Human Rights


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Human Rights

  1. 1. UNIT 4 The conquest of Human Rights 1. Introducing Human Rights 2. What are Human Rights. Characteristics. 3. Categories of Human Rights. a. First-generation rights (civil and political rights) b. Second-generation rights (social, economic and cultural rights) c. Third-generation rights (collective rights) 4. The History of Human Rights. 5. Human Rights Defenders. Let’s work! In this unit we start a new group of topics that will deal with the issue of coexistence and civil-mindedness. We will concentrate on Human Rights, a basic concept and the theoretical basis to obtain a peaceful coexistence. Both, Ancient Greece Humanism and Cristianism, are the basis of Human Rights: the Universal Declaration that took place in the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 6. Revision. 1
  2. 2. Working with Vocabulary Basic Vocabulary basic needs – necesidades básicas be entitled to – tener derecho a equality - igualdad fundamental – fundamental imprescriptible – que no prescribe, que no se modifica con el transcurso del tiempo inalienable – inalienable, que no se puede transferir indivisible - indivisible inherent – inherente, intrínseco interdependent – interdependiente, que depende de otros justice – justicia freedom - libertad right – derecho Do you need some practice on rulebook – reglamento vocabulary? Click on these links to solidarity - solidaridad practice online: universal - universal • Fill-in: violation - violación Other Vocabulary 622b006fa1 approve – aprobar (una ley) • Matching: citizen - ciudadano display – exponer, mostrar c6b0ef94d7 homeless – sin hogar • Multiple choice: powerful – poderoso powerless – indefenso 77ab8fb6fa step – paso starve – morir de hambre take away - quitar treat someone fairly – tratar a alguien de forma justa Expressions have a say – tener voz Speaking: useful expressions It might be… / I suppose… / It’s possible that… You never know of course, but… No one can know for certain. I can’t tell you for sure. I’m not sure, but you could be right. I seriously doubt it. I’m absolutely / quite sure I’m certain / positive definitely (not) / absolutely (not) / of course (not) Click on this link for a monolingual Human Rights Vocabulary: Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 LEARNING TO LEARN 2
  3. 3. SESSION 1. INTRODUCING HUMAN RIGHTS 1. Look at the picture. Think about words and phrases that come to your mind when you hear the term “human rights”. Then, write them on a Post-it note and place it beside the illustration that is displayed on the wall. Remember you can use your dictionary to help you or the webpage . 2. In pairs. Using the words and phrases around the illustration, write down your own dictionary definition of human rights. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 This illustration will be enlarged and displayed in the classroom 3
  4. 4. 3. In small groups (3-4) read the set of cards listing a range of Human rights definitions. These are personal viewpoints rather than accepted definitions. Select two you think are most important to share with the class. 1. Human Rights are basic needs. 2. Human rights are about making sure people are protected from harm. 3. Human rights are about keeping a check on how the government is treating its citizens. 4. Human rights are about treating people fairly. 5. When I hear the phrase “human rights” it makes me think about people having a say. 6. Human rights belong to all human beings. 7. Human rights are about making sure everyone is free to live their life the way they want as long as they don’t hurt others. 8. Human rights are those things that are fair and just for every person in the world to have or to be able to do. 9. Human rights are a set of promises made by governments to look after their citizens. 10. Human rights are about making sure that people are free from things like torture and poor treatment. 11. Human rights are all about respecting people because they are human. 12. Human rights are what every human being needs to be happy, healthy and involved in society. 16. Human rights are things that everyone is entitled to have. 19. Human rights are like a big list of things that we all need if we are going to develop as human beings. 15. Human rights are important values like justice, freedom and participation. 18. Human rights are all 17. Human rights are what about making sure people we need to reach our full have freedom to take part potential as human beings. in their society. 20. 21. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 14. When I think about 13. Human rights are Human Rights I think they about making sure that the are there to make sure powerful cannot abuse the governments don’t abuse powerless. people. 4
  5. 5. 4. Compare cards. Is there a strong connection between them? For example, the two definitions may focus on people’s needs. If yes, place the cards together. If no, place them a distance away from each other. 5. After grouping them, stick your group onto a page, and organize them under the following headings: governments, freedoms, justice/fairness, dignity/respect. 6. Re-write your own definition of human rights, based on what you’ve learnt during this activity and add it to the pack. SESSION 2. WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS? CHARACTERISTICS 1. In pairs. Look at the following photos and describe them. Do these photos show respect for Human Rights? Justify your opinion. Doctors Without Borders Child Soldier Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 Child Labour 5
