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  1. 1. C H I N A
  2. 4. China Monolithic scale, a long and potent history, a future looming large. <ul><li>China isn't a country - it's a different world. Unless you have a couple of years and unlimited patience, it's best to follow a loose itinerary here, such as following the Silk Road, sailing down the Yangzi River, or exploring the Dr Seuss landscape of Guangxi Province. </li></ul><ul><li>From shop-till-you-drop metropolises to the desert landscapes of Xinjiang, China is a land of cultural and geographic schisms. It's not that it has completely done away with its Maoist past - it's more that the yin of revolutionary zeal is being balanced by the yang of economic pragmatism. </li></ul>
  3. 5. When To Go <ul><li>Spring (March-April) and autumn (September-October) are the best times to visit China, though the higher altitude areas of Tibet, Qinghai and Western Sichuan are best visited in high summer (June-September). Daytime temperatures range from 20°C to 30°C (68°F-86°F) in these seasons - but bear in mind that nights can still be bitterly cold and it can sometimes be wet and miserable. Major public holidays, in particular Chinese New Year, are best avoided as it's difficult to get around and/or find accommodation. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Weather Overview <ul><li>The climate for this Asian behemoth is understandably varied and ranges from bitterly cold to unbearably hot, and a whole lot in between. Your average winter day in the north might reach -8°C (17°F) if you're lucky and yet sit in the low thirties (high eighties) in summer around July. The central Yangzi River valley area also experiences extreme seasonal temperatures. In the far south, the hot and humid summer lasts from April to September and, as in north China, coincides with the wettest weather. Typhoons can hit the southeast coast between July and September. The northwest experiences dry, hot summers, with China's nominated hottest place - Turpan - receiving maximums of around 47°C (117°F). Winters here are as formidably cold as in the rest of northern China. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Time and Place <ul><li>Time Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GMT/UTC +8 () </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daylight Saving </li></ul><ul><li>Start: not in use End: not in use Weights Measures System </li></ul><ul><li>Metric Geography </li></ul><ul><li>The third-largest country in the world, China is bounded to the north by the deserts of Mongolia, to the west by the inhospitable Tibetan plateau and the Himalaya, and to the east by the East and South China seas. China's 22 provinces and five autonomous regions are governed from Beijing, along with some 5000 islands. Hong Kong and Macau have returned to the fold as Special Administrative Regions (SAR). Disputed territories are dotted near and far around China's southeast coast. Taiwan - a festering dispute that flares up from time to time - is the best known. Then there's the oil-rich Spratly Island group, which every country in the region wants to suck dry, the Diaoyutai Islands (known as Senkaku to the Japanese), the Paracels (or Xisha, if China gets its way), and the Pescadores (or Penghu). </li></ul><ul><li>The statistics for population and area refer to mainland China. </li></ul>
  6. 8. People and Society <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Han Chinese (93%), plus 55 ethnic minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism (no stats available); Islam (14 million), Christianity (7 million) </li></ul>
  7. 9. Places to See <ul><li>With its long and dramatic history, China offers endless cultural treasures. Famous attractions like the Terracotta Warriors, the Great Wall, colonial Shanghai and the imperial grandeur of Beijing are obvious magnets, but there's also sacred mountains and huge national parks to wander in. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Places to see <ul><li>Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Karakoram Highway </li></ul><ul><li>Macau </li></ul><ul><li>Nanjing </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghai </li></ul><ul><li>Xi'an </li></ul>
  9. 11. Army of Terracotta Warriors (Bingmayong) Hot Pottery <ul><li>Ranking alongside the Great Wall and the Forbidden City as one of China's top historical sights, the 2000-year-old Terracotta Army remains a stunningly well preserved, perpetually vigilant force standing guard over an ancient imperial necropolis. Almost as extraordinary is a pair of bronze chariots and horses on display in a museum by the main entrance. </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery of the Army was, like many major discoveries, entirely serendipitous. In 1974 peasants digging a well uncovered what turned out to be perhaps the major archaeological discovery of the 20th century: an underground vault of earth and timber that eventually yielded thousands of life-size terracotta soldiers and their horses in battle formation. In 1976 two other smaller vaults were discovered close to the first one. </li></ul><ul><li>The 6000 terracotta figures of warriors and horses face east in a rectangular battle array. Every figure differs in facial features and expressions. The horsemen are shown wearing tight-sleeved outer robes, short coats of chain mail and wind-proof caps. The archers have bodies and limbs positioned in strict accordance with an ancient book on the art of war. