods of rotation and revolution are both _________ days. The result is that the same side of the Moon always faces Earth (the near side).  However, it takes 29.5 days for the Moon to completely revolve around the Earth  Moon has to revolve for 2 more days to get back to the new moon phase This occurs because the Earth is revolving around the Sun. Page #______
  18. 18. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C Phases Of The Moon :  Moon Phases are apparent changes in shape due to the position of the Moon in its orbit.  Phase names: – New – Crescent – Quarter – Gibbous – Full  Waxing – becoming more visible  Waning – becoming less visible What causes the phase of the moon? ________________________________________ Why does the moon rise later and later each day? _________________________________________ How many hours is the moon visible each day? _____ The phase of the moon are a ____________ event. Moon’s Effect on Tides ________ are the periodic rise and fall of the ocean surface Tides are caused by the _________________________ of the Moon and the Sun on ocean water High tide will occur when the __________ is overhead, as well as on the opposite side of the Earth. How many tides a day? ______ Why are there not exactly 12 hours between tides? ___________________________ Page #______
  19. 19. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3C Phases and Tides * The alignment of the Moon with the Sun affect tides. * At the full and new moon phase, both are in line, causing a higher high tide and a lower low tide. This is called the ________________________. * At the quarter phases, the Sun and Moon work against each other, resulting in weaker tides, called _______________________.Eclipses ________________________ occurs when the Sun’s light is blocked from either the Earth or the Moon. We do NOT have solar and lunar eclipse every month because the orbit of the Earth and the Moon are along different planes, the moon orbit is tilted _________________. Solar Eclipse Lunar Eclipse  ___________________ – (moon goes into _________________ – (Earth earth’s shadow) occurs when the Earth blocks goes into moon’s shadow) occurs the Sun’s rays from reaching the Moon. when the Moon blocks the Sun’s  Only occurs at full moon phase. rays from reaching Earth. Earth blocks light to the moon. It occurs only at new moon phase. Moon must be in Umbra for a Total Lunar Only a few people see it. Eclipse. Moon blocks light to the Earth. Does not occur that often, moon orbit is tilted. Occur less often than lunar. Page #______