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Catholic Monarchs


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Catholic Monarchs

  1. 1. The Catholic Monarchs
  2. 2. <ul><li>In the 15th century, the Iberian Peninsula was </li></ul><ul><li>divided into five large territories: the Crown of Castile, </li></ul><ul><li>the Crown of Aragon, the Kingdom of Navarre, the </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom of Portugal and the Islamic Kingdom of Granada. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1469, Ferdinand, son of the king of Aragon, married Isabella, sister of the king of Castile. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Monarchs is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Their marriage united both crowns under the same family. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Monarchs governed their territories together, but each kingdom had its own laws and institutions. It was the beginnings of modern Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Isabella died in 1504. Ferdinand remarried Germaine of Foix; he died in 1516. They are buried in the Royal Chapel, in Granada. </li></ul>Ferdinand and Isabella
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Catholic Monarchs restored the royal authority in Spain. They created the Holy Brotherhood , a judicial police force for Spain. They reorganised the justice system and created the Royal Council , the highest judicial body. They also created a permanent and professional army. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kings annexed the Kingdom of Navarre, conquered Melilla and Oran in North Africa and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. They also expelled the Muslims from Granada (1492). </li></ul>Domestic policy
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Kings wanted to finish the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula and conquer the Muslim kingdom of Granada. After ten years of many battles, the Granada War ended in 1492 when Emir Boabdil surrendered the keys of the Alhambra Palace in Granada to the Castilian soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Monarchs wanted religious unification for their kingdoms so they founded the Tribunal of the Inquisition to prosecute heretics. The tribunal was known for its severe sentences and punishments. Ferdinand and Isabella ordered that all Muslims and Jews be expelled from Spain or they were forced to covert to Catholicism. Hundreds of those who had converted were accused of secretly practicing their original religion and they were arrested, imprisoned and interrogated under torture by the Inquisition. </li></ul>Expulsion of non-Christians and Spanish Inquisition
  5. 5. <ul><li>They authorized the expedition of Christopher Columbus. </li></ul><ul><li>All the territories conquered in America belonged to the Castilian Crown and they were called Reinos de Indias or simply Las Indias. </li></ul><ul><li>The different administrations and juridical organizations remained until the 18th century when Felipe V established the common administration between all the diverse territories of the Spanish Crown. </li></ul>Exploration Cristopher Columbus
  6. 6. Marriage Alliances Isabella I Ferdinand III Isabella Joanna John Maria Catherine Alfonso of Portugal Philip the Handsome Margaret of Austria Manuel I of Portugal Arthur of Wales Important ties with Portugal, ensuring peace and future alliance. Alliance with the Holy Roman Empire. Ties with the Habsburg dynasty. More strength in the tie with Portugal. After the death of Arthur of Wales, she married Henry VIII, King of England.
  7. 7. Motto and symbol The Monarchs' joint motto was “Tanto monta, monta tanto”. The motto was created by Antonio de Nebrija and was an allusion to the explanation of the equality of the monarchs:  Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando  (&quot;It's one and the same, Isabella the same as Ferdinand&quot;) Their symbol was  el  y ugo y las  f lechas , a yoke and a fasces.  Y and  F  are the initials of Ysabel (archaic spelling) and Fernando.
  8. 8. http :// /2011_05_01_ archive.html http :// / elena / websociales /geographyandhistory2eso/ reyescatolicos /catolicos2. html References