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists believe the warriors discovered so far may be part of an even larger terracotta army still buried around the Tomb of Qin Shihuang. Excavation of the entire complex and the tomb itself could take decades. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Forbidden City <ul><li>The Forbidden City, so called because it was off limits for 500 years, is the largest and best-preserved cluster of China's ancient buildings. It was home to two dynasties of emperors, the Ming and the Qing, who didn't stray from this pleasure dome unless they absolutely had to. Allow yourself a full day, or perhaps several trips if you're an enthusiast. </li></ul><ul><li>On the north-south axis of the Forbidden City, from the Gate of Heavenly Peace in the south to Divine Military Genius Gate to the north, lie the palace's ceremonial buildings. Restored in the 17th century, Meridian Gate is a massive portal that in former times was reserved for the use of the emperor. Across the Golden Stream is Supreme Harmony Gate, overlooking a massive courtyard that could hold an imperial audience of up to 100,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Raised on a marble terrace with balustrades are the Three Great Halls, the heart of the Forbidden City. The Hall of Supreme Harmony is the most important and the largest structure in the Forbidden City. Built in the 15th century, and restored in the 17th century, it was used for ceremonial occasions, such as the emperor's birthday, the nomination of military leaders and coronations. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Grand Buddha <ul><li>The serenely seated Grand Buddha, carved into a cliff face, is the pride and joy of the city, a spiritual uncle. Qualifying as the largest Buddha in the world he's 71m (233ft) high, his ears are 7m (23ft) long, his insteps 8.5m (28ft) broad, and you could picnic on the nail of his big toe - the toe itself is 8.5m (28ft) long. Holy smokes! </li></ul><ul><li>A Buddhist monk called Haitong started the whole thing in AD 713, hoping that the Buddha would calm the swift currents and protect boatmen from lethal currents in river hollows. Well, the big guy 'matured' slowly, finally completed 90 years after Haitong's death. Surplus rocks from the sculpting filled the river hollow and did the trick, but locals insist it's really the calming effect of the Buddha. </li></ul><ul><li>It's worth looking at the Grand Buddha from several angles. While the easiest way to see him is to walk along the riverfront on Binhe Lu, you need to get closer to him to really appreciate his magnitude. You can go to the top, opposite the head, and then descend a short stairway to the feet for a Lilliputian perspective. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Great Wall <ul><li>The Great Wall (Changcheng) wriggles fitfully from its scattered remains in Liaoning province to Jiayuguan in the Gobi Desert. The wall was begun over 2000 years ago, required thousands of workers - many of whom were political prisoners - and 10 years of hard labour. Legend has it that one of the building materials used was the bones of deceased workers. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 180 million cubic metres of rammed earth were used to form the core of the original wall. </li></ul><ul><li>The wall never really did perform its function as an impenetrable line of defence. As Genghis Khan supposedly said, 'The strength of a wall depends on the courage of those who defend it'. Sentries could be bribed. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it did work very well as a kind of elevated highway, transporting people and equipment across mountainous terrain. Its beacon tower system, using smoke signals generated by burning wolves' dung, transmitted news of enemy movements quickly back to the capital. To the west was Jiayuguan, an important link on the Silk Road, where there was a customs post of sorts and where unwanted Chinese were ejected through the gates to face the terrifying wild west. </li></ul><ul><li>The myth that the Great Wall is visible with the naked eye from the moon was finally laid to rest in 2003, when China's first astronaut Yang Liwei observed that he could not see the barrier from space. The myth is to be edited from Chinese textbooks, where it has cast its spell over generations of Chinese. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve <ul><li>Jiuzhaigou (Nine Village Gully) refers to the nine Baima Tibetan villages that can be found in the valley. According to legend, Jiuzhaigou was created when a jealous devil caused the goddess Wunosemo to drop her magic mirror, a present from her lover the warlord God Dage. The mirror dropped to the ground and shattered into 118 shimmering turquoise lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Those pools of eye candy are what lie within your dreams after you leave, along with the snow-crusted mountain peaks, and forests and meadows home to protected takins, golden monkeys and pandas. </li></ul><ul><li>The park is pristine, however, resort-style hotels leading up to the park entrance have 20,000 beds; over 1.5 million people per year come here. The original residents have been forced to move in order to 'protect' the park (those here actually work within the park's confines to keep up appearances). And as you're technically not allowed to strike off into the backcountry, it can be a bit disheartening as the efficient shuttle buses whiz by with an alarming regularity. A word of warning: several tour operators in Chengdu have been blacklisted by travellers for lousy service and/or rudeness. Ask around among travellers to pinpoint a reliable agency. