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International conflict


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International conflict

  1. 1. Managing Peace & Security: Diplomacy and Deterrence The Case of the 2 Koreas; The Cod Wars & Clash of the Asian Giants: India and China
  2. 2. Some Essential Qns: <ul><li>Why do countries have conflicts? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they resolve their conflicts with each other? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the absence of warfare mean absence of conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it better to use diplomacy or deterrence to safeguard your country? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of international conflicts <ul><li>Competing Territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study: India VS China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scarce Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study: Britain VS Iceland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideological Differences (Values and Beliefs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study: North Korea VS South Korea </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Look at the given cartoons: Identify the characteristics of Conflict Do you think that Conflict happens in a gradual manner ? War of words Show of arms Armed conflict
  5. 5. India and China <ul><ul><li>There were no clear borders marked between India and China. The Himalaya mountain range absorbs the frontier lines and these are difficult to access. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Areas bordering Arunachal Pradesh: Here while the Chinese claim the areas right up to Brahmaputra river, it is not in occupation of any Indian territory. (North East Frontier Agency) Aksai Chin area: Chinese occupy large Indian claimed areas. The Chinese feel that the control serves their strategic need for a road link between Sin Kiang and Tibet. Aksai Chin
  7. 7. Aksai Chin: Desert of White Stones / Soda Plain
  8. 8. <ul><li>Land of the dawn-lit mountains / Land of the rising sun </li></ul>
  9. 10. Conflict Genesis <ul><li>2 regions became a problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Aksai Chin Plateau on the western end of the shared border </li></ul><ul><li>Arunachal Pradesh (NEFA) on the eastern end. </li></ul><ul><li>1950s </li></ul><ul><li>China began to question Indian presence in several areas along the border. </li></ul><ul><li>1958: China announced that it had built a road on Aksai Chin. The Indians protested and tension mounted. </li></ul><ul><li>1959: Fighting broke out in both contested areas </li></ul>
  10. 11. Worsening relations <ul><li>1960S: China occupied more Indian claimed territories which the Indian government demanded back. China refused. </li></ul><ul><li>1962: War broke out but ended quickly with China pulling out of Arunachal Pradesh but still occupying Aksai Chin They also </li></ul><ul><li>agreed on dividing up their spheres of control through the LAC. </li></ul><ul><li>The border issues have not yet been fully settled but both parties are willing to not cross the LAC or the line of Actual Control. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Competition over Scarce Resources <ul><li>Natural resources are unequally distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries have more resources than others </li></ul><ul><li>This can result in competition among countries for these resources </li></ul>
  12. 13. Iceland VS Britain Iceland’s landscape. What would be her dominant industries? 79% of Iceland’s exports are fish and fish-related products
  13. 14. 1970s: Declining Fish Supply Iceland referred matter to UN; slow response Unilaterally increased zone of control Britain refused to recognise new zone of control
  14. 15. The Developments <ul><li>Early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease of fish stocks around Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland referred the matter to the UN Conference on the Law of the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>UN said it could only help later </li></ul><ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland extended its zone of control of its fishing grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Britain refused to recognize the extended area and continued fishing there </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent collisions between Britain frigates and Icelandic Coast Guard </li></ul><ul><li>1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland broke off diplomatic ties with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland and Britain signed an agreement to resolve their conflict </li></ul>
  15. 16. Final Agreement <ul><li>Britain was allowed to catch a fixed amount of fish and a maximum of 24 trawlers were allowed inside Iceland’s fishing space. </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland’s patrol vessels could stop and inspect British trawlers if they were suspected of not complying. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement lasted 6 mths and then Br could not enter the 200nm space. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cold War: Democracy vs. Communism 911: Capitalism vs. Religious Extremism
  17. 18. Korean Soap Opera <ul><li>IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>The main cause of the conflict in the Korean Peninsula is the struggle between 2 different political ideologies. </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOCRACY: SOUTH KOREA </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNISM: NORTH KOREA </li></ul><ul><li>What examples of democratic and communist states exist in the world today? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Korea August 1945 Japan was defeated. Korea was divided into 2 parts The Cold War &quot;During a meeting on August 14, 1945, Colonel Charles Bonesteel and I retired to an adjacent room late at night and studied intently a map of the Korean peninsula. Working in haste and under great pressure, we had a formidable task: to pick a zone for the American occupation. . . . Using a National Geographic map, we looked just north of Seoul for a convenient dividing line but could not find a natural geographic line. We saw instead the 38th parallel and decided to recommend that. . . . [The State and War Departments] accepted it without too much haggling, and surprisingly, so did the Soviets. What kind of problems do you foresee for Korea when it was divided this way? Why is there a necessity to divide Korea in the first place?
  19. 20. Korean issues… <ul><li>1947 : The UN called for elections to est. a govt. in a reunited Korea. However the USSR declared North Korea the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>1949 : Soviet and American troops left Korea </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – 1950 : Clashes between Communist North and Democratic South Korea began </li></ul>CNN - Cold War
  20. 21. The story Continues <ul><li>1. June 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea invaded South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>UN troops led by the US assisted South Korea and pushed the North Korean army back </li></ul><ul><li>2. October 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>UN troops reached the Yalu river, border between North Korea and China. China had already warned that it did not want Americans in North Korea, but General MacArthur con’t with his attack, in a bid to unify the 2 Koreas. Once at Yalu, China entered the war. </li></ul>Why would China not want North Korea to fall into the hands of the Americans?
  21. 22. 1950: Chinese warned UN and USA that they will attack if their troops crossed the 38 th Parallel 38 th Parallel UN troops ignored warning. Reached Pyongyang and moved up to Yalu River
  22. 23. Land occupied by Chinese and N Korean troops Land occupied by S Koreans, USA and UN troops 1951: Chinese army retaliated and pushed UN troops back into South Korea
  23. 24. 1953: UN troops counter attacked and drove Chinese army back to 38 th Parallel Land occupied by S Korea, UN and US troops UN, US advances
  24. 25. An uneasy peace <ul><li>August 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>An ceasefire to end the fighting was signed </li></ul><ul><li> Demilitarised zone between North and South </li></ul><ul><li>Korea was created </li></ul><ul><li>However both sides remain technically at war </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 27. Conclusion <ul><li>Conflicts can occur between countries due to a variety of factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition over scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflicts do not necessarily result in outright war </li></ul><ul><li>Countries usually try to negotiate in order to resolve their differences </li></ul>
  26. 28. How do they resolve conflicts? We will explore this in the next lesson!