  6. 6. 2. Match the following words to their definitions. 1 Inherent A 2 Fundamental B 3 Inalienable C 4 Imprescriptible 5 Indivisible D E 6 Universal F 7 Interdependent G relating to the most basic and important parts of something. immune or exempt from prescription. involving everyone in the world or in a particular group. depending on or necessary to each other. That cannot be taken from you. That cannot be separated or divided into parts. They are a natural part of it and cannot be separated from it. 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 ____ 7 ____ 3. Read the following text carefully. CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RIGHTS Human rights are the basic rights we all have simply because we are human, regardless of who we are, where we live or what we do. Human rights represent all the things we need to flourish and live together as human beings. They are expressed in internationally agreed laws, and cover many aspects of everyday life ranging from the rights to food, shelter, education and health to freedoms of thought, religion and expression. The following are the basic characteristics of human rights: 1. Inherent – Human Rights are inherent because they are not granted by any person or authority. 2. Fundamental - Human Rights are fundamental rights because without them, the life and dignity of man will be meaningless. 3. Inalienable - Human Rights are inalienable because you cannot lose or transfer your human rights. 5. Indivisible - Human Rights are not capable of being divided. They cannot be denied even when other rights have already been enjoyed. 6. Universal - They apply to all people, everywhere, without exception, in all countries of the world. 7. Interdependent - Human Rights are interdependent because the fulfillment or exercise of one cannot be had without the realization of the other. 4. Underline or highlight any information you think is important. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 4. Imprescriptible - Human Rights do not prescribe and cannot be lost even if man fails to use or assert them, even by a long passage of time. 6
  7. 7. 5. Read the text again and fill in the diagram. 6. In pairs. Imagine you are a journalist. Search the web for a photo to illustrate the text from question 3. Then, explain to your classmates why you chose it. SESSION 3. CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS Statement 1. There are rights which every person has and which cannot be taken away from them. 2. There are responsibilities which go with every right. 3. The individual is the most important unit in society and has to come first. 4. The group is the most important unit in society and has to come first. True False Not sure Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 1. In pairs. Look at each of the statements below. Tick the appropriate box to indicate whether you think the statement is true, false, or if you aren’t sure. Then, check your answers with your teacher / language assistant. 7
  8. 8. 5. Rights must ultimately be consistent with religious principles. 6. People have basic economic rights. 7. People have basic obligations towards the environment. 8. Within a society there may be special Indigenous people’s rights. 9. Basic rights can never be taken away. 10. All people have equal rights. 2. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words below. Then, listen to the recording and check your answers. rulebook - abusing - United Nations – 21st century – respected - Universal Declaration - World War II – government leaders I think human rights only became an issue after (1) ______________. That’s when the (2) ______________ issued their (3) ______________on human rights. This is kind of the (4) ______________, the do’s and don’ts of human rights. When I look at the world today, it seems not many people have read this. I doubt if most people know it exists. I think (5) ______________should know about this. A lot of them don’t care much about human rights. I can’t believe it’s the (6) ______________and human rights is still an issue in pretty much all of the world’s countries. The most powerful countries even attack each other for (7) ______________ human rights. I hope one day that all human rights are (8) ______________. That will be paradise. 3. Read the text in exercise 2 again and write five GOOD questions about human rights in the table. Do this in pairs. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers. STUDENT 1 STUDENT 2 Q. 2 Q. 3 Q. 4 Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 Q. 1 8
  9. 9. 4. Read the text below and answer the questions. The affirmation of human rights was not something instantaneous and isolated. It was the result of a historical process. Therefore, we speak of “the generations of rights”. In other words, moments in which human rights appeared, or rather, when rights were recognised. It is the story of a mankind that has given the human being increasingly more safeguards for certain basic values. MAIN VALUE Freedom Equality Solidarity Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 THREE GENERATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS BASIC PRINCIPLES FIRST-GENERATION A fundamental moment in the recognition Civil and political of human rights is the French Revolution rights: (1789). Its ideals of freedom, equality and Right to live, to fraternity are a guide for the different property, tofreedom of generations of rights. The first generation, conscience and the one in which the French Revolution expression, the right to took place, has liberty as a symbol. It was freedom of movement the recognition of civil and political rights. and association, the People had the chance to participate in right to participate in decision-making, they are recognised as politics, etc people with the capacity to act. SECOND-GENERATION The second generation of human rights completes the first one. Rights referring to individual freedom are not enough; it is Economic, social and necessary to also proclaim those rights cultural rights: The related to the social and community right to culture and dimension. These rights refer to equality education, the right to and justice. A big step is taken towards healthcare, the right to social responsibility in terms of these work. rights. It is not enough to allow a “laissez faire” attitude. It is necessary to promote, protect, guarantee or motivate certain rights. THIRD-GENERATION Nowadays, even though legally protecting rights is still difficult, there has been a call for a third generation. This would be the modern version of fraternity and it is The right to a clean called solidarity. It was created to social environment, promote human interests such as peace or the right to peace. a clean environment and implies a global understanding of mankind. This set of rights would complement the United Nations Declaration of 1948. 9