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Summer Palace <ul><li>One of Beijing's most visited sights, the immense park of the Summer Palace requires at least half a day. Nowadays teeming with tour groups from China and beyond, this dominion of palace temples, gardens, pavilions, and lakes was once a playground for the imperial court. Royalty came here to elude the insufferable summer heat that roasted the Forbidden City. </li></ul><ul><li>The Summer Palace with its cool features - water, gardens and hills - was the palace of choice for vacationing emperors and Dowager Empresses. It was badly damaged by Anglo-French troops during the Second Opium War (1860) and its restoration became a pet project of Empress Dowager Cixi, the last of the Qing dynasty rulers. Money earmarked for a modern navy was used for the project but, in a bit of whimsical irony, the only thing that was completed was the restoration of a marble boat. The boat now sits at the edge of the lake in all its immobile and nonmilitary glory. The Palace's full restoration was hampered by the disintegration of the Qing dynasty and the Boxer Rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>The place is packed to the gunwales in summer, with Beijing residents taking full advantage of Kunming Lake, which takes up three-quarters of the park. The main building is the lyrically named Hall of Benevolence and Longevity, while along the north shore is the Long Corridor, so named because it's, well, long. There's over 700m (2300ft) of corridor, filled with mythical paintings and scenes. If some of the paintings have a newish patina, that's because many of the murals were painted over during the Cultural Revolution. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Tai Shan <ul><li>Southern Chinese claim 'myriad mountains, rivers and geniuses' while Shandong citizens smugly contest they have 'one mountain, one river and one saint', implying they have the last word on each: Tai Shan (the most revered of China's five sacred Taoist peaks, and the most climbed mountain on earth), Huang He (the Yellow River) and Confucius . </li></ul><ul><li>Tai Shan is a unique experience - its supernatural allure attracts the Chinese in droves. Bixia, the Princess of the Azure Clouds, a Taoist deity whose presence permeates the temples dotted along the route, is a powerful cult figure for the rural women of Shandong and beyond. Tribes of wiry grandmothers - it's said that if you climb Tai Shan you'll live to 100 - trot up the steps with surprising ease, their target the cluster of temples at the summit where they burn money and incense, praying for their progeny. Sun worshippers muster wide-eyed on the peak, straining for the first flickers of dawn.In ancient Chinese tradition, it was believed that the sun began its westward journey from Tai Shan. </li></ul><ul><li>From its heights Confucius uttered the dictum 'The world is small'; Mao lumbered up and declared 'The east is red'. You too can climb up and say 'I'm knackered'. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid coinciding your climb with the public holiday periods held in the first weeks of May and October, otherwise you will share the mountain with what the Chinese call 're'n shan re'n havi' - literally a 'mountain of people and a sea of persons.' </li></ul>
  16. 18. Yungang Caves <ul><li>These caves, cut into the southern cliffs of Wuzhou Shan, contain over 50,000 Buddhist statues including the earliest Buddhist carvings in China. Images surrounding the main statues include the omnipresent '1000 Buddha' motif, flying apsaras (angels draped in flowing silk), pagodas in bas-relief and Chinese symbols such as dragons and phoenixes. </li></ul><ul><li>On top of the mountain ridge are the remains of a huge, mud-brick 17th-century Qing dynasty fortress. As you approach the caves you'll see the truncated pyramids, which were once the watchtowers. Sadly, many of the caves suffer damage from coal and other pollution, largely a result of the neighbouring coal mine. At the time of writing, most of the coal trucks were being diverted to a back road, making the trip more pleasant. East of the caves you can walk to a remnant of the Great Wall. </li></ul><ul><li>The incredible artwork shows influences of the many foreign craftsmen, from India and Central Asia, who worked on the grottoes. There are no guides at the caves, but there are decent English descriptions and explanations for many points within. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Double-decker tramcars offer great cheap sight-seeing
  18. 20. Nice souvenir - a handful of snakes for sale at Red Market
  19. 21. The deep blue of the luxurious Hyatt Regency on Taipa Island
  20. 22. Aqua antics at the Water Splashing Festival - Jinghong
  21. 23. Scrumptious seafood on offer at the Temple Street night market
  22. 24. Mother and child sculpture outside art museum
  23. 25. Wondrous Wanchai never sleeps
  24. 26. Infamous Gate of Heavenly Peace on Tiananmen Square
  25. 27. Temple of Heaven in Beijing, completed in 1420 and expanded by two Emperors
  26. 28. Tower on the west end of the Great Wall of China at Jia Yu Guan Pass
