1812 Battle, Raids, and Graves - short version

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1812 Battle, Raids, and Graves - short version

  1. 1. Battles, Raids, and Graves: The War of 1812 In SOUTHERN Maryland Ralph Eshelman
  2. 2. War of 1812 Icons Uncle Sam Old Iron Sides Old Hickory
  3. 3. War of 1812 battlefields 78 War of 1812 associated properties 136 Properties associated with Rev War and 1812 40
  4. 4. War of 1812 Resources in Maryland: battlefields skirmish sites raid sites earthwork sites buildings and sites where important events took place historic routes monuments, memorials, and statues museums which have pertinent collections and displays homes and grave sites of individuals associated with the war
  5. 5. Benedict • British raid Benedict with no opposition on June 15, 1814. • British raid Benedict June 21, 1814 but are repulsed after skirmish. Five or six British soldiers captured and a sergeant killed. One American, Francis Wise, killed. • 4,370 British troops land without opposition on August 19-20, 1814. Few realized this was an invasion force which would beat the American troops at the Battle of Bladensburg and capture Washington.
  6. 6. Hog Neck Creek Sotterley Creek Sotterley Point
  7. 7. Sotterley June 13, 1814 – about 300 militiamen assemble at Sotterley to support American troops at St. Leonard Creek. June 14, 1814 - British cannonade plantation and burn warehouse. Thirty-nine slaves escape.
  8. 8. Fenno Road extended
  9. 9. Col. George Dent and Capt. John Beckett GRAVES
  10. 10. St. Thomas Chapel
  11. 11. Upper Marlboro, Prince George’s County
  12. 12. BATTLES Battles of St. Leonard Creek
  13. 13. Second Battle of St. Leonard Creek
  14. 14. Corn grows in the same fields where the Battle of Caulks Field took place August 31, 1814 Kent County
  15. 15. SKIRMISH SITES “Battle of Cedar Point”
  16. 16. I am sorry to see you...have such a mean opinion of the citizens of Calvert...to think that the militia could not fight...for the defense of old [Joshua] Barney who has been the means of ruining Calvert for if he had never of come in the Patuxent the British would never have thought nor had an idea that they could come as high as Lower Marlboro in the world but by his going down the Bay and giving them a challenge as it were he could not think they would let him return without following him up and he pitched on the Patuxent as a place of safety and as he knew Calvert St. Marys Charles and Prince George’s County were all Federalist he thought it would be the means of making them all advocates of old Jim [James] Madison but this has enraged them so that a great many that were in favor of him now are abusing him every day but I think when I tell you the mischief the British have done it will be enough to make you and every man abuse Jim Madison and old Barney in Hell... Thomas B. King, July 14, 1814 RAIDS
  17. 17. courtesy Peter Himmelheber
  18. 18. Fort Point, Corsica River, Centreville, Queen Anne’s County Earthworks
  19. 19. Propaganda British account of raid: on 30th. We went 20 miles up the Wicomico River, there took possession of the Town of Chaptico – where some Ladies who had heard of our good behaviour at Leonards Town remained – and sang and played on the Piano. We took from thence 70 Hhds. of tobacco, some flour, & military stores but preserved their houses purchased from them stock and various articles of provisions. The men all fled, but the Ladies remained to see the wonderful [Rear] Admrl. [George] Cockburn and the British folks (Capt. Robert Rowley report to his superiors, August 1814)
  20. 20. Propaganda American account of raid: they [British] got about 30 hhds. [hogsheads] of tobacco and no other plunder, the inhabitants having moved all their property out of their grasp. Yet here they made a most furious attack on every window, door, and pane of glass in the village, not one was left in the whole....They picked their stolen geese in the church, dashed the pipes of the church organ on the pavement, opened a family vault in the churchyard, broke open the coffins, stirred the bones about with their hands in search of hidden treasure… (Baltimore Niles’ Weekly Register, August 14, 1814)
  21. 21. Calvert Marine Museum War of 1812 Exhibit EXHIBITS
  22. 22. Jefferson Patterson Park & Museum War of 1812 Exhibit
  23. 23. Grand Tactical Jefferson Patterson Park & Museum September 20-21, 2008