  10. 10. 1. Which of the three generations of rights is most important to you? Why? 2. Look for the terms "freedom", "equality" and "solidarity" in the dictionary. Why are they the basis for the Declaration of Human Rights? 3. Look for or imagine an example of a violation of freedom, equality and solidarity. SESSION 4. THE HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1. In pairs. What do you think this Mafalda cartoon means? Write a brief comment on it. Of course You’re absolutely right Yes, I agree I think so too That’s a good point Exactly I don’t think so either So do I That’s true Neither do I I couldn’t agree more It is thought that… Some people say that… It is considered… It is generally accepted that… Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 I think / feel / believe… In my opinion / in my view / from my point of view… As far as I’m concerned… Speaking for myself… Personally, I think… I’d say that… I’d suggest that… I’d like to point out that… What I mean is… 10
  11. 11. 2. What do you know about the history of Human Rights? Read the question and choose the correct answer. Afterwards, watch the video and check your answers. Ask your teacher / language assistant in case of doubt. 1. Rights you have simply because you are human, they are applied to everyone, everywhere. They are universal: a. Natural Rights b. Human Rights c. Individual Guarantees 2. According to the United Nations, there is a total of… a. 29 Human Rights b. 30 Human Rights c. 31 Human Rights 3. This is the most widely accepted document of Human Rights: a. Universal Declaration of Human Rights b. Constitution c. Magna Carta 4. What was the most important contribution of Cyrus the Great? a. He conquered Babylon b. He announced that all slaves were free to go c. A document called the Cyrus Cylinder, where the rights for people were written 5. Who changed the concept given by the Romans of Natural Law to Natural Rights? a. French people b. American people c. British people 5. In 1915 a man from India leaded protests and insisted that all people on Earth should have rights. a. Nelson Mandela b. Martin Luther King c. Mahatma Gandhi 6. With the creation of this document Human Rights were born: a. United States Declaration of Independence b. Declaration of the Rights of Man of the Citizen c. Cyrus Cylinder 7. When was the United Nations formed? a. In 1945 b. In 1946 c. In 1948 8. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations in… a. 1946 b. 1947 c. 1948 Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 11
  12. 12. 3. Listen to your teacher / language asiistant reading the text. Then, read it by yourself carefully. 1. The Cyrus Cylinder (539 B.C.) In 539 B.C., the armies of Cyrus the Great, the first king of ancient Persia, conquered the city of Babylon. He freed the slaves, declared that all people had the right to choose their own religion, and established racial equality. These and other decrees were recorded on a baked-clay cylinder in the Akkadian language with cuneiform script. Known today as the Cyrus Cylinder, this ancient record has now been recognized as the world’s first charter of human rights. 2. The Spread of Human Rights From Babylon, the idea of human rights spread quickly to India, Greece and eventually Rome. There the concept of “natural law” arose. This term was used to explain the fact that people tended to follow certain unwritten laws in the course of life, and Roman law was based on rational ideas derived from the nature of things. 3. The Magna Carta (1215) In 1215, after King John of England violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta. Widely viewed as one of the most important legal documents in the development of modern democracy, the Magna Carta was a crucial turning point in the struggle to establish freedom. 4. Petition of Right (1628) The Petition of Right was produced in 1628 by the English Parliament and sent to Charles I as a statement of civil liberties. 6. The Constitution of the United States of America (1787) and Bill of Rights (1791) Written during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia, the Constitution of the United States of America is the oldest written national constitution in use and defines the principal organs of government and their jurisdictions and the basic rights of citizens. The Bill of Rights protects freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the right to keep and bear arms, the freedom of assembly and the freedom to petition among other Rights. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 5. United States Declaration of Independence (1776) On July 4, 1776, the United States Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. Its primary autor was Thomas Jefferson. Philosophically, the Declaration stressed two themes: individual rights and the right of revolution. 12
  13. 13. 7. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) In 1789 the people of France brought about the abolishment of the absolute monarchy and set the stage for the establishment of the first French Republic. Just six weeks after the revolt of the Bastille, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was adopted by the National Constituent Assembly as the first step toward writing a constitution for the Republic of France. 8. The First Geneva Convention (1864) In 1864, sixteen European countries and several American states attended a conference in Geneva. The diplomatic conference was held for the purpose of adopting a convention for the treatment of wounded soldiers in combat. 