  27. 29. Music <ul><li>Traditional Chinese music can be traced back 7,000 – 8,000 years based on the discovery of a bone flute made in the Neolithic Age. In the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, only royal families and dignitary officials enjoyed music, which was made on chimes and bells. During the Tang Dynasty, dancing and singing entered the mainstream, spreading from the royal court to the common people. With the introduction of foreign religions such as Buddhism and Islam, exotic and religious melodies were absorbed into Chinese music and were enjoyed by the Chinese people at fairs organized by religious temples. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>In the Song Dynasty, original opera such as Zaju and Nanxi was performed in tearooms, theatres, and showplaces. Writers and artists liked it so much that Ci, a new type of literature resembling lyrics, thrived. During the Yuan Dynasty, qu, another type of literature based on music became popular. This was also a period when many traditional musical instruments were developed such as the pipa, the flute, and the zither. </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>During the Ming (1368 - 1644) and Qing Dynasties (1644 - 1911), the art of traditional opera developed rapidly and diversely in different regions. When these distinctive opera styles were performed at the capital (now called Beijing), artists combined the essence of the different styles and created Beijing opera , one of three cornerstones of Chinese culture (the other two being Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese painting) which continue to be appreciated even in modern times. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides these types of music, Chinese peasants were clever enough to compose folk songs, which also developed independently with local flavor. Folk songs described working and daily life such as fishing, farming, and herding and were very popular among the common people. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Traditional Musical Instruments <ul><li>Traditional Chinese musical instruments can be divided into four categories: stringed instruments, percussion instruments, plucked instruments, and wind instruments. The following are just a few of them: </li></ul>
  31. 33. Horse-Headed Fiddle <ul><li>The Horse-headed fiddle is a bowed stringed-instrument with a scroll carved like a horse's head. It is popular in Mongolian music. With a history of over 1,300 years, it even influenced European string music when Marco Polo brought one back from his travels through Asia. Its wide tonal range and deep, hazy tone color express the joy or pathos of a melody to its fullest. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongolian people bestowed upon their beloved horse-headed fiddle a fantastic legend: during horse-racing at the Nadam Fair -- their featured grand festival--a hero, Su He, and his white horse ran the fastest, which incurred the envy and wrath of the duke. The cruel duke shot the horse dead, and Su He grieved so much that he met his horse in a dream. In the dream, the horse told Su He to make a fiddle from wood and the hair of a horse's tail, and to carve the head of the fiddle in the shape of a horse's head. The lad followed the horse's advice and when he finished, the fiddle produced an extremely vivid sound. From then on, people loved this instrument and composed many songs for it. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Lute (Pipa) <ul><li>Originally named after the loquat fruit, the earliest pipa known was found to have been made in the Qin Dynasty (221 BC – 206 BC). By the the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907), the pipa had reached its summit. It was loved by everyone--from the royal court to the common folk--and it occupied the predominant place in the orchestra. Many well known writers and poets created poems and mentioned it in their works. Bai Juyi, the master poet, vividly depicted the performance like this: rapid and soft notes mingled were just like big and small pearls dropping onto the jade plates. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, the pipa underwent improvement in playing techniques and structure. Players then changed from holding the pipa transversely to holding it vertically, and from using a pick to using the fingers to pluck the strngs directly. In modern times, the volume and resonance has also been improved. The traditional music work 'Spring Moonlight on the Flowers by the River', which has a history of over one hundred years, has brought harmony and a sense of beauty to untold numbers of people. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Erhu <ul><li>The Erhu, also called 'Huqin', was introduced from the western region during the Tang Dynasty. During the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), it was refined and improved and new variations appeared. It was also an important instrument for playing the melody of Beijing Opera. </li></ul><ul><li>When playing, the player usually stands the Erhu on his lap, and moves the bow across the vertical strings. The well-known music 'Two Springs Reflect the Moon' was created by the blind folk artist Liu Yanjun, also named A Bing by the people. Though he could not see anything of the world, he played his Erhu using his heart and imagination. This melody conjures up a poetic night scene under the moonlight and expresses the composer's desolation and hope. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Flute <ul><li>The earliest flute was made from bone over 7,000 years ago. In the times since then, most flutes were made of bamboo, which allowed even common people to play it. By covering the holes and blowing through the side hole while moving the fingers flexibly between the six holes, a sound will be produced that is leisurely and mellifluous like sound from far away. This always reminds people of a pastoral picture of a farmer riding on a bull while playing a flute. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Chinese Opera <ul><li>Chinese opera together with Greece tragic-comedy and Indian Sanskrit Opera are the three oldest dramatic art forms in the world. During the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907), the Emperor Taizong established an opera school with the poetic name Liyuan (Pear Garden). From that time on, performers of Chinese opera were referred to as 'disciples of the pear garden'. Since the Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368) Chinese opera has been encouraged by court officials and emperors and has become a traditional art form. During the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911), Chinese opera became fashionable among ordinary people. Performances were watched in tearooms, restaurants, and even around makeshift stages. </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Chinese opera evolved from folk songs, dances, talking, antimasque, and especially distinctive dialectical music. Gradually it combined music, art and literature into one performance on the stage. Accompanied by traditional musical instruments like the Erhu, the gong, and the lute, actors present unique melodies - which may sound strange to foreigners - as well as dialogues which are beautifully written and of high literary value. These dialogs also promoted the development of distinct literary styles, such as Zaju in the Yuan Dynasty. For Chinese, especially older folks, to listen to this kind of opera is a real pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>What appeals to foreigners most might be the different styles of facial make-up, which is one of the highlights of Chinese opera and requires distinctive techniques of painting. Exaggerated designs are painted on each performer's face to symbolize a character's personality, role, and fate. This technique may have originated from ancient religions and dance. Audiences who are familiar with opera can know the story by observing the facial painting as well as the costumes. Generally, a red face represents loyalty and bravery; a black face, valor; yellow and white faces, duplicity; and golden and silver faces, mystery. </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Besides color, lines also function as symbols. For example, a figure can be painted either all white on his face, or just around the nose. The larger the white area painted, the more viperous the role. </li></ul><ul><li>Another technique that fascinates people is the marvelous acrobatics. Players can make fire spray out of their mouths when they act as spirits, or can gallop while squatting to act as a dwarf. This reflects a saying among actors: 'One minute's performance on the stage takes ten years' practice behind the scenes.' </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past 800 years, Chinese opera has evolved into many different regional varieties based on local traits and accents. Today, there are over 300 dazzling regional opera styles. Kun opera, which originated around Jiangsu Province, is a typical ancient opera style and features gentleness and clearness. This enabled it to be ranked among the World Oral and Intangible Heritages. Qinqiang opera from Shaanxi, known for its loudness and wildness, and Yu opera, Yue opera, and Huangmei Opera are all very enjoyable. Beijing Opera , the best-known Chinese opera style, was formed from the mingling of these regional styles. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Chinese Painting <ul><li>The tools used in traditional Chinese painting are paintbrush, ink, traditional paint and special paper or silk . </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese painting developed and was classified by theme into three genres: figures, landscapes, and birds-and-flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>The birds-and-flowers genre has its roots in the decorative patterns engraved on pottery and bronze ware by early artists. Among the common subjects in this genre, which reached its peak during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), are flowers, bamboo, birds, insects, and stones. The genre flourished under Emperor Huizong (1082 - 1135), who was an artist himself and excelled at both calligraphy and traditional painting, especially paintings of exquisite flowers and birds. </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Painters who specialized in figures included images of immortals, emperors, court ladies, and common people in their works. Through their depictions of such scenes and activities as feasts, worship and street scenes, these artists reflected the appearance, expressions, ideals, and religious beliefs of the people. Chinese figure painting prominently features verve. The portrayal of figures saw its heyday during the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907). The master of painting, Wu Daozi (about 685 - 758), created many Buddhist murals and other landscape paintings that are marked by variety and vigor. One of his best known works is a depiction of the Heaven King holding his newborn son Sakyamuni to receive the worship of the immortals. </li></ul><ul><li>As far back as the Northern and Southern Dynasties (386 - 589), landscape painting separated from the figure genre and continued to enjoy popularity through the Tang Dynasty. This style reflected people's fondness for nature. The artist's use of ink and brush to paint a landscape changed, depending on the scenery itself, the weather (sunny or rainy day), the time of day (morning or night), and the season. The earliest known landscape painting was the Spring Outing by Zhan Ziqian of the Sui Dynasty (581 - 618). It shows an enchanting spring scene with people enjoying popular activities: gentlemen riding and ladies boating. A waterfall behind a bridge, near slopes and distant mountains are drawn with clear, fluent lines. </li></ul>