  24. 24. Summary of War of 1812 military actions in Calvert County Battles (2): First Battle of St. Leonard Creek, June 10, 1814 Second Battle of St. Leonard Creek, June 26, 1814 Skirmishes (4): Dares Beach, August 1, 1814 Hall Creek, June 16, 1814 Hollands Cliffs, June 17, 1814 St. Leonard Creek, June 8-9, 1814 Raids (14): Broomes Island, June 12, 1814 Calverton, July 19, 1814 Cove Point, June 1, 1814 Drum Point, September 2-18, 1814 Gods Grace Plantation, July 17, 1814 Hallowing Point, July 21, 1814 Huntingtown, July 17, 1814 Lower Marlboro, June 16-17, 1814 Point Patience, June 26, 1814 Prince Frederick, July 19, 1814 Rousby Hall, June 9, 1814 St. Leonard Creek, June 11, 1814 Sheridan Point, July 22, 1814 Taney Place, July 20, 1814
  25. 25. Summary of War of 1812 military actions in Charles County Skirmishes (4): Benedict, June 21, 1814 Indian Head, September 5-6, 1814 Lower Cedar Point, July, 1814 Woodland Point, July 16, 1813 Raids (2): Benedict, June 15, 1814 Bryantown, summer, 1814 Encampments (2): Benedict, August 19, 1814 Patuxent City, August 20, 1814
  26. 26. Summary of War of 1812 military actions in St. Mary’s County Skirmishes (3): Cedar Point, June 1, 1814 Point Lookout, late spring, 1813 Porto Bello, August 27, 1814 Raids (17): Brenton Bay, fall, 1814 Carroll Plantation, August 13, 1814 Cedar Point, June 3, 1814 Cedar Point, July 17, 1814 Chaptico, July 30, 1814 Coles Landing, June 18, 1814 Great Mills, August 12, 1814 Leonardtown, July 19, 1814 St. Clement Bay, July 23, 1814 and August 27, 1814 St. Clement Island, November 2, 1813 St. George Island, November 1-9, 1813 St. Inigoes Manor, October 30, 1814 St. Jerome Creek, July 4, 1813 and June 1, 1814 St. Mary’s River, August 11-12, 1814 and September 27, 1814 Scott Neck, August 17, 1814 Sotterley, June 14, 1814 Trent Hall, July, 1814 Woodlawn, August 22, 1814
  27. 27. Battle for Baltimore Battle of North Point, September 12, 1814 Bombardment of Fort McHenry, September 13-14, 1814 Battle of Bladensburg, August 24, 1814 Battle of Caulks Field, August 31, 1814 First Battle of St. Leonard Creek, June 10, 1814 Second Battle of St. Leonard Creek, June 26, 1814 Battle of St. Michaels, August 26, 18131 Summary of Patuxent River military resources Battles 2 Skirmishes 8 Raids 24 Encampments 5 Gun batteries 3 Defensive boom 1 MARYLAND BATTLES
  28. 28. What state suffered more from the enemy during the War of 1812?
  29. 29. What state suffered more from the enemy during the War of 1812? • While the other states have not been inventoried to extent that Maryland has thus far, it can be argued that MARYLAND experienced more battles, skirmishes and raids than any other state.
  30. 30. What state suffered more from the enemy during the War of 1812? • While the other states have not been inventoried to extent that Maryland has thus far, it can be argued that MARYLAND experienced more battles, skirmishes and raids than any other state. • Both shores of the Patuxent River suffered as much or more than any other region of the state.
  31. 31. What state suffered more from the enemy during the War of 1812? • While the other states have not been inventoried to extent that Maryland has thus far, it can be argued that MARYLAND experienced more battles, skirmishes and raids than any other state. • Both shores of the Patuxent River suffered as much or more than any other region of the state. • The Patuxent River valley has a tremendous resource base rooted in the War of 1812.
  32. 32. What state suffered more from the enemy during the War of 1812? • While the other states have not been inventoried to extent that Maryland has thus far, it can be argued that MARYLAND experienced more battles, skirmishes and raids than any other state. • Both shores of the Patuxent River suffered as much or more than any other region of the state. • The Patuxent River valley has a tremendous resource base rooted in the War of 1812. • How will Maryland and this region preserve and interpret these resources?
  33. 33. Maryland is fortunate to have a diverse and in some instances significant resources related to the War of 1812. Challenges include: • Lack of research on many sites • Lack of interpretation • Some sites are on private property or on restricted military lands Opportunities include: Signage and interpretive displays Driving, bicycle and boat excursion tours Reenactments Cooperative programs among sites, counties, and state

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