9. The United Nations (1945) World War II had raged from 1939 to 1945, and as the end drew near, cities throughout Europe and Asia laid in ruins. Millions of people were dead, millions more were homeless or starving. In April 1945, delegates from fifty countries met in San Francisco full of optimism and hope. The goal of the United Nations Conference on International Organization was promote peace and prevent future wars. The Charter of the new United Nations organization went into effect on October 24, 1945, a date that is celebrated each year as United Nations Day. 10. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) By 1948, the United Nations’ new Human Rights Commission had captured the world’s attention. Under Eleanor Roosevelt -President Franklin Roosevelt’s widowthe Commission set out to draft the document that became the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Roosevelt, credited with its inspiration, referred to the Declaration as the international Magna Carta for all mankind. It was adopted by the United Nations on December 10, 1948. a. a law that everyone knows about although it is not oficial. _________________________ b. something that is done by people in a particular society because it is traditional. _________________________ c. to officially accept a plan, proposal etc. _________________________ d. to stop something from happening, or stop someone from doing something. _________________________ Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 4. Write a suitable Word next to the definitions. Choose one of the bold nouns or phrases in the text. 13
  14. 14. 5. Write a suitable word under each photo. Choose one of the bold nouns or phrases in the text. Then, translate them into your language. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 6. Re-read the text and write a timeline of the History of Human Rights. Alternatively, you can use the online tool 14
  15. 15. SESSIONS 5 and 6. HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS In groups (3-4 people) investigate on one of the following people: Mahatma Ghandi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, Mother Theresa, Wangari Maathai, Rosa Parks, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. 1. Write a short text (60-80 words) with their biography and their fight for Human Rights. 2. Read “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Shortened Version” and choose a right that has to do with the person you are writing about. egory_id=24&category_type=3&group= 3. Create a Word Cloud with relevant words related to Human Rights and the person you are writing about. (, ) 4. Create a digital poster using the tool and include the following ítems: a. The text b. The Human Right c. A photo of the person studied d. The Word Cloud 5. When your Project is ready e-mail your teacher and include the link: SESSIONS 7. REVISION 1. In pairs. Read the following key things about Human Rights. Would you add any more things? • • • • • • • Human rights belong to everyone. They are expressed in internationally agreed laws. They are based on core values including fairness, respect, equality, dignity and autonomy. The ideas behind human rights have developed gradually through history and come from many different societies and civilisations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) was the first internationally agreed statement of human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the starting point for all modern human rights laws. Human rights laws place duties on states to respect, protect and fulfil our human rights. Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 Key things you need to know about human rights 15
  16. 16. LISTENING SPEAKING Working with the Language Assistant Let’s talk about Human Rights! What do you know about the Universal Declaration of HR? Do you always respect other people's rights? Does your country respect human rights? What is the most important human right? Why? Do you think that religions respect human rights? Do you think that education is a basic human right? Should all children have the same rights? Why / not? Are human rights guaranteed in your country? Have you ever fought for your rights? When? Do you know any Human Rights association? Have you ever felt your rights were violated? Why? How can we make sure human rights are protected? Have you ever heard about someone whose rights have been violated? What day is the Universal Declaration of HR celebrated on? Speaking: useful expressions It might be… / I suppose… / It’s possible that… You never know of course, but… No one can know for certain. I can’t tell you for sure. I’m not sure, but you could be right. I seriously doubt it. I’m absolutely / quite sure I’m certain / positive definitely (not) / absolutely (not) / of course (not) Useful vocabulary RIGHTS – EQUALITY OPPORTUNITIES – DIGNITY STEREOTYPE - EMPLOYMENT RESPECT - GENDER IDENTITY - RACE DISCRIMINATION – TREATMENT POLICIES - JUSTICE ACCOMODATION - CITIZENSHIP VIOLATION - RACISM - PREJUDICE PLACE OF ORIGIN – AGE HANDICAP - FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE - ABOLITION MARITAL STATUS - POLITICS Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 What human rights do you know about? 16
  17. 17. EXCELLENT 1. VERY POOR I have worked well in groups. 4. BELOW AVERAGE I have worked well in pair. 3. AVERAGE I have worked hard. 2. ABOVE AVERAGE I am able to work by myself to complete some information. I have listened respectfully to my classmates’ opinions. 5. I have given my own opinions. 7. I have used time wisely. 8. I can use Internet as a useful tool that helps me to learn. 9. I can understand the characteristics and importance of Human Rights. I can classify Human Rights into categories. I can talk and write about the characteristics of Human Rights. I can talk and write about the History of Human Rights. I can talk and write about Human Rights Defenders. I can understand the basic information in a recording or a video which tells about Human Rights. I can use web tools to generate digital posters, word clouds, timelines… I can debate on different aspects of Human Rights. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. What I have liked best in the unit was... 18. The part I liked the least was... 19. I have learnt more doing… 20. I have learnt less doing… Ethics and Civic Education. Unit 4 6. 17