  40. 44. <ul><li>During the Ming (1368 - 1644) and Qing (1644 - 1911) Dynasties, innovation was stressed, and delicate seal marks, calligraphy, poems and frames increased the elegance and beauty of the paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>Much skill is required of the Chinese painter, who must wield the soft brush with strength and dexterity to create a wide variety of lines--thick, thin, dense, light, long, short, dry, wet, etc. Depending on his skills, he might specialize in detailed and delicate line drawing (Gongbi) or abstract, impressionistic (Xieyi) paintings. Line drawing is the basic training of a painter, who must learn it well before moving on to the delicate details of realistic scenes or the more abstract spirit of impressionism. Another special skill worthy of mention is painting with fingers instead of a brush, which creates a very different effect. </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>No matter what the subject or the style, traditional Chinese painting should be infused with imagination and soul. A traditional story that captures the Chinese view of painting tells about the establishment of a royal college of painting during the reign of Emperor Huizong. Examinations were held to recruit the best painters. Examinees were asked to draw a picture that reflected the joy of people who had just returned from a spring outing, an outing that had been so pleasant that even the horseshoes seemed fragrant. Many endeavored to depict this bright scene but only one work was chosen; the painter simply drew a horse's hoof followed by butterflies which were in graceful flight. This painter had managed to capture the essential spirit and beauty of the scene. </li></ul>
  42. 46. Cloisonne <ul><li>Cloisonne is a unique art form that originated in Beijing during the Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368). In the period titled 'Jingtai' during the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644), the emperor who was very much interested in bronze-casting techniques, improved the color process, and created the bright blue that appealed to the Oriental aesthetic sense. After a processing breakthrough, most articles for his daily use were made of cloisonne; in time cloisonne became popular among the common people; their favorite called 'Jingtai Blue'. </li></ul><ul><li>During the reigns of Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911), cloisonne improved and reached its artistic summit. Colors were more delicate, filigrees more flexible and fluent, and scope was enlarged beyond the sacrifice-process wares into snuff bottles, folding screens, incense burners, tables, chairs, chopsticks, and bowls. </li></ul>
  43. 47. <ul><li>Cloisonne manufacture is comprehensive and sophisticated, combining the techniques of making bronze and porcelain ware, as well as those of traditional painting and sculpture: </li></ul><ul><li>Model hammering: The process is to form copper pieces into various shapes with a hammer according to a design, joining them under high temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Filigree welding: In filigree welding the artist pinches and curves copper filigree into delicate flower patterns, pasting them onto the copper molds. Possibly the most challenging step of the procedure, heating to 900 degrees centigrade, firms the metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Enamel filling: Through this interesting procedure, the cloisonne wears a colored wrap. Handicrafts specialists fill enamel glaze into lattices formed by fine-spun filigrees. Just one filling is not enough - the filigrees extrude, and the surface is dull. They have to fuse powdery glaze in the smelter at 800 degrees centigrade, then take the object out and repeat the process three or four times until its surface becomes smooth </li></ul>
  44. 48. <ul><li>Surface polishing: Seeking smooth surfaces, artisans polish articles three times with grit or charcoal. The work requires extreme care </li></ul><ul><li>Gilding: After acid pickling, fluid gold adds elegance and civility to a cloisonne piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Today cloisonne technique is associated with the sculpture of wood, jade, ivory and lacquer. Cloisonne art is exported to many countries as a favorite medium for ornaments. </li></ul>
  45. 49. Other arts and Crafts <ul><li>Jade </li></ul><ul><li>Kites </li></ul><ul><li>Lacquer ware </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Paper-Cut </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery </li></ul>
  47. 51. <ul><li>Seals </li></ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze Vessels </li></ul>
  48. 52. <ul><li>Caligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>Emroidery </li></ul><ul><li>Folk Toys </li></ul>
  49. 53. <ul><li>T H E E N D </li></ul><ul><li>BY: </li></ul><ul><li>Ma. Carmela Labuguen </